Skip to main content

Full text of "Hall's journal of health"

See other formats


" M * HALL'S 



JOURNAL OF HEALTH 



FOR 1855 



HEALTH IS A DUTY. — Anon. 



" MEN CONSUME TOO MUCH FOOD AND TOO LITTLE PURE AIR ; 
THEY TAKE TOO MUCH MEDICINE AND TOO LITTLE EXERCISE." Ed. 

" I labor for the good time coming, when sickness and disease, except congenital 
or from accident, will be regarded as the result of ignorance or animalism, and will 
degrade the individual, in the estimation of the good, as much as drunkenness now 
does. — Ibid. 



EDITED BY 

W. W. HALL, M.D., 

42 IRVING PLACE, N. Y. 

EB-4 198/ 



VOL. II. 



$[*to gar*: 

PUBLISHED BY HENRY B. PRICE, 

No. 8 EVERETT HOUSE, UNION SQUARE. 
1855. 



INDEX TO VOL. II. 



Advice to Housekeepers 23 

A suggestion to Christians 135 

A Lite saving Thought 156 

Alcohol a Poison 225 

Appetite, "What is it 237 

Agriculture Elevating 260 

Arguing Successfully 35, 281 

An experiment certified 283 

Bible and Materia Medica 40 

Bad Temper and Insanity 118 

Bites and Stings Cured 160 

Bread Making 147, 271 

Be constantly employed 157 

Be Systematic 231 

Be Careful 242 

Be Courteous 255 

Be Kind 256 

Cough Medicines 4 

Cleaveland on the Skin 36 

Charcoal Fumes, Poison 74 

Cleaveland on Food, and Drink. . . 88 

Common Colds 50, 53, 116 

Constitution Hardening 119 

Cockroach Riddance 122 

Clergymen Dyspeptic 33, 135 

Cabbage Culture 152 

Cholera, Essay on 17, 169 

Church Music 65, 234 

Census Items 235 

Consumption Described 168, 236 

College of Cookery 245 

Costiveness 25, 267 

Cold Feet 8, 35, 277 

Children 68, 161, 231, 279 

Climate Changing 93, 280 

Clothing Changing Critical. . .284, 286 

Debt and its Results 60 

Don't get Discouraged 90 

Death's Doings 49, 91 

Drowning 104 

Dieting for Health 117 

Deaf and Dumb 123 

Diet in Cholera times 190 

Decision of Character 238 



Domestic Receipts 124, 244 

Dyspeptia 31, 257 

Doctors' Value 233, 262 

Duty of the Elevated to the Lowly. 284 

Early Rising. 81 

Eyes, Management of 71, 114 

Eloquence, True 145 

Eating too much 30, 241 

Emotions and Digestion 282 

Fruits and their use 153 

Fire Kindling 258 

Food the best Physic 88, 147, 267 

Finger Nails, Management 276 

Feet 8, 55, 277 

Going in Debt 60 

Green, Dr. Horace tribute to 163 

Grapes, and how to use them 268 

How to Live Long 1 

How Persons become Costive 5 

How to be tlealthy 15 

How to Consult a Physician 27 

How much must I Eat 30 

How People take Cold 50 

How to Cure a Cold 53 

How to harden the Constitution.. . 119 

How to Preach effectively 121 

How to leave Church in Winter. .. 140 

How to be Eloquent 145 

How to be Happy 8, 231 

Heartburn what is it 29 

Health and Hard Study 31 

Hall, Samuel Wallace obituary.161, 176 
Hall, Caroline Amelia, Poetry of. . 78 

Houses, health of locality, <fcc 105 

Hominy and its use 71, 149 

Homoeopathy in Cholera Times. . . 217 

Harper, James, Tribute to 256 

Hamilton, Mrs. Alexander 256 

Hereditary Disease 268 

Help the Lowly 284 

Inhalation for Consump. 159, 219, 247 
Insanity 118, 124, 260 



IV 



Contents. 



Illnatured People 282 

Kindling Fire 258 

Long Life, how Secured 1 

Lozenges, effect of. 3 

Lesson to Parents. ... 116 

Long Prayers 121 

Life saving Thoughts } 156 

Lasyrites, Essay on 25, 254 

Milk Sickness 57 

Milch Cows in Winter 64 

Morning Walks Mischievous 82 

Mental Epidemics 94 

Mind and Health Ill 

■Measurement Rules 124 

Money a Medicine 156 

Music in Churches 6^ 70, 234 

Medical Progress 240 

Medicated Inhalation 159,219, 247 

Mothers 279 

Nursing the Sick 12 

Night Air 83 

Natural Death 91 

Newspapers, Conduct of.. 165, 249, 252 

Ousting from Pews, prevented 143 

Old Age Statistics 21, 50, 67, 233 

Owls and their wisdom 234 

Poetry 20, 44, 78 

Popular Fallacies 81 

Peter Wife's Mother 120 

Pew System in Churches 143 

Preaching Effectively 21, 139, 145 

Poisons, and their Cure,. . . .59, 74, 224 

Physicians Life Time 233 

Progress of our Principles 296 



Plea for Poor Children 271 

Poverty and its Elevation. 53, 239, 285 

Regularity of Life - 21 

Rules for the Year 78 

Rat Riddance 122 

Regaining Health 136 

Skin, Prof. Cleaveland on 35 

Solar Heat 72 

Sudden Death 75 

Spiritualism 94, 125 

Suggestions to the Church 135 

Summer Complaint prevented 184 

Sleeping well 241, 279 

Statistics Measurement 124 

" nourishment of Food 151 

" Old Age 21, 50, tf, 233 

" Census 235 

" Consumption 236 

Shoes for Winter 287 

To live Long 1 

Teachings of Bible on Health 40 

Transplanting Trees 69 

Tea and its preparations 75 

To Travel safely 87 

Temper and Insanity 118 

Tables of Food valuable 151 

Temperance Question 233 

Throat Ail 25, 254 

True Courage 270 

Victoria's Children's Habits 269 

Ventilation 286 

Water on the Brain 4 

" We'll meet Again" 78 

Wives, different kinds of. . .23, 68, 263 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

VOL. II.] JANUARY, 1855. [NO. I. 



TO LIVE LONG. 

To-day we enter upon a new year, but before its close, many 
an eye which now sparkles in gladness, will have fallen into 
the sleep which knows no waking ; many a cheek which bears 
upon itself the bloom of health, will have paled away into the 
iciness of death ; many a manly form, defiant of sickness now, 
will have lain itself in the last resting-place of all ; and many 
a strong heart which is this day flushed with the successes of 
life, and by these successes has grown boundless in its ambi- 
tions, will have wasted and worn itself away in its fruitless 
struggles with unexpected disease. Half of all who are to die 
during eighteen hundred and fifty-five, will not have reached 
the age of twenty-one years while they ought to reach the full 
limit of three score and ten. Our Maker has constructed the 
human machine to work easily, healthfully and well for sev- 
enty years, and that is the period which he has appointed to 
us, and which he has guaranteed to us, on the condition of a 
life of temperance, wisdom, and piety. Why is it that of the 
nine millions of human beings who, as the venerable and dis- 
tinguished President Nott told us last night, in his eighty-first 
year, are this year to swell the tide of death to boundless eter- 
nity, not less than three millions pass on, before their time, 
their own suicides ? 

I propose to show how this waste of human life can be 
avoided, and how my readers may add many glad years to 
their existence, except it be their lot to perish by violence. 
Less than half a dozen words give the requisite instruction ; 
less than half a dozen words contain the almost infallible 
recipe. Secure a daily al/vine action ; have one motion from 
the bowels every twenty-four hours. I may say without 
exception, that nine-tentbs of all diseases involve the infraction 



2 HaWs Journal of Health. 

of this habit. Ask any ten persons coming into a physician's 
office, if they have one regular daily action of the bowels, and 
nine of them will answer "no." "When a person does not 
have as many as one action of the bowels during each twenty- 
four hours, he is said to be " costive" to be " constipated / " this 
state of things is " costiveness" or "constipation ;" these terms 
have one and the same meaning. The principle once stated, is 
self-evident ; and yet, perhaps, the majority of men and women 
who reach the age of twenty-five years, have not felt the neces- 
sity of this daily discharge. How many parents who read 
these lines, can lay them down a moment, and say truly, that 
they have ever given one lesson to their children as to the im- 
portance of attending to it. If you pour into a vessel any 
amount of water to-day, however small, and repeat the opera- 
tion daily, that vessel will sooner or later overflow, unless each 
day as much is let out as was poured in. If you eat a certain 
amount of food to-day, and nothing passes from the body, it 
must inevitably become so full in a few days, that you can't 
swallow any more, that is, nature with her instincts comes to 
the rescue, and deprives the body of the desire for food ; we 
call it want of appetite ; we loathe food, because in reality 
there is no room for it. This want of appetite is beautifully 
expressed by the medical term " Anorexia," and in reading any 
medical work, which describes the symptoms of the various 
diseases, this word soon becomes an old acquaintance. But let 
a man who has no appetite, in other words, who has swallowed 
so much, that he has not room for a morsel more, take an active 
vomit, take a puke, for I want my most unlearned country 
friend to understand fully what I mean, and in a few hours he 
will have the appetite of a horse. Or, if he does not admire the 
operation of " casting up," he can take a " brisk cathartic," 
which will relieve his gorged carcass in the opposite direction, 
and " the premises being evacuated," in law phrase, Richard 
will be himself again in a day or two. Let the reader under- 
stand, that I do not hereby advise him to take a puke or a purge, 
if he has no appetite, and yet wants one. I am only stating 
how he may scientifically and promptly recover his appetite, if 
he has lost it, by allowing constipation. For my own part, 1 
have such an intestinal abomination of physic, as Mother Par 
tington would say, that I would rather stay without an appe-. 



To Live Long. 3 

tite for a considerable time, than to take a puke or a purge, 
especially as I cannot see why any body should want an appe- 
tite these times, when beef is eighteen cents a pound, green 
apples two dollars a bushel, and flour twelve dollars a barrel, 
such being the prices I have paid in this city within the last ten 
days. While food is at these prices, money is sky-high ; 
Wall-street says, it is thirty-six per cent. u Under the peculiar 
circumstances of the case," I would really advise any anorexi- 
ated individual to remain in statu quo, to repose on his reserved 
rights. In fact, the man without an appetite now-a-days, is 
like a traveller without a trunk ; he is enviably independent. 
The conclusion then forces itself upon the understanding, with- 
out having had the slightest premeditation in that direction 
when the heading of this article was penned, before breakfast 
this morning, that the most direct and prompt cure for the pre- 
sent hard times is to become costive, and then you can snap 
your finger and thumb triumphantly at butchers, hucksters, 
green grocers, et id omne genus, all that fraternity. But how 
to become costive, that is a question which comes directly 
home to the pocket, with cumulative power, because the times, 
like the ice, are becoming harder every hour. 

RECIPES FOR BECOMING COSTIYE. 

For yourself, take a little opium, or a few drops of lauda- 
num, which is opium in a liquid form, two or three times a day. 

If you want to begin at the beginning, and economize from 
the baby upward, and make a pint of milk last as long as a 
quart, give it a little paregoric, (diluted laudanum) every time 
it cries, or Godfrey's cordial. 

If you want next to attack your wife, and anorexiate her, 
and yet would rather do it on the sly, find out if she has not a 
little dryness in the throat, or a slight heck or hem, or cough, 
or a little clearing of the throat, you have only to get her one 
of those nice little boxes filled with any sweetish lozenge, it is 
perfectly immaterial what name they go by, if it is a lozenge 
at all, it has the two essential requisites — sugar and opium. 
No cough lozenge is made which does not contain both these 
ingredients, and each ingredient acts infallibly in the same 
direction ; the sugar itself, the purest loaf, or the best syrup 
which can be made, would destroy the tone of the stomach, 



4 Hall's Journal of Health. 

that is, impair the appetite, if taken " three times a day "before 
meals" that being the stereotype recipe for taking all patent 
medicines. Any thing sweet, thus taken, acts directly on the 
stomach, and causes want of appetite. Opium causes want of 
appetite in a more roundabout way, it causes constipation, and 
that causes loss of appetite, as already explained. Therefore, 
if sugar alone destroys the appetite, and opium alone does the 
same thing, both combined, do it in double quick time. I 
never tasted a lozenge, or a balsam, or balm, or cough mix- 
ture, or pectoral, which had not both the sweetish and a bit- 
terish taste, and I presume no one else ever did. An educated 
druggist would question a man's sanity, who would ask for a 
cough medicine which had no bitter or sweet taste about it. 
Therefore, you may set it down as an infallible fact, that no 
lozenge or cough medicine can be taken even for a short time, 
without impairing the appetite and causing constipation, that 
is, preventing a regular daily action of the bowels. There is, 
however, some caution to be observed in the production of 
artificial anorexia and constipation ; if kept up long in grown 
persons, a natural and certain result is piles first, and then 
fistula, which last if cured at all, must be by the surgeon's 
knife, or my neighbor Bodenhamer will cure your fistula with- 
out a knife, but he will expect a fee, ranging from fifty to 
five hundred dollars. Now, that I have come to count the 
cost, I think it would be rather a saving after all, to let your 
wife have her appetite and take no lozenges or cough reme- 
dies, so after " second thoughts" I w T ould rather advise you 
never to give or swallow a lozenge or a cough drop as long as 
you live, unless you wish to be considered a candidate for 
some lunatic asylum. 

As for the baby, it likes anything sweet, at least my Bob, 
and our new little Alice glory in sweets, and as they are but a 
type of their kind, I conclude that all children like anything 
sweetish, and they will take the lozenge or the " syrup" from 
the fathers or the mother's hand, with such loving, smiling con- 
fidence, that one must smile and love in return to witness it. 
It is true, these things do, in a few weeks, give by degrees an 
unusual brightness of the eye, succeeded by water on the 
brain on the first attack of sickness, and all its growth is in the 
head, and its little body dwindles, and its eyes stare out with 



To Live Long. 5 

a maniacal phrensy or an idiotic blankness, closing soon in 
death, but then, you have saved a pint of milk a day for a 
good while. 

"What I have written refers to scientific constipation. 1 
began the article with the intention of explaining simply how 
persons generally became costive, and no more important ex- 
planation in reference to bodily health has ever appeared in 
the pages of this journal nor ever will. The answer to the f 
question, 

E 

I do not recollect to have seen in any publication, popular 
or professional that I have ever read, and yet it will come 
home to every thinking reader. It is of authenticated and 
historical record that in the last war between China and Great 
Britain, the Chinese confidently anticipated ultimate victory 
by negative means alone ; it is almost incredible, and yet it is 
a fact that they believed that if they cut off the supplies of 
rhubarb, the British w T ould all die, because that article is 
known to be used to prevent constipation, and if it could not 
be had, the British soldiers would bloat up and explode, or at 
least die in consequence ; it cannot be denied that constipation 
would conquer Sebastopol sooner far than the allied army. 
It is very certain that the lozenges and cough medicjnes in 
New York, if they were taken by the Russians, would end the 
siege of the consecrated city sooner than will be done by the 
combined forces of the Gallic Eagle and the British Lion. 

HOME ILLUSTRATION. 

To explain the effects of constipation upon human health and 
life by objects nearer to us than the Crimea, take a steam engine ; 
if the steam is not worked off as fast as it accumulates in the 
boiler, total destruction is absolutely inevitable. The smallest 
particles of dust will one by one find their way from the vest 
pocket into your watch, and in a year or two, the accumulation 
will have been such, that the whole machinery is clogged and 
it stands still, and so with the clock on your mantel, however 
closely it may be shut and covered every time your tidy 
house-keeper " dusts the room." It is because there is a con- 
stant inlet, yet no outlet, and just as certainly, just as inevit- 
ably will the machinery of life stand still, sooner or later if we 



6 HalVs Journal of Health. 

eat daily and do not pass from us as daily, the refuse of what 
we eat, after it has subserved the purposes of life. If what 
we eat to-day, and its refuse, does not pass from us to-morrow, 
it remains but to clog, and irritate, and inflame, and fester 
and destroy, and rot every part with which it comes in contact. 

How then do persons generally become costive % How 
does the young woman pine away before maturity ? How 
does the strong young man, who almost thinks that nothing 
can hurt, wither and waste and die long before his prime? 
How is it that the mass of men do not live out half their 
days ? These questions are all answered by stating the manner 
in which the regular functions of the bowels are deranged. 

Order is Heaven's first law. Regularity is nature's universal 
rule. Morning, noon, and night, the healthy man becomes 
hungry at the usual eating hour for half a century, no human 
machine can work the twentieth part so long without adjust- 
ment or repair ; at the accustomed hour the infant becomes 
sleepy ; within ten minutes of the time does the regular man 
wake of a morning for weeks and months in succession. So 
is it with the desire to stool : with almost all it comes on soon 
after breakfast, this appears to be the most proper time, and 
if not interfered with, this inclination will come on for a life 
time with but a few minutes variation, and a healthful old age 
is the result, but if interfered with, the foundation begins to 
be laid of nine-tenths of all our maladies, and a premature 
and painful death. And here we come to the most important 
item in this article : 

HOW IS THE DAILY ACTION OF THE BOWELS INTERFERED WITH ? 

Reader, I will appeal to your own experience, confident 
that millions of others would respond to it if questioned. I 
will suppose you to have good health, that usually after break- 
fast awhile you experience an inclination to go to the privy, 
generally you do go promptly, but sometimes you do not, 
you are reading an interesting newspaper article, and you 
went to finish it, or a chapter of a novel, or apolitical speech, 
or scientific lecture, or are attending to an early visitor, hop- 
ing every moment his departure, or you are hemming a hand- 
kerchief, or ^engaged on a piece of embroidery, or you are 
hurried down town by inexorable business, and when the 



To Live Long. 7 

desire comes, there is no convenient locality. I might men- 
tion dozens more of instances which are presented as induce- 
ments to defer nature's demand for the moment, and before 
you are aware of it, the desire has departed, and hours may 
elapse before it is felt again, and so faintly that absorption in 
business, may prevent its notice ; the next day it comes later 
and fainter, and before you are aware of it, you have fallen 
into the habit of passing a day or two or more without attend- 
ing to a call of nature ; and the next thing you observe the 
symptoms of some troublesome disease, an illustration of which 
I now give in order to impress upon the reader's attention the 
evils which may result from constipation. 

A British soldier was wounded in the Spanish war at 
Barossa, in 1811, and having served twenty-one years in the 
army, he was placed on the pension list, which he enjoyed for 
forty-one years in sound health ; but lately, on leaving work, 
he became liable to constipation. At first, his bowels moved 
every other day, then seldom oftener than once a week, and 
finally only once in four weeks ; at last, his belly became so 
large that his trowsers would not meet, and he applied to Pro- 
fessor Christison to enable him to button his breeches ; he mea- 
sured at the waistband near forty inches. The proper means 
were used to procure a discharge, and an immense amount was 
the result ; on other medicine being administered, another im- 
mense discharge was the result ; still his belly was as large as 
ever, and next day a third dose of medicine was exhibited, 
which gave an ordinary discharge, and on the third day, there 
being no diminution in size, two tea-spoons of turpentine and 
twelve table-spoons of castor oil gave only two small passages, 
and the abdomen was as large as ever ; extreme and painful 
means were then used with more success, but he declared with 
an oath he never would submit to them, and had rather be 
shot ; but being allowed a day's rest, he did submit next day, 
and at the end of a fortnight's treatment he was dismissed with 
daily-acting bowels, in his seventy-fourth year. 

The great practical lesson which I wish to inculcate, to be 
engraven, as on a plate of steel, on the memory of children 
and youth, young men and women, the mature and the gray- 
headed : — I5P7 Allow nothing short of fire or endangered life 
to induce you to resist for one single moment nature's divine 



8 HalVs Journal of Health. 

call. So far from repressing a call for any reason short of life 
and death, you should go at the usual time and solicit, and 
doing so, you will have your reward in a degree of healthful- 
ness and in a length of life which very few are ever permitted 
to enjoy. 

If the love of health and life, nor the fear of inducing pain- 
ful disease cannot induce you to adopt the plan I have recom- 
mended, there is another argument which to young gentlemen 
and young ladies may appear more convincing, personal clean- 
liness. 

If you resist a call of nature, a degree of uneasiness and irri- 
tation and heat is the immediate result; this heat causes the 
more airy and watery particles of the fecal matter, which is 
waiting to be discharged, to evaporate and to be re-absorbed 
into the system, to be taken into the blood again, which bears 
the horrible burden to the lip of beauty, which we kiss with so 
much devotion ; and the very tear-drop of affection has min- 
gled with it what ought to have been deposited in the privy a 
few hours before, making the very breath unbearably disgust- 
ing : the breath of a costive child even is scarcely to be 
endured. 

Cold feet, sick head-ache, piles, fistulas, these with scores of 
other diseases have their first foundations laid in constipation, 
which itself is infallibly induced by resisting nature's first calls. 
Reader, let it be your wisdom, never to do it again. 



THE PHILOSOPHY AKD ART OF HAPPINESS. 

The glowing golden tint that colors the distant western hill, 
as the sun behind it is sinking into evening, recedes before the 
approaching traveler, as swiftly as his own gaunt shadow pur- 
sues ; and far beyond gilds a country he can never reach before 
its brightness be departed. So human happiness is an ideal 
delight pictured before the mind and heart, which men seek to 
attain, but never reach. 

All that is called happiness is in reality but the pursuit of it. 
Men are said to be in search of health, when they go roaming 
over hills to exercise their limbs, and breathe the fresh, pure air. 
At the end of their journeys, they are known to have found 
nothing, except that the search was the only treasure they 



The Philosophy and Art of Happiness. 9 

sought. In the same manner happiness is the exhilarating 
effect upon man of every thing he pursues in order to render 
him happy. 

All minds are differently constituted. Therefore, the same 
object must make upon each a correspondingly different impres- 
sion ; also, to produce like impressions of an object in several 
minds, the object must be in a slight degree differently con- 
ceived by each. One thing differently presented to correspond- 
ingly dissimilar minds, may cause like impressions in all. 
Moreover, since every mind at different times is often in differ- 
ent sfates, an object brought before it will not make always a 
like impression. In order, then, that the experience of a per- 
son, derived from a particular object, may remain unaltered for 
a length of time, those things which occasion experiences must 
be varied during that time, to accord with the changing phases 
of the mind. 

For example, to produce in a person the emotion of happi- 
ness for any period, there must be presented to his mind, at 
every interval* during that period, the precise state of things 
which, in every successive mental condition, will occasion the 
experience. 

It is obvious, upon the mere recognition of these truths, that 
in causing an experience of happiness, or of any other emotion 
or state, a thousand times more depends upon the quality and 
condition of the mind, than upon the things which operate 
upon its faculties. 

It therefore becomes a useful duty of man to discover and 
practice a discipline by which he may educate his mind to con- 
ceive everything in such a manner as will produce in him a 
continued pleasant experience ; for over the external chances 
and accidents of life, upon which his happiness in part 
depends, he has only a weak control ; but he has power to 
cause his mind, when his aim is the pursuit of happiness, to 
create and retain only such experiences as will make him 
happy. 

An important inquiry immediately arises : what particular 
condition of the mind is conducive to the highest happiness? 
The answer to this question is brief, and the reason simple. 
The mind that is ripened in the Christian faith, and humbled 
yet exalted in presence of its divine Author and Finisher, 



10 HalVs Journal of Health. 

whom it worships in love, is the only one that has capacity to 
experience the completest happiness that belongs to earth. 
Still more is such a mind the only one that is able to achieve 
from ill-boding circumstances, that would make worldly men 
wretched, a sweet serenity of joy, which though born on earth 
may yet be redolent of heaven. The man of the world, though 
he be conscious that happiness is a child of the mind, still nei- 
ther expects, nor seeks, to be happy beyond the degree which 
he attains through the mind itself, unaided by any strength 
beside its own. Therefore, though amid, common gloomy 
scenes of life he may be contented, he must in a crisis of adver- 
sity be overwhelmed. His unassisted mind, while of its own 
vigor it can accomplish wonders of endurance, beyond a lim- 
ited strength is powerless to battle off the despair that follows 
disaster. He may watch his heroism tremble, and behold his 
spirit fail and sink. The reverses of fortune may transpire so 
suddenly and be so blighting, as to render him a misanthrope, 
who will contemplate even his existence with bitterness. 

But the true Christian is never so stricken down. If he be 
wise and thoughtful, he knows that to make his happiness inde- 
pendent of the uncertainties of the world, his mind needs a 
sustaining strength superadded to its own ; he asks of the 
"Giver of every good and perfect gift" that there may be im- 
parted to it a divine energy which shall enable it to endure to 
the end. Or, if he be a plain man, ignorant of the cause of 
his weakness and conscious only of the fact, he instinctively 
seeks aid from Heaven ; and if he have faith in the fulfilment 
of the promises of God, he is fortified by Omnipotence against, 
the world. 

In this manner the happiness of the true Christian is always 
unsubjected to the chance of things. Whether he bear the 
burden which the world calls sorrow, or is crowned with the 
garlands it calls joy, he is still happy. "Be of good cheer, 17 
said the Saviour to his disciples ; u for ye have overcome the 
world." But the mind that refuses the Spirit of God, though 
it be happy while fortune is propitious, sinks into gloom when 
reverses come; and, having nothing to which it may cling 
when hope is faint and strength is weary, pines in despair. 
This is not the fate of those only who are destitute of moral 
principle. Men, high-minded and learned, have sought to 



The Philosophy and Art of Happiness. 11 

achieve happiness by the power of virtue, and miserably 
failed ; religion only is ever triumphant. 

In the light of the philosophy here delineated, the reason is 
clear that the Christian can say with boldness and truth that 
even suffering is a touchstone of happiness. Suffering is a law 
of life, ordained by the Deity, and universally illustrated in the 
history of mankind; if it were not, we would never grow 
tired of pleasure, but now we are wearied by the most coveted 
gratifications. The aim of life is the pursuit of happiness; 
this has been appointed by the Creator. Therefore, it must 
appear, even to the dim eye of human logic, a plain truth that 
men may be happy while they suffer. 

To say in naked words that suffering produces happiness ; 
that anguish, intense and lasting, may yield a joy, exquisite 
and ineffable, would perhaps appear to the world an absurdity 
meriting its ridicule. It is, nevertheless, a truth ; and one 
which ranks among the highest that man can comprehend. It 
is denied only because it is, to those who reject it, an unex- 
plained mystery. There are legions of heavenly experiences 
that cannot be made plain to one man from mere recital of 
their phenomena by another ; they must be felt in order to be 
comprehended. St. Paul declares, " When I am weak, then 
am I strong ; " and the Saviour said, " He that humbleth him- 
self shall be exalted." The letter of these declarations may 
seem paradoxical, but their spirit is clear and true. Like them 
is this, that suffering is an almoner of happiness. To those 
who have tasted the cup of bitterness, and rejoiced while they 
drank the gall, it is neither meaningless nor false. Unto such 
there is no mystery of meaning in the "joy of grief." They 
know it is even sweeter than the joy of pleasure. If among 
the learned in the wisdom of this world, none can interpret the 
full significance of this saying, many a mother, who has 
planted violets over the grave of her infant, while she has gone 
sorrowing that it died, has yet rejoiced with rapturous delight 
that it became an angel of Heaven. That worldly men are 
ignorant of this wonderful wisdom is not strange to the Chris- 
tian philosopher. Christ himself said, " I thank thee, O Father, 
that thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and 
hast revealed them unto babes." 

It is a mystic wonder to men of mere cold morality, that 



12 HalVs Journal of Health. 

while they never will deny that happiness is the aim of living, 
they know that trials and griefs are the most frequent incidents 
of life. They have yet to learn that the crown of happiness is 
interwoven of prosperity and adversity, and that what they 
call the unlovely leaves, are often the most numerous in the 
garland. 

Happiness, then, is not a chance that distils a rare blessing 
upon the mind and heart, as the morning breathes its dew upon 
the flowers. Tradition relates that of the most wonderful arts 
of the ancient orientals, one was to mould a wine-cup of deli- 
cate porcelain so cunningly, that when empty it would appear 
pure and plain, but which a draught of pleasant wine, or 
treacherous poison, would illumine with pictures, brilliant and 
radiant with beauty. In like manner, the most wonderful art 
of life — the art of being happy — is so to refine the rarer mate- 
rial of the mind, that whether it be filled, as a goblet, with 
thoughts of sweet or bitter things, it shall still ever be radiant 
with experiences of glowing, heavenly joy. — i\T. Y. Observer. 



NUKSING THE SICK. 



Who has not been sick? who has not needed nursing, or 
been called to give it to others? And what a blessing is good 
nursing in a world where disease abounds ? There is reason to 
suppose that many die for the want of skillful attentions. The 
late Dr. Rush said that to be a good nurse was to be half of a 
physician. Few posts of domestic or private usefulness exceed 
that of a faithful nurse. In this light it should be habitually 
regarded. 

The following suggestions are drawn from considerable expe- 
rience. It is hoped they may not be without profit to some, 
especially the young and unskillful. They are not made in a 
vain and presumptuous spirit, but are prompted by the kindest 
feelings. Ignorance in a nurse cannot aid the recovery of the 
sick. 

The first qualification of a good nurse is mental composure. 
In a disease there often occur sudden and violent changes, 
-which require the calmest attention. If the invalid discovers 
trepidation in attendants, the effect will probably be injurious. 



Nursing the Sick. 13 

Presence of mind is always desirable, and often indispensable. 
The nurse is the helmsman of the craft that is now in danger- 
ous waters, and must not yield to alarm. Much depends on the 
judgment of the nurse, whose mind must be calm, or disaster 
must follow. Too much solicitude is the bane of good nursing. 

Firmness, united with gentleness, adds much to the influence 
and success of the nurse. The sick have many whims and 
caprices. To yield to all of these would be injurious. Yet in 
many things their wishes may be gratified. Never forget the 
debility and nervous distress induced by disease, loss of sleep, 
and want of exercise in the open air. Under no circum- 
stances speak a harsh word to the sick. Be firm, but be gentle 
even to coaxing. Many a one is made worse by a cross word 
or look, when a smile or some sign of love would sooner have 
caused submission, and not have left an unhappy impression. 
Other words, besides those of heretics, do sometimes eat as 
doth a canker. They may make the sick wilful. 

In a reverse, patience is essential. The natural effects of 
constant seclusion and anxious vigils are nervousness and irri- 
tability. But let not the sick suffer from such things. If you 
cannot command yourself, go and walk, or sleep, or do some- 
thing to recreate, until you are able with pleasantness to resume 
your wearisome duties. This requires great forgetfulness of 
one's self. Be ingenious in relieving the monotony as well as 
the pains of the sufferer. Sickness renders one changeable and 
fastidious. Let us grant all reasonable wishes. JSTone but 
those who have never endured the tedium of a long sickness, 
can hesitate to do every harmless thing which may possibly 
conduce to even the fancied or momentary relief of pain or 
despondency. Sometimes the nurse has a magisterial air, and 
is reluctant to yield to the little desires and ever-changing 
wants of an invalid. Patience and all long-suffering are 
required. An obliging disposition will be the result, and will 
produce the happiest effects. 

Be always cheerful. Let your countenance betray no symp- 
toms of gloom or depression. Strive to throw around you a 
bright and happy atmosphere. This itself will relieve much 
uncomfortable feeling in the sufferer. 

Learn also to move quietly and speak gently in the sick-room. 
Tread lightly and let your voice be always modulated to a 



14 HalVs Journal of Health. 

low but distinct tone. Even the rustling of paper, or the 
creak of a shoe or of a door-hinge, or the slightest noise some- 
times produces great restlessness in the sick. Let every thing 
like noise be excluded, as far as possible. 

Nothing adds more to the comfort of all confined to the sick- 
room than cleanliness. Put out of sight all medicines, and 
everything that can awaken unpleasant associations. Let 
everything be in its proper place. By always replacing neces- 
sary articles, the greatest neatness may be preserved without 
inconvenience to the sick or to the attendant. There should 
be no confusion. A quiet effort to keep the room in a neat and 
orderly condition will seldom injure the most feeble or the 
most excitable. 

Let the nurse never lose vigilance. If it can be no longer 
preserved, let a temporary substitute be provided. Ever be on 
the alert. If possible, anticipate the wants of the sick. Try 
to save them the trouble of asking for what they wish. To 
invalids, unsolicited attentions are very grateful. Often they 
are so listless as to care for nothing. If possible, surprise them 
at times by something palatable and wholesome for nourish- 
ment. 

Beware of annoying by your attentions. Civilities may be 
excessive and oppressive. In that case they are cruel to the 
sick. A well-balanced judgment, with some practice, will 
teach you when and how your services are required. 

Some skill in cooking is, of course, a useful attainment in a 
nurse. The sick are often willing to take nourishment by the 
hand of love, while they would have refused the same from a 
stranger. This is specially true when savory food is unex- 
pectedly presented. 

To many these suggestions may seem useless, for they are 
conscious of having neither taste nor talent for nursing. True, 
one endowed by nature with so excellent a gift, is able to act 
with less constraint and more success than others. But expe- 
rience and a real desire to learn will secure very wonderful 
results. Cultivate a love for the sick-room. At least, labor to 
be cheerful when duty calls you there. 

By putting in practice these rules, together with the lessons 
of wisdom you may receive from older and wiser persons, you 
will find yourself at last able to discharge this otherwise sad 



How to be Healthy. 15 

and painful, but important duty with pleasure to yourself and 
comfort to those you love. 

The judicious will easily supply many things omitted in the 
details of these rules. 

Benigna. 



HOW TO BE HEALTHY. 



It is well said, by one who had thoroughly studied the 
subject, that the highest ambition of an ancient Greek was 
to be healthy, beautiful and rich. We cannot help thinking, 
says the Philadelphia Bulletin, that the Athenians, in this 
respect were wiser than ourselves. Much as we boast of 
wonderful intelligence, we have not yet practically attained 
a method of life so comprehensive as that pursued, not only 
by philosophers, but the men of fashion about in Africa and 
Poloponesus. They placed health first, and money-making 
last, while we reverse the order. Yet they were pagans, and 
we Christians. Surely we should cry " sahmeh " to ourselves. 

In reality, the principal objects sought by the ancient 
Greek, health and beauty, were but one and the same. For 
beauty cannot exist without health. The man who is 
constantly confined to the counting desk soon acquires an 
habitual stoop ; the one who devotes his whole soul to money- 
making becomes wrinkled before his time. On the contrary, 
he who indulges in proper exercise and recreation, as, for 
example a well-to-do farmer in healthy districts, carries an 
erect frame to the verge of seventy, and has a ruddy cheek 
even when an octogenarian. The first, by neglecting the 
laws of nature, not only destroys his own manly bearing, 
u but transmits a puny form and weakly constitution to his 
children." The last perpetuates a race of hardy sons and 
majestic daughters. 

There is only one way to preserve his health, and that is to 
live moderately, take proper exercise, and be in the fresh 
air as much as possible. The man who is always shut up 
in a close room, whether the apartment be a minister's study, 
a lawyer's office, a professor's laboratory, or merchant's gas- 
light store, is defying nature, and must sooner or later pay 
the penaltv. If his avocation renders such confinement 



16 HalVs Journal of Health. 

necessary during a portion of the year, he can avoid a 
premature breaking down of the constitution only by taking 
exercise during the long vacations of the summer and winter 
months. The waste of stamina must be restored by frequent 
and full draughts of mountain and sea beach air, by the 
pursuits of the sportsman, by travel, or other similar means. 
Every man who has felt the recuperative effects of a month 
of relaxation, knows from his own experience how genial its 
influence is ; how it sends him back to business with a new 
flow of spirits; how it almost recreates him, so to speak. 
Between the lad brought up to physical exercises in the 
invigorating open air, and one kept constantly at school 
or in the factory, there is an abyss of difference, which 
becomes more perceptible every year, as manhood approaches, 
the one expanded into stalwart, full-chested health, while the 
other is never more that a half-completed man. 

The advantages of exercise are as great in females also ; all 
that we have said about preserving health in man is as true in 
the opposite sex. But this is not the whole. The true 
foundation of beauty in woman is exercise in fresh air. No 
cosmetics are equal to these. The famous Diana of Poicitiers, 
who maintained her loveliness until she was near sixty, owed 
this extraordinary result, in her own opinion, to her daily 
bath, early rising, and her exercise in the saddle. English 
ladies of rank are celebrated, the world over, for their 
splendid persons and brilliant complexions, and they are 
proverbial for their attention to walking and riding, and the 
hours spent daily out of doors. The sallow cheeks, stooping 
figures, susceptibility of cold, and almost constant ill-health 
which prevail among the American wives and daughters 
generally, are to be attributed almost entirely to their 
sedantry life, and to the infirmity caused by the same life on 
the part of their parent. A woman can no more become 
beautiful, in the true sense of the term, or remain so, without 
healthful exercise in the open air, than a plant can thrive 
without light. If we put the latter into a cellar, it dies 
outright, or refuses to bloom. Shall we wilt our sisters, 
wives or daughters, by a similar deprivation of what is as 
necessary to their harmonious development? 

In another aspect, the care of health is a more important 



Moral causes of Cholera. 17 

thing than is usually supposed. There is no doubt that, as 
between city and country, the population of the former suffers 
most from want of exercise and fresh air, and that consequently 
the stamina, so to speak, of a city population is inferior to that 
of a rural one. It is even said that in some cities, Paris for 
instance, few strict town-bred families last over a century, and 
that if the population was not continually recruited from the 
country, it would die out. It is an equally striking fact, and 
one that lies within the observation of all of us, that the most 
energetic merchants generally, in New York, Boston and 
Philadelphia, have been originally lads from the rural towns 
or counties, whose well-balanced, vigorous, enterprising minds 
enabled them to endure an amount of fatigue which the 
average of their city-competitors could not rival. 

The public weal therefore, as well as the happiness of the 
individual, is concerned in this question of health. Yet we 
Americans almost ignore it, and practically neglect it entirely. 
The old Greeks had their gymnasiums for physical exercise, 
which were as much State institutions as common schools are 
now. "Were not the Greeks wiser, after all, than we are, at 
least in this particular ! — S. O. Adv. 



MORAL CAUSES OF CHOLERA. 

The London Christian Times suggests that moral causes have 
much to do in engendering this disease ; and that moral reme- 
dies may go far to alleviate or cure it : 

The filthy, low-lying regions, says the Times, where the dis- 
ease presents itself with most inveteracy, are also the regions 
of coarse, imbruted vice. Self-indulgence in sordid and 
unwholesome luxuries undermines the constitution. Persever- 
ance in such indulgence for a series of generations debilitates 
a race. — The harass and anxiety attendant upon precarious and 
dishonest means of obtaining a livelihood, shake terribly such 
enfeebled constitutions. 

Vicious indulgence and sordid habits by demoralizing a 
large proportion of the lower classes, are the real cause of the 
predisposition to a new and awful form of disease. — The filth 
and squalor are merely the external indications of this inter- 
nal rottenness. When a large portion of any community has 



18 HalVs Journal of Health. 

been thus pre-disposed, disease catches around it like wild-lire, 
and even those who have kept themselves above the general 
degradation are not exempted from its visitations. The honest 
poor are by their poverty brought into contagious proximity to 
the class prepared for sickness. The wealthy are brought into 
contact with the infected stratum of society by business-rela- 
tions. Let the whole truth be told : the vicious and the unre- 
flecting of the'wealthier class expose themselves to contagion 
by visiting infected dens in search of illicit pleasure. Nay, 
more ; the anxious, mammon-hunting, voluptuous habits of the 
wealthy predispose them to contagion. 

Moral causes of disease can only be combated by counter- 
agents. It is not meant that physical remedies and lenitives 
for cholera are to be dispensed with, but that moral remedies 
and lenitives are to be superadded. 



THE INTEKIOE OF A FASHIONABLE HOUSE. 

The New York Times, in a recent article on the " Morals 
of Fashionable Society," gives the following picture of the 
interior of an elegant residence, together with a portraiture of 
its mistress. 

Let us enter that magnificent house with the brown stone 
front, and the winter garden jutting out from the main build- 
ing, and one of the shutters in each window half closed, in 
order that the passers by may see that they are of the finest 
satin wood, picked out with gold. Passing through large 
drawing rooms en suite and divided by Marisco arches, we 
will softly enter the little boudoir on the left, where in the 
midst of the dim light that steals through the windows, 
stained a pale rose color, a lady reclines in a luxurious fauteiul 
reading. She is very lovely. Her dress is orientally rich and 
picturesque, but an air of terrible languor overspreads her 
beauty. While she is finishing that bad chapter in the worst 
of Paul de Kock's novels, we will tell you a few facts about her. 

She was brought up to make a good match. She left a 
fashionable boarding school at the age of fifteen, with a per- 
fect knowledge of dancing, the French language, and the art 
of putting out a shawl. A summer at a fashionable watering- 



The Interior of a Fashionable House. 19 

place prepared her morals and her manners for a larger 
sphere of society, and at sixteen she made her debut. She was 
the rage for two years, and went everywhere, but when ver- 
ging on her nineteenth year, her mother observed with alarm 
that her appearance was beginning to fade, and it was deter- 
mined that she should marry forthwith ; so she became Madam 
before sne was twenty. And what sort of a heart did she 
bring her husband ? One with youth and freshness, and purity 
to sanctify their intercourse ? Pshaw ! what has she to do 
with such things ! She was never young. She was brought 
up from the cradle to look upon every thing as moral that 
was expedient, and when she married, married for an establish- 
ment. Her husband soon found out her heartlessness, and took 
to clubs when his business hours were over. And she has 
nothing to do all day long, but to sit in satin chairs, and read 
corrupt French novels, and flirt with idle young men. Over 
that luxurious home there floats no angel of happiness. Its 
owners lead a dreary, sensual life, miserable and splendid. 
None of those peaceful joys which less fashionable people 
know are ever to be found there. Virtuous love shuns the 
place, and its mistress presides there in her beauty and magni- 
ficence, haunted by a nameless agony, like those gorgeous 
monarchs in the hall of Eblis, who reigned in unceasing pain. 
And thus her life wears on till some day the bubble bursts. 

And there was what might have been a happy home de- 
stroyed forever by a vicious system of education, and a false 
system of society. If that girl had been brought up to look 
upon marriage as a sacred responsibility, instead of an advan- 
tageous settlement — if her heart had not been indurated by 
her mother's ceaseless counsels to encourage only such men as 
would make a good jpartie — if she had been taught that woman 
had other duties in life to fulfil beside dancing well and 
managing a man — things might have been different. 

Our fashionable society in this city is a sham, from begin- 
ning to end. It is utterly unsound, depraved, and unnatural 
— a deceptive piece of rotten wood, made to look shiny with 
French polish, and glittering with the phosphorescent light 
of corruption — a copper cent, trying its very best to look 
like a five franc piece, and what is worse, in nine cases out 
of ten, succeeding. 



20 HalTs Journal of Health. 



EMPLOYMENT. 

Employment ! Employment ! 

O that is enjoyment ! 
There's nothing like " something to do ; ' 

Good heart-occupation 

Is health and salvation, 
A secret that's known to but few. 

Ye listless and lazy ! 

Ye heavy and hazy ! 
Give hearts, hands and feet full employment 

Your spirits 'twill cheer up, 

Your foggy brains clear up, 
And teach you the real enjoyment. 

The lilies they toil not, 

They drudge not and moil not, 
And yet they are cared for 'tis true ; 

But the lily, in beauty, 

Fulfills its whole duty — 
E'en lilies have something to do. 

" They sew not, they spin not. " 
'Tis true — but they sin not ; 

They work, uncomplaining, God's will — 
Their work not hasting, 
Their time never wasting, 

The laws of their nature fulfil. 

Ye hands, white as lilies, 

Remember God's will is, 
Who so shall not work shall not eat ; 

'Tis heart-occupation 

Prevents heart-starvation ; 
Would'st thou the great Lawgiver cheat ? 

Then up, man and woman ! 

But godlike — be human ! 
To self and to nature be true. 

Employment ! Employment ! 

O that is enjoyment ! 
There's nothing like " something to do. M 
The Beach Bird. 



Ages of the Poets of America. 
AGES OF THE POETS OF AMERICA. 



21 



AGES. 


AGES. 


James K. Paulding, 


75 


Park Benjamin, 


45 


John Pierpont, 


69 


James Freeman Clarke, 


44 


Richard H. Dana, 


67 


Ralph Hoyt, 


44 


Charles Sprague, 


63 


James Aldrich, 


44 


John Heal, 


60 


William H. C. Hosmer, 


44 


Willian C. Bryant, 


60 


Jones Very, 


44 


James G. Percival, 


59 


Alfred B. Street, 


43 


Fitz Greene Halleck, - 


59 


George W. Cutter, 


43 


Samuel G. Goodrich, - 


58 


Willian H. Burleigh, - 


42 


George W. Doane, 


55 


Henry T. Tuckerman, - 


41 


George P. Morris, 


53 


Henry B. Hirst, 


41 


Albert G. Greene, 


52 


Cornelius Matthews, 


39 


George W. Bethune, - 


52 


John G. Saxe, 


38 


Ralph Waldo Emerson, - 


51 


Philip P. Cooke, 


38 


George D. Prentice, 


50 


Epes Sargent, 


38 


Charles F. Hoffman, 


48 


Thomas W. Parsons, 


37 


K P. Willis, 


47 


George W. Dewey, 


36 


William G. Simms, 


47 


Arthur C. Coxe, 


36 


Henry W. Longfellow, - 


47 


James T. Fields, 


36 


George Lunt, 


47 


James Russel Lowell, - 


35 


John G. Whittier, 


46 


Thomas Buchanan Reed, 


32 


William D. Gallagher, - 


46 


George H. Baker, 


31 


Oliver Wendell Holmes, 


45 


Bayard Taylor, 


29 


Albert Pike, 


45 


R. H- Stoddard, 

Boston Transcript. 


28 



OLD FRIENDS.— REGULARITY OF LIFE. 

Forty years ago this present month of October, two young 
merchants of this city, who had been school-fellows together, 
met on a bright autumnal afternoon, after the business of the 
day was over, in front of the old Tontine Coffee House, and as 
they walked up Wall street together, one said to the other, 
" Come and dine with me to-day. Monday always seems a 
dull day, and my wife and I like to have some one drop in 
socially and dine or take tea with us." The invitation was 
accepted, and after dinner, as they sat over their wine (limited 
to a couple of glasses each,) and talked of their school-days 



22 HalVs Journal of Health. 

and of their pleasant intercourse in the years that succeeded, 
they agreed to dine with each other on alternate Mondays, 
unless prevented by sickness or other causes, so long as they 
should live. Time passed on ; sons and daughters were born 
to them, grew up, married and settled in life ; grand children, 
too, have not been wanting. ISTew York has grown from one 
of the plainest of little cities to be one of the great cities of 
the world; her commerce has increased beyond the wildest 
dream of imagination in former days ; hotels and warehouses 
line her streets, steamers and other shipping her wharves, 
and private dwellings of more than princely elegance her 
up-town squares and avenues, all on a scale of such magnifi- 
cence, that he who had prophesied of such things, would once 
have been thought an enthusiastic dreamer. Our whole 
country and indeed the world, has changed in the same ratio, 
until the mind is lost in conjecturing what two score more of 
years will produce. Eleven different Presidents have governed 
our own nation, and the nations of the world have changed 
their rulers from revolutions and other causes, again and again. 
Such are the changes time has made, and still these two old 
friends hale and healthy yet, may be seen on every Monday 
afternoon, going up the street together to fulfil the mutual 
promise they made to each other in early manhood. They set 
a high standard, at the commencement of their mercantile 
life, of which an honorable, upright merchant should be, and 
have never departed from it ; and if they have not been 
among the wealthiest of the merchant princes of the Empire 
City, they have had enough, — and have spared not a little 
when the demands of public and private charities have been 
presented to them. — May they long live to enjoy life as well 
as at this present period, and- set the same good example to 
younger men to follow in their footsteps. — W, Y. Express. 

Fatal Sickness among the Otoe Indians. — Accounts from 
the villages of the above tribe go to show that they are 
dying in great numbers. It is supposed that the pork or 
bacon received as annuity, becoming musty or tainted, is the 
occasion of this mortality. What number has already died 
we have not been able to learn. We doubt not that the 
Agent will immediately look into the matter, and give such 
assistance as is necessary. — Council Bluff Eagle, Oct. 31, 1854:. 



Good Advice.. 23 

A MANAGING WIFE. 
Some women are never happy unless when they ate 
scrubbii.g, brushing, sweeping or otherwise toiling in house- 
hold affairs, although they have servants to do all that they 
require. The Hon. Henry Erskine's first wife was one of this 
class, and her extreme nervous irritability and eccentric ways, 
it may be supposed, did not contribute greatly to Harry's 
domestic happiness. One of her peculiarities consisted in not 
retiring to rest at the usual hour. She would frequently 
employ half the night in examing the wardrobe of the family, 
to see that nothing was missing, and that everything was in 
its proper place. The following is told as a proof of her 
oddities. One morning, about three o'clock, having been 
unsuccessful in a search, she awoke Mr. Erskine from a sound 
sleep by putting to him this important interrogatory, " Harry, 
lovie, where is your white waistcoat ?" 



GOOD ADVICE. 

The following " Advice to Housewives' contains some useful 
hints : 

Britannia should be first rubbed gently with a'woolen cloth 
and sweet oil, then washed in warm suds, and rubbed with 
soft leather and whiting. Thus treated, it will retain its 
beauty to the last. 

New iron should be gradually heated at first ; after 
it has become inured to the heat, it is not likely to crack. 

It is a good plan to put new earthenware into water, and let 
it heat gradually until it boils — then cool again. Brown 
earthenware, particularly, may be toughened in this way. — 
A handful of rye or wheat bran, thrown in while it is boiling 
will preserve the glazing so that it will not be destroyed by 
acid or salt. 

Clean a brass kettle, before using it for cooking, with salt 
and vinegar. 

The oftener carpets are shaken, the longer they will wear. 
The dirt that collects under them grinds out the threads. 

If you wish to preserve fine teeth, always clean them 
thoroughly after you have eaten your last meal at night. 

Woolen should be washed in very hot suds, and not rinsed. 
Lukewarm water shrinks woolen goods. 



24 HaWs Journal of Health. 

Do not wrap knives and forks in woolens. Wrap them in 
g<*od strong paper. Steel is injured by lying in woolens. 

Barley straw is best for beds ; but dry corn busks slit into 
shreds are better than straw. 

"When molasses is used in cooking, it is a great improve- 
ment to boil and skim it before you use it. It takes out 
the unpleasant raw taste, and makes it almost as good as 
sugar. 

When molasses is used much for cooking, it is well to 
prepare one or two gallons at a time. 

Never allow ashes to be taken up in wood or put into 
wood. 

Always have your matches and lamp ready for use in case 
of sudden alarm. 

Have important papers all together, where you can lay your 
hands upon them at once in case of fire. 

Use hard soap to wash your clothes, and soft to wash the 
floors. Soft soap is so slippery that it wastes a good deal in 
washing clothes. 



Mortality *at the North and at the South. — The experience 
of the Life Insurance Companies of this country has brought 
to light certain facts which are not expressed or indicated by 
the census returns. In reference to the North, or that portion 
of the Union embraced northerly of the southern line of 
Virginia and Kentucky, it is shown that the mortality is 
considerably less than that indicated by the celebrated Carlisle 
tables. From ten years' practical results, it appears that the 
mortality among that class of persons who insure their lives 
within the region named is less than 1 per cent., viz : about 
94 in every 10,000. In that section comprised between 32° 
north latitude (a few miles south of Savannah) and the 
southern line of Virginia and Kentucky, the mortality among 
the same class of people is 1. 17 1-4 per cent, or 117 1-4 
persons out of every 10,000. Looking to the extreme Southern 
States, or south of latitude 32°, the mortality is nearly double 
that of the Northern section — the actual number of deaths of 
10,000 (as insured) being 186. These calculations are entirely 
exclusive of the present year, which has perhaps been more 
fatal in the South than any period since 1830. — Louisville 
Journal. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



VOL. II.] FEBRUARY, 1855. [NO. II. 

THKOAT-AIL. 

I have endeavored in all my writings to substitute this name 
for Laryngitis, or Clergymen's Sore Throat / it is shorter, more 
comprehensive, more correct, and has the advantage of being 
plain English. It is a disease which every mother ought to 
understand, for in the shape of croup, it puts her child in the 
grave in a few hours. Every person who loves to sing, should 
know its nature, for it destroys the voice. Every lawyer, 
every clergyman, every politician ought to make it their study, 
for it robs them of their capital in trade, and often lays them 
on the shelf for life. In short, it should be generally under- 
stood at least as to its symptoms, for it is very often the fore- 
runner of consumption, that hated name. 

There are two forms of throat-ail — the rapid and the slow. 
By rapid throat-ail, the great and good Washington perished 
prematurely, in a few hours' illness. By the slow kind, many 
public men are deprived of their means of usefulness, and of 
support, and have to spend their remaining days in struggling 
for a scant subsistence, or in following some new trade in their 
old age. 

I write for the people, and think it sufficient for the general 
good, to acquaint my readers with merely the symptoms and 
the causes of what is called " Throat-Ail," par excellence, the 
kind which lasts for weeks and months, and years, ending in 
disablement of voice, and finally death by consumption. 

Throat-Ail is like a fire, the sooner you know of its exist- 
ence the better ; and like a fire too which seldom goes out of 
itself ; so throat-ail seldom indeed gets well of itself, but bur- 
rows and deepens, until it undermines the constitution, wastes 
away the health, and strength, and flesh, and finally fastening 
itself in the lungs, completes the wreck and ruin of the whole 

man. 

2 



26 HalVs Journal of Health. 

The first symptoms of Throat- Ail, or Chronic Laryngitis, or 
Clergymen's Sore Throat, are usually a frequent hemming and 
hacking, in order to clear the voice or throat ; this is slight and 
seldom at first, and may not be noticed for weeks ; but then, 
it is so decided, that it forces itself upon the attention, either 
by its frequency, or by the force required to clear the throat 
sufficiently to speak with distinctness. After a while, it re- 
quires such an effort to enunciate plainly, that the patient for 
the first time becomes aware of a certain feeling of tiredness 
about the throat or neck ; most generally it is a dull hurting ; 
or he finds there is a kind of lumpish feeling in the throat, and 
he attempts to swallow it away, and it does seem to go down, 
but it does not stay down, and he swallows again, and soon he 
finds himself swallowing all the time j occasionally there is a 
different cause for swallowing, the throat appears to be dry, 
and swallowing for a time seems to moisten it ; finally the 
swallowing is almost incessant, especially if the mind is 
directed to it. For a time, nothing is brought away ; gradually 
a little pearly or whitish or cottony like phlegm is brought 
up, and the patient becomes hoarse. In the progress of things 
this phlegm becomes dryish, and so tough, that it clings to the 
inside of the throat, and can only be dislodged by a decided 
effort at clearing, with a dipping forward of the head. The 
voice next becomes husky ; at last a positive cough is neces- 
sary to dislodge the phlegm, and consumption soon follows. 

The symptoms detailed are present in the history of every 
case I have known. Accompanying these, there are occa- 
sional additional symptoms. A kind of pain, sharp or hurting, 
runs up the side of the neck towards the ear. Some complain 
of a burning feeling now and then at the little hollow at the 
bottom of the neck ; or up and down the breast bone in the 
centre, or at the pit of the stomach. These burning sensations 
are not felt continuously in any case, but at certain times 
during the day. 

A very common symptom is a depression of spirits, alto- 
gether greater than the actual feeling of discomfort warrants. 
In the progress of the disease, the feet become cold; there is 
a bad taste in the mouth of mornings ; occasional headache ; 
the bowels do not act daily, or if they do, what is passed is 
hard or bally ; the patient is easily chilled ; " the slightest 



Symptoms of Throat-Ail. 27 

thing in the world" gives him a cold, and u a cold always 
makes the throat worse." The food either sours on the stom- 
ach, or remains there like a weight for hours at a time ; the 
appetite becomes impaired, or it is so voracious, that " I can 
eat almost any thing" and u yet hungry all the time." The 
patient begins to lose flesh and strength ; and does not swal- 
low as easily as he used to ; at length he cannot swallow at 
all ; in the effort, even water comes back through the nose 
and the man dies of starvation. 

Eeader, if you have incipient symptoms of throat-ail, do not 
be a fool and go to some old woman, or Indian Doctor, or 
some officious and all-knowing granny, and waste time and 
perhaps life in experimenting on red pepper tea, or the soup 
made by Shakespeare's witches, or the Alicumstouton Salve, 
named at page 147 of the Journal for 1854. Do not go to 
swallowing brandy, or the still more murderous lozenges of 
the shops ; for brandy may not certainly kill any man, lozenges 
will. But go at once to a regularly educated physician, who 
is, as I think, necessarily a gentleman; he will not pro- 
mise to cure you in a week, or in a month, or in a century ; 
he will promise you just nothing at all ; he takes it for 
granted that you understand that he feels it his duty and his 
interest to do for you the best he can, and he will do it. Do 
not tell him that if he cures you, there are a few more of the 
same sort left in your neighborhood who will also come. Do 
not promise him an extra fee if he is successful in your case ; 
for it will only make him feel that you are as green as you 
suppose him to be. Do not come the pathetic over him, that 
you have six wives living and dead, and nineteen children, 
and you hope he will do the best he can for you, for the — 
smallest price possible. In calling upon such a physician, you 
have only two things to do ; tell your symptoms, and follow 
his advice implicitly and well ; his reputation and his bread 
depend on his success : you can appeal to no higher motives. 
And always remember, that it is impossible for such a physi- 
cian to say to you, " no cure no pay." Is a man to spend 
weary hours and anxious days and sleepless nights in trying to 
save your life, and to be paid nothing, unless he succeeds, 
especially when you have spent all your money on patent 



28 Hall's Journal of Health. 

medicines and advertising certif yers ; shame on the man who 
could make such a proposition. 

CAUSES OF THROAT-AIL. 

I cannot here state them all, nor at length, only the princi- 
ple ones, and them succinctly. 

I have now these many years confined my attention rigidly 
and exclusively to throat and lung diseases. I think I was 
the first physician in the United States to do so, as rigidly. I 
know not that there is any one besides myself in this country, 
who dismisses every case, invariably, in which the air passages 
are not involved. I make this statement for the purpose of 
enabling the reader to place the deserved estimate at the 
assertion I am going to make, to wit : 

Three cases out of every four coming to me for throat-ail, 
have it as the result of improper eating and drinking. 

Such a large proportion of cases of throat-ail originating in 
the stomach, I found my remaining remarks on this general 
origin. 

How can the Stomach make the Throat Sore t 

A stroke against the elbow is felt at the fingers' end. When 
your foot is asleep, from sitting on a hard edge of wood for 
some time, the cause is at the point of pressure, and yet it 
tingles in the toes a yard off. A good knock on the head 
" makes the fire fly" at the eyes. 

The condition of the throat is affected by the condition of 
the stomach, because a certain nerve branches off, one part of 
that nerve goes to the stomach, the other fork goes to the 
throat. The nerves are like the telegraphic wires, touch them 
at one end, and an effect is produced at the other. So if the 
nerves which supply the stomach are disordered, those in the 
throat are liable to become so too. Most of us have heard of 
" heartburn" some have felt it; it is a burning sensation, some- 
times felt at the point familiarly called the pit of the stomach, 
and sometimes in persons who use their voice much, this same 
burning is felt at the little hollow at the bottom of the throat 
and the region of Adam's apple, and that is the spot where 
throat-ail is located. 

I wish here to arrest the attention of clergymen, singers, 
teachers, and public speakers to this interesting inquiry. ' 



Causes of Throat-Ail. 29 

If soul* stomach, or dyspepsia, as physicians term it, causes 
burning or other sensations in the throat of clergymen and 
other persons who use their voice much, why does not sour 
stomach affect the throats of all, as the same nerve supplies 
branches to both throat and stomach ? This is the reason : a 
slight stomach derangement does not affect the throat per- 
ceptibly, if the voice organs are in a strong, active, healthful 
condition, because they have vigor to repel disease. It is a 
law of the human frame, that an ailment is apt to make itself 
felt next, or most decidedly in that particular part of the body 
which at the time is weakest in the performance of its func- 
tions, and as the voice organs are often in a lax or debilitated 
condition from frequent or unusual voice efforts, or injudi- 
cious conduct after voice effort, as stated at length in the 
Journal for 1854, page 39, and are at length made permanently 
feeble by these repeated uses and indiscretions, so being the 
next weakest part, disease flies there ; thus it is too, that when 
such persons take cold, the throat being the weak part, feels 
it promptly. 

A proper use of the voice strengthens the throat, and gives 
it a capability of resisting disease, just as a judicious use of 
any other muscles of the body increase their strength and 
health. But improper use, as just stated, by weakening, ren- 
ders them more susceptible of disease of any kind, and spe- 
cially of the stomach, in consequence of the nervous connec- 
tion before described. 

An injury done to any part of the body may be resisted, or 
if not, may be repaired by the curative energies of nature ; 
but if these injuries are frequently repeated, the strength of 
nature is exhausted in endeavoring to make repairs, then she 
remains prostrate and powerless, and disease has unbridled 
sway. 

When in any given case, a man is in a condition to have his 
throat affected by the state of his stomach, violence is offered 
the throat at each meal, three times a day, in time these 
effects last longer, until the effect of one meal reaches to 
another, and the throat is more or less ailing all the time. 

But to follow up the case, how is it that persons have sour 
stomach or heartburn ? 

All understand that what is sweet cider to-day, is sour to- 



30 HalVs Journal of Health. 

morrow ; we look at it and find it in constant motion, it is 
"working" fermenting. When food is taken into a healthy 
and well acting stomach, it is in a short time digested, that is, 
converted into a kind of liquid, no lumps or any thing of the 
sort in it, just as when you place a great many bits of ice and 
snow in a glass of water, the mass soon becomes all fluid alike. 
The food is made into this one fluid substance by the action 
of the stomach and what pertains to it. But the amount of 
food which the stomach can thus turn into a liquid form, is 
limited, just as if you put a certain amount of ice lumps in a 
glass of water, that water will melt them, but if you put in 
too many, none of them are wholly melted, and it remains a 
mixture of water, spears of ice, and solid ice. "When then, 
more food is taken into the stomach at any one time than it 
can convert into a homogenous fluid, it remains in lumps more 
or less, and it is said to be undigested, and begins immediately 
to ferment, to become sour and produces in the stomach the 
same sensation that swallowing vinegar causes in the throat, a 
burning. 

We see then, that sour stomach is caused by eating more 
than the stomach can digest. But how are we to tell how 
much the stomach can digest? In the same manner precisely 
as each one may ascertain to a quarter of an hour how much 
sleep he needs as explained in the Journal for 1854, page 88. 
Observe nature. The brutes are regulated in all these things 
by instinct, to us the nobler reason is given, and it must be 
our guide. We must observe and judge. 

What one man eats or drinks in quality or quantity is no 
guide for any other man, any more than the amount of labor 
one can perform, is the criterion for another. Each man must 
for himself bring his own observation and judgment to bear 
on the question, How much must I eat? The general rule is, 
Do not eat so much, as to cause any unpleasant sensation after- 
wards. 

If you at any time take a meal, and afterwards within an 
hour or two feel uncomfortably, then what you have eaten, 
does not agree with you ; you have eaten, either in quantity 
or quality what your stomach cannot digest. ISTine times out 
of ten, it is the quantity and not the quality, which does the 
mischief. 



Two Grand Mistakes, 31 

When persons have been ailing some time, almost every 
thiDg the j eat or drink, sours on the stomach, even a cup of 
tea or a glass of cold water, or toasted bread, gives sourness, 
or weight, or oppression, or some other ill feeling ; in time, the 
throat begins to feel tired, dry, or to burn, or smart, or is 
clogged up a little and we are all the time clearing it away ; 
this is " Dyspeptic Throat-Ail" or Clergymen's Sore Throat. 
But why was such a name given to it ? Because to a certain 
extent it is a comparatively new disease; we read little or 
nothing of it in the old books, a new disease as much then, as 
cholera is a new disease. It was perhaps first noticed to attack 
clergymen for two reasons: the injudicious use of the voice, as 
noticed in the article on Air and Exercise for February, 1854; 
and from increased notoriety over a common patient, for 
when the minister is ailing the whole town and adjoining 
country soon know it ; but I am now come to the point of 
exposing one of the two grand mistakes of modern times in 
reference to health. I will name them both here, although I 
will at present discuss but one. The first mistake is about 
injuring one's health by hard study, and the other is that a 
minister has become disabled by his "arduous labors /" these 
two things are simply pious frauds, the former committed 
generally by young students, the latter by young clergymen, 
securing for them a kind of sympathy considered to belong to 
martyrs. Two things I know : the first is, I never injured my 
health by hard study : the nearest I came to it was in ruining 
my eyes by studying the miserable edition of Scrivilleis' 
Lexicon, " a long time ago," till twelve o'clock at night, the 
days having been spent in writing poetry and pathetic epistles 
to a schoolmate. I received sympathy instead of the switch, 
just as nine young gentlemen out of ten in the college, the 
university, and the lecture room are complimented, when 
their health gives way, with the appellation of a hard student. 
I never knew a man, young or old, to injure himself by hard 
study. It is a mistake. In some future number I may tell 
how said mistake originates. 

The other of the two grand mistakes before alluded to, 
I propose to discuss is this, " Clergymen's sore throat is 
wrongfully set down to the score of i arduous labors /' " Let 
the observant reader reflect a moment on a little fact which 



32 Hall's Journal of Health. 

may not have as yet formed itself in words, but which upon 
mention will bring with it a " realizing sense" of its truthful- 
ness. 

Away out in the wild woods of the West, where I "was 
raised," the people are a type of Gotham and Fifth Avenue, 
the only difference being, as Wadsworth told us one Sunday 
not long since in one of his grand efforts, the greater or less 
exaggeration of any given characteristic — well ; away out 
there, where the folks are, as Eastern people believe, a kind 
of half and half mixture of the civilized and the savage, spe- 
cially the latter, people love their minister, they love him 
affectionately as David did Jonathan, and if he does not come 
to see them often, their feelings are hurt. But if he comes 
and does not eat with them, " it is no see at all," it is not con- 
sidered a visit. He must not only come, but " come often." 
As it is their minister, they honestly think that nothing they 
can put on the table is too good for him, consequently the 
modern Martha " dishes up" every thing she thinks good, and 
every thing " her man" thinks is good, and every thing the 
guest is supposed or known to like, and the result is a conglo- 
meration of every thing under the sun — suppose it a " supper," 
as is generally the case ; they do not take a dish of tea out 
West, they " eat supper," the third and last meal of the day. 
Well, look in on that Kentucky supper, there is coffee and 
tea to begin with, and hot biscuit, and corn bread and wheat 
bread, and boiled chicken, and a mackerel, and chipped beef, 
and ham and eggs, with a pitcher of pure milk, and honey and 
molasses, and all the different kind of preserves ever thought 
of, besides buttermilk and "pie" and cider and baked apples 
— that is a Western supper, reader, and the minister is ex- 
pected to take a lit of every thing there ; they would be 
almost affronted if he did not. If he did not make a dash at 
the whole category, they would say he was proud, and there 
his influence would end. He knows it, and feels in a sense 
compelled to eat more than he wants, certainly more than he 
needs, and more than he would eat, if there was not variety to 
tempt. We have the same thing here in New York, although 
in a more refined shape, instead of such "suppers" at "sun- 
down," we have regular dinners at ten o'clock at night, and 
having to wait several hours longer than usual, there is such a 



An Instructive Warning to Clergymen. 33 

ravenous appetite, that an amount is eaten very far beyond 
the needs of thp system, keeping the stomach laboring for 
hours after, to relieve itself of the unwonted burden. Such 
occurrences frequently taking place, will inevitably induce 
dyspeptic habits, and all their long catalogues of ill. Our 
ministers are feasted too much. 

Another cause of dyspepsia in ministers, is eating too soon 
after preaching. For two or three hours the tide of nervous 
energy has been setting in strongly towards the brain, and it 
cannot be suddenly turned towards the stomach ; but the men- 
tal effort has occasioned a feeling of faintness or debility about 
the stomach, and a morbid appetite ; and if food is taken at 
all largely, there is not the nervous energy there requisite to 
effect its digestion |^ijf"for the brain will be running over the 
discourse ; you may bring the mind back to the eating for a 
moment, but before you are aware of it, it will be laboring at 
the discourse again ; every public speaker knows this, and the 
food lies there like a weight or a lump for hours. 

The same result is produced in a less decided form by stu- 
dying out a sermon. The mind becomes absorbed, the an- 
nouncement for dinner is made, you are unprepared for it, it 
is rather unwelcome, you do not feel hungry, for the brain is 
at work, not the stomach ; however, as it is meal time, you go 
down, but the mind is in your " study," and you eat because 
it is dinner time, and not because you have an appetite— the 
principal cause of the most aggravated forms of dyspeptic dis- 
ease — eating without an appetite^ one of the most suicidal of 
all domestic practices ; eating simply because it is eating 
time, rather than by waiting until the appetite comes, give the 
trouble to prepare another meal. Every student should leave 
his books at least half an hour before a meal, and spend that 
half hour in a leisure walk in the open air, or in agreeable 
conversation on the piazza, or in the garden. 

AN INSTRUCTIVE WARNING TO CLERGYMEN. 

In illustration of the principles stated, I will record here a fact. 

A very eminent D.D. within a year has given up the 

charge of his congregation from a complaint in the throat :■ 

his parishioners, in parting with him, presented him with a 

farm, and now he is lecturing over the country, and nothing 

2 # 



34- HaTCs Journab of Health. 

is heard about his throat complaint, except when he leaves his 
wife at home ; when that is the case, he is laid up instanter. 
As long as she is at his side to watch over what he eats as to 
quality and amount, he keeps well ; when he transgresses, the 
food sours on the stomach, the throat burns, gets clogged up, 
he is hoarse and useless. 

I have extended this article beyond my calculation, but its 
importance cannot be over estimated, for I consider it a statis- 
tical fact, that three out of four of all the clergy who are pre- 
maturely set aside as unavailable workers, are thus set aside in 
consequence of errors in diet ; errors to a certain extent inse- 
parable from their present connection with society, in the 
manner I have stated. 

Throat-ail then being generally located in the stomach — 
what is the use of gargling the throat with acids and metallic 
preparations, which destroy the teeth ? and what is the use of 
swabbing out the throat with nitrate of silver, when the source 
of the disease is elsewhere. It does I know sometimes give 
relief, but it is not permanent, it cannot be, for it is merely 
covering a black spot on the wall with whitewash ; the spot is 
not seen, but it is there still ; but unlike the black spot, which 
is statu quo, the disease, though covered, is burrowing and 
spreading still. If again, the disease is really in the stomach, 
it is a useless waste of time, it is unphilosophical, to tell a 
clergyman who has throat-ail, that he must abandon preaching ; 
because the voice muscles must be treated like any other 
muscle of the body which is debilitated, their energies must 
be invited back by judicious forms of exercise, just as in re- 
covering from a fever, we increase our strength, by exercising 
carefully and gradually, and safely increasing that exercise. 

Besides, if the minister gives up his congregation, he gives 
up his bread, and he not only has leisure to brood over and 
thus aggravate his ailment, but also to worry himself as to 
some mode of obtaining subsistence in a manner not incon- 
sistent with his former calling. Hence, the indispensable 
means of curing an ordinary case of clergymen's sore throat, 
are to keep the patient at work, modifying the forms of voice 
exercise according to the needs and habits of each case, and 
the regulation of the digestive functions by a proper adapta- 
tion of food as to quantity and quality to the needs of the 
system. 



Cold Feet Causing Throat-Ail. 35 

COLD FEET 

Often produce a burning sensation in the throat, which if 
allowed to continue in operation, ultimately undermines the 
health ; the reason is, less blood being in the feet than is 
natural, there is an extra amount at the other end of the body ; 
can any thing be more absurd than to clip off a man's palate, 
whack out his tonsils, and " burn out his throat," for such an 
ailment ; can that send warmth to the feet? can we purify the 
fountain, by purifying the stream ? When will men learn to 
think for themselves ? 

My experience is, Throat- Ail is not to he radically and per- 
manently cured in any case, except by rectifying first, and then 
building up the general health of the system, and that requires 
time, determination, and systematic habits of rational life. 
Who thinks differently, and acts up to his belief, will find 
himself just as miserably deceived, as that unfortunate class 
of theologians, who assert "It is no matter what a man 
believes, if he is sincere in his belief." Is not such a logician a 
" sincere" fool ? Clergyman's Sore Throat is better cured, as a 
general RULE, m the continuation of ministerial duty. My 
ordinary advice is, Preach every day and Sunday too, rather 
than once a week. These fitful efforts are often a main cause 
of Throat- Ail ; just as a man who travels ten miles a foot on 
Sunday, and on other days none at all, will be wearied every 
Sunday night ; whereas, were he to walk five or six or eight 
miles every day, rain or shine, he would perform ten or twelve 
on the Sabbath, without appreciable fatigue. Men of " The 
Cloth," why don't you think for yourselves? Sometimes I 
think I am not altogether a drone in creation, because there 
are excellent men now, in different parts of the country, whom 
I have never seen, who, having abandoned preaching, applied 
to me for advice, and on being urged to resume pastoral 
charges immediately, as a means of cure, have done so, and 
have steadily recovered, and are now bearing " the burden 
and heat of the day." So that I am every Sabbath preaching 
by proxy, to many a listening multitude. It is not politic to 
say here how many I have killed off, or to inquire if those 
referred to might not have recovered without doing any thing. 
They came and were cured as antecedent and sequent, not 
necessarily as cause and effect. 



36 HalVs Journal of Health. 

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE SKIN, AND THEIR 
INFLUENCE ON HEALTH. 

The human skin is designed to perform several, and very 
important functions : the most obvious, and perhaps the most 
important of which is, that of serving as a covering and pro- 
tection to the other organs of the body, and to assist in pre- 
serving a uniform and healthy temperature. 

Another, and very important function of the skin, is that 
which is termed the function of perspiration, or of letting out 
of the system through the pores of the skin, certain fluid and 
gaseous products which are no longer needed in the system, 
but which if retained must prove prejudicial to the health of 
the individual. 

As the process by which the function of perspiration is per- 
formed is not fully understood, nor its importance fully appre- 
ciated by many, I propose to devote a little space to the con- 
sideration of this particular function. 

Erasmus Wilson, who by physicians and physiologists, is 
considered good authority in regard to all that relates to the 
skin, says : 

" To arrive at anything like an estimate of the value of the 
perspiratory system, in relation to the rest of the organism, I 
counted the perspiratory pores on the palm of the hand, and 
found 3,528 in the square inch. Now, each of these pores 
being the aperture of a little tube about a quarter of an 
inch long, it follows that in a square inch of skin on the palm 
of the hand, there exists a length of tube equal to 882 inches, 
or 73^ feet. Surely such an amount of drainage as 73 feet in 
every square inch of skin, assuming that to be the average for 
the whole body, is something wonderful, and the thought 
naturally intrudes itself — what if this drainage were ob- 
structed ? Could we need a stronger argument for enforcing 
attention to the skin ? 

" On the pulps of the fingers, where the ridges of the sensa- 
tion layer of the true skin are somewhat finer than in the palm 
of the hand, the number of pores on a square inch exceeds 
that of the palm ; and on the heel, where the ridges are coarse, 
the number of pores on the square inch was 2,268, and the 
length of the tube 567 inches, or 47 feet. 

" To obtain an estimate of the length of tube of the whole 



Functions of the Skin, dec. 37 

perspiratory system of the whole surface of the body, I think 
2,800 might be taken as a fair average of the number of pores 
in the square inch, and 700 consequently as the number of 
inches in length. 

""Now the number of square inches of surface on a man of 
ordinary height and build, is 2,500 ; the number of pores 
therefore, 7,000,000 ; and the number of inches of perspira- 
tory tube 1,750,000 ; that is, 145,833 feet ; or 48,600 yards, or 
nearly twenty-eight miles. 

u The perspiratory system of the skin is one of the usual 
channels by which the excess of water is removed from the 
blood, and in affecting this purpose, the perspiratory function 
becomes a regulator of the temperature of the body. 

" In health, perspiration is always taking place, even in a 
passive state of the body, and passes off in an imperceptible 
vapor, which is therefore termed insensible perspiration. But 
when the muscular system is in exercise, when chemical com- 
bination is active, and the nervous system is excited, the per- 
spiration is no longer insensible, but becomes more or less 
abundant, and is then denominated sensible perspiration. 
The existence of perspiration in its sensible or insensible state, 
bears relation, however, not merely to the quantity of per- 
spired fluid, but also to the state of the atmosphere. 

" Thus in a close damp day when the atmosphere is already 
charged with moisture, it is incapable of receiving that of the 
skin, and the ordinary insensible perspiration becomes con- 
densed into a sensible form. 

" On the other hand when the atmosphere is dry and the 
body or air in motion, the moisture is carried away so rapidly, 
that the sensible under ordinary circumstances becomes ' in- 
sensible perspiration? 

" The term insensible perspiration therefore, properly ap- 
plies to the imperceptible evaporation when the body is at 
rest, or in gentle motion." 

A writer in Chambers' Miscellany, while treating on this 
subject, says: "Throughout its whole extent, the skin consists 
of three layers, one over the other. The outermost, or cuticle, 
is an exceedingly thin substance, which may be observed to 
peel off when the hand is accidentally frayed, or when it is 
raised by a blister ; the next is a layer which contains the 



38 HdWs Journal of Health. 

coloring matter, giving, as the case may be, a shade from the 
slightest tan to the sooty black of the negro ; and the third, or 
lowest, — the true skin, — a thick layer, which when taken off, 
is tanned into leather. As a whole, the skin is much more 
thin and delicate on one part than another, — that upon the 
soles of the feet and palms of the hands being, by constant 
use, the thickest, and most durable, and that within the lungs, 
the mouth, &c. being exceedingly fine, and easily injured. 

" Besides their exhaling function, the pores, and other 
minute organs of the skin absorb air and moisture from the 
atmosphere, though with less activity than the lungs, and are 
therefore inlets as well as outlets to the system. 

" When these pores are in a state of great openness, or re- 
laxation from heat, or from disease, the power of absorption is 
greatly increased. Hence contagious diseases are more readily 
caught by the touch when the body is moist than when cold 
and dry. 

" When the skin is in a proper condition and the atmosphere 
is pure, the vital functions suffering no impediment from ex- 
ternal circumstances, proceed with the requisite energy, and 
the individual enjoys that buoyancy of spirit, which is the 
best criterion of health." 

From the foregoing partial description of the structure 
and functions of the skin, it would seem to require no argu- 
ment to convince all thinking beings of the great necessity for 
keeping that organ in a state of health, and its pores and fol- 
licles unobstructed and free in their action, as exhalents or 
absorbents as the case may be ; yet there are many who will 
not be convinced that they should purify the entire surface of 
the body every day, or once a week even ; and many are 
never thoroughly washed but once in their lives : — at their 
birth ; — and once again after their death. 

But bathing has been recommended and practised, in view 
of only one of the functions of the skin, — that of its power of 
throwing off effete matter ; while its powers of absorption, are 
in a great degree overlooked : and hence the necessity of a 
pure atmosphere for the skin as well as the lungs, has seldom 
been attended to. 

Invalids have been advised to wear underclothing of flannel, 
and even of the skins of animals, and other tissues impervious 



Functions of the Skin, dec. 39 

to the atmosphere, and have thus surrounded their bodies with 
an atmosphere surcharged with moisture, and filled with the 
heavy and offensive gases that are constantly being generated, 
and thrown off through the skin ; to be again absorbed, and 
to poison the system as much as though they had been re- 
ceived into it through the lungs or the stomach. 

A recent writer has said, "bad air is a slow poison," whether 
absorbed by the skin or by the pulmonary tissue. " That is 
the trouble." People go on taking it into the system, day 
after day, and night after night. They grow pale — their 
lungs suffer, the circulation is languid, they take cold readily, 
the chest, the stomach, the skin, becomes disordered, and a 
host of chronic diseases attack them. A little carbonic acid 
taken every day does not kill a man. It is almost a pity it did 
not! 

If a red-hot stone destroyed instantly one man in every 
town daily for a week, (" or if a dirty skin would inevitably 
produce leprosy,) there might be some salvation for the na- 
tion." But when a thing is only a slow poison, the mass of 
the people are in too much of a hurry to attend to it ; and 
those who cannot get time to wash the entire surface frequently, 
and thus keep their twenty-eight miles of draining ducts in a 
healthy, pervious condition, will find time to be sick and per- 
chance to earn money to pay the doctor's bill. 

The surface of the body must either be attended to, or the 
person cannot enjoy that state of bodily health which is ne- 
cessary for a proper condition of the mind ; and the expression 
that " cleanliness is next to godliness," has a meaning it were 
well for us all to understand, and heed. 

I would not advise any one to become aquatic, but because 
some have considered bathing to be the cure of all ills, both 
mental and physical, is no reason why we should shut our eyes 
to the importance of the subject, and go through the world, 
sepulchres filled with all manner of impurities, with not so 
much as a whitened outside. 

C. H. Cleaveland. 



40 HaTUs Journal of Health. 

THE BIBLE AND MATEKIA MEDICA. 

When the last hour comes to me, when in that upper 
chamber, long* past midnight, the flickering light burns 
lonelily, and passing forms noiselessly and quick too plainly 
show that death is there, when the bleak winter's wind 
whistles from wuthout, or sends its melancholy moan through the 
lattice, alternating with the groan of the dying ; when the 
softest tread and the slightest whisper fall harshly on the last 
sense ;* when feeling and sight, and taste, and speech, all are 
gone, but immortal thought, the more immortal as it shakes 
away its mortal shackles, still lives in the freshness of eternal 
youth, in such an hour, when this present body shall have 
been wasted to a skeleton, this hand palsied of its strength, 
this eye glazed with the film of the grave, this cheek blanched 
with the last chill, this forehead, high and white, and broad 
and clear now, shall be thickly studded with the dew-drops 
of death, and this tongue falters out the last farewell to the 
dear ones around, so long loved and labored, and cared for, 
when such an hour comes to me, I want to feel the ineffable 
consolation, that something said or something done, some line 
written, some sentence published, some page composed, some 
sentiment recorded shall live after me, which shall in its in- 
fluences continue to benefit and bless some candidate for the 
skies, to the last hour of recorded time. Feeling thus, now 
and heretofore, I desire to repeat of the bible that : 

A nation would be truly happy, if it were governed by no 
other laws than those of this blessed book : 

It is so complete a system that nothing can be added to it 
or taken from it : 

It contains everything needful to be known or done : 

It affords a copy for a king, and a rule for a subject: 

It gives instruction and counsel to a senate, authority and 
direction to a magistrate : 

It cautions a witness, requires an impartial verdict of a jury, 
and furnishes the judge with his sentence. 

It sets the husband as lord of the household, and the wife 
as mistress of the table — tells him how to rule, and her how to 
manage. 

* It is said that the hearing is the last sense to die. 



The Bible and Materia Medica. 41 

It entails honor to parents, and enjoins obedience to children. 

It prescribes and limits the sway of the sovereign, the rule 
of the ruler, and the authority of the master; commands the 
subjects to honor, and the servants to obey; and promises the 
blessing and protection of the Almighty to all that walk by 
its rules. 

It gives direction for weddings and for burials. 

It promises food and raiment, and limits the use of both. 

It points out a faithful and eternal guardian to the depart- 
ing husband and father — tells him with whom to leave his 
fatherless children, and in whom his widow is to trust — and 
promises a father to the former, and a husband to the latter. 

It teaches a man how to set his house in order, and how to 
make his will ; it appoints a dowry for his wife, and entails the 
right of the first born, and shows how the younger branches 
shall be left. 

It defends the right of all, and reveals vengeance to every 
defaulter, over-reacher and oppressor. 

It is the first book — the best book, and the oldest book in 
the world. 

It contains the choicest matter — gives the best instruction ; 
affords the greatest pleasure and satisfaction that ever was 
enjoyed. 

It contains the best laws, and most profound mysteries that 
ever were penned; it brings the best of tidings, and affords 
the best of comforts to the inquiring and disconsolate. 

It exhibits life and immortality from everlasting, and shows 
the way to glory. 

It is a brief recital of all that is past, and a certain predic- 
tion of all that is to come. 

It settles all matters in debate, resolves all doubts, and eases 
the mind and conscience of all their scruples. 

It reveals the only living and true God, and shows the way 
to him, and sets aside all other gods, and describes the vanity 
of them, and all that trust in such ; in short, it is a book of 
laws, to show right and wrong ; a book of wisdom, that con- 
demns all folly and makes the foolish wise ; a book of truth, 
that detects all lies and confutes all errors, and a book of life. 
that shows the way from everlasting death. 

It is the most compendious book in the world — the most 



42 HalVs Journal of Health. 

authentic, and the most entertaining history that ever was 
published. 

It contains the most ancient antiquities, strange events, 
wonderful occurrences, heroic deeds, unparalleled wars. 

It describes the celestial, terrestrial, and infernal worlds, 
and the origin of the angelic myriads, human tribes, and 
devilish legions. 

It will instruct the accomplished mechanic, and the most 
profound artist. 

It teaches the best rhetorician, and exercises every power of 
the most skillful arithmetician ; puzzles the wisest anatomists, 
and exercises the wisest critic. 

It corrects the vain philosopher, and confutes the wise 
astronomer ; it exposes the subtle sophist, and makes diviners 
mad. 

It is a complete code of laws, a perfect body of divinity, 
an unequalled narrative — a book of lives — a book of travels, 
and a book of voyages. 

It is the best covenant that ever was agreed on — the best 
deed that ever was sealed — the best evidence that ever was 
produced — the best will that ever was made, and the best 
testament that ever was signed. To understand it, is to 
be wise indeed ; to be ignorant of it, is to be destitute of 
wisdom. 

It is the king's best copy, the magistrate's best rule, the 
house- wife's best guide, the servant's best directory, and the 
young man's best companion ; it is the schoolboy's spelling- 
book, and the learned man's masterpiece. 

It contains a choice grammar for a novice, and a profound 
mystery for a sage. 

It is the ignorant man's dictionary, and the wise man's 
directory. 

It affords knowledge of witty inventions for the humorous, 
and dark sayings for the grave, and is its own interpreter. 

It encourages the wise, the warrior, the swift, the over- 
comer ; and promises an eternal reward to the excellent, the 
conqueror, the winner, and the prevalent. And that which 
crowns all, is that the author is without partiality, and without 
hypocrisy. 

" In whom is no variableness or shadow of turning." 



The Bible and Materia Medica. 43 

Who composed the above description of the Bible, we may 
never know. It was found in Westminster Abbey, nameless 
and dateless ; no doubt its author now is a blest inhabitant of 
heaven, as all will be who love it, as he seems to have done. 

I have thus drawn the attention of my readers to a Book 
which some of them may have neglected, as not being up to 
the age in which we live. This is a great mistake. Human 
nature and human need are the same now as in Adam's day, 
and will continue the same, till time shall be no more. The 
principles of the Bible are exceeding broad, and cover the 
universe of men and things, reaching to all conditions of mor- 
tal life ; if these principles were understood, and loved, and 
practised, there would be no need of a " Journal of Health" 
like mine, because those principles practised from youth, 
would forestall disease. The Bible reasons of " Temperance" 
as the means of avoiding "judgment to come /" declaring that 
" there is no law against such" as practise it ; and that coming 
next in importance to "knowledge " it prepares the intelligent 
for the highest enjoyment of human happiness, being as it is, 
the foundation of human health. 

With this "temperance " reaching to all things, we are en- 
joined to exercise, there being " six days in which men ought 
to work" and " study to work with (their) own hands," since 
" if any woidd not work, neither should they eat," and that 
instead of spending their time in discussing the business ot 
other people and meddling with the concerns of their neigh- 
bors, they " should work vnth quietness, and eat their own 
bread" it no doubt being understood, that it was not their 
own, until it was earned. 

Here then are the two fundamental rules of healthful life 
laid down with a precision and a directness which no intelli- 
gent mind can resist, that by personal labor, men should earn 
what they enjoy, and in that enjoyment, they should practise 
temperance with the guarantee of an exemption from "judg- 
ment" and " lav:" from suffering and punishment. Let every 
reader of the " Journal" then, aim for that happy, that 
blessed condition of mind, which receives every declaration of 
the Bible with the most implicit, the most unhesitating confi- 
dence, as meaning just what it says, having no disposition to 
equivocate or get around its plain injunctions by ingenious 



4A HalVs Journal of Health. 

conjectures, or "better renderings" Doing so, you will be 
temperate and industrious, and conscientious, and as a matter 
of course, healthy and happy ; then, you need be a subscriber 
to the Journal of Health no longer ; you can then save that 
dollar, and with it, buy two bibles to give to some brother 
mortal, too poor to purchase one for himself, and dying, you 
will, with one hand resting on that book, the other pointing 
heavenward, feel 

" This little Book I'd rather own, 
Than all the gold and gems 
That e'er in monarch's coffers shone, 
Or all their diadems. 

Yes ! were the seas one chrysolite, 

The earth one golden ball • 
And diamonds too the stars of night, 

This Book were worth them all." 

In the heading of this article, I coupled the Bible with 
" Materia Medica," that is, with a free translation, all the 
medicinal articles in the world/ for as a means of health, it is 
worth them all, because the practical observance of its princi- 
ples as to temperance, industry, and cleanliness, would secure 
physical health to nine-tenths of the human family, to the 
age of three score years and ten : while that calmness and 
equanimity of mind, which is the necessary result of an 
unwavering reliance on the promises of the Bible, would 
secure a deliberation and a presence of mind in times of sud- 
denly threatened calamity, which would make casualties re- 
quiring surgical aid of very rare occurrence. The man or 
woman who is a christian from sterling principle, founded on 
a habitual reading and study of the Scriptures, is not alarmed 
from his propriety in the battle and the breeze, in the pesti- 
lence of midnight, and the crashing fury of a noonday tor- 
nado ; he feels abidingly, my Father is there, " of whom shall 
I be afraid/" with such an abiding trust, he can calmly look 
around him at a moment when death's missiles fly thick as 
hailstones, and choose, if any, the best way of escape. He feels, 
if he escapes, it is well, if not, he is prepared to go to his 
Father. 

Does novel reading have that effect ? Does it give bravery 
to meet life's stern realities, to breast the storm in the hour of 



The Bible and Materia Medica. 45 

shipwreck, or dare the almost certain death of the chamber of 
festering pestilence, and the rankling plague? Oh, no ! the 
poor creature, if strength is left, vies with the whirlwind's 
flight ; or more probably, is petrified with fear, and stands 
aghast, immovable as a monument of stone, or falls to the 
earth with more than an infant's helplessness. 

I am a physician, and am necessarily not unfamiliar with 
death. Amid whole barrels of lungs in London, I have dug 
out with eager fingers, in scientific delight, " beautiful speci- 
mens" in medical phrase, of the " perfect cicatrix," the 
" healed cavity," the " ghastly abscess," the " calcareous mass," 
the " solidified lobe," and all that ; and in the schools of Paris, 
have seen the naked dead, all but the face ; that, reader, is 
always covered in the dissecting-room ; no long custom can 
make us familiar with that sad and shocking sight, — have seen 
the naked dead brought in upon the shoulders, or in a bag or 
barrel, and strewn around the floor, as carelessly as a child 
dashes down a toy, for a dollar a piece — yes, a dead man or 
woman, for a dollar ; or here at home, have seen at the end of 
a lecture season, whole pyramids, as high as the ceiling, of 
legs and arms, and trunks, and heads from many different 
bodies, thrown in one indiscriminate heap ; some of them soon 
to be thrown into a hole and covered up, the others to be 
" macerated" or boiled, and strung together as a skeleton for 
some after " young gentleman" to handle and to study over. 
But these things do not ap^al the physician ; he looks at them 
scientifically, and therefore rather likes the sight ; it is instruc- 
tive, and he does not hesitate to handle them, and gaze at 
them as nearly as the shortest pug will admit ; but all this 
applies to cases where death has done his work on the stranger 
victim. But change the scenes, go back an hour, let the vic- 
tim still have the breath of life, and let the bystander be that 
victim's physician, and the difference is wider than daylight 
and darkness: responsibility is summoned, sympathy is ap- 
pealed to, professional skill is invoked, and while the heart 
weeps for the dying fellow mortal, the intellect blushes for its 
own helplessness. But to come more nearly to the point, 
there is another difference in the dying chamber, and it is in- 
finitely wide ; the difference in dying with a Bible and with- 
out one. I have seen them both, many a time and oft, and 



46 HalVs Journal of Health. • 

have as often felt, it is worth the effort of a lifetime, to he obit 
to die well. By dying well, I mean, having a firm reliance o~. 
the truth of the Bible, that reliance having been made up of 
the myriads of convictions which have occurred in a previous 
life of christian rectitude. To witness such a death is glorious. 
It is a heart-lesson for good, which a century can not erase. 
But on that other picture, the poor dying creature, who has no 
Bible, no hope, no God ! who feels himself dying, and yet says, 
" Doctor, I won't die !" " Get a carriage for me, and I'll soon 
be well as ever," and then 1*3 talked to me of his plantation, 
ot his plans for clearing more ground, and the estimated pro- 
duct of each additional acre. " Send for my factor," said he, 
" and tell him to bring my account current." 
" But, my friend, you may die to-night." 
" I tell you, Doctor, you don't understand my case." 
I sent for the factor, and for the satisfaction of those at 
home, whom he was never to see again, I sent for the minister 
too, who like the good man that he was, came right away ; 
but he said, " it is too late" offered a prayer and left us alone. 
Scarcely had he gone, when the factor came; the very sight, 
of the long bill of sales and per contra, waked up the last 
slumbering energies of the godless one, and after an examina- 
tion, detecting an error of a few cents in an account involving 
many thousands of dollars, handed it for rectification, turned 
over, and died ! 

But in the progress of disease, the Bible is the best emollient ; 
it makes the timid lion-hearted, and nerves the wasted body 
with a strength almost superhuman. "I have preached," 
said the lamented Spencer, "and when I reached home, I 
found my boots part filled with blood," and yet so engaged 
was he in his Master's work, that none of all his loving and 
loved people, thought that he was ill. At a later hour some 
one said, " your pains must be agonizing ?" " Agony ! it is 
far short of what I feel." Yet, not a murmur, not a complaint 
ever escaped the good man's lips. 

Many people say that old age requires a stimulant, that a 
little wine or brandy, " now and then," would be of great ser- 
vice, would brace up the system and supply a vigor, not to be 
attained in any other way. Whatever may be the advantages 
of stimulants to the aged, I know that my mother's mother 



The Bible and Materia Metiica. 47 

took none, and yet beyond the age of three score and ten, she 
had the cheerfulness of a girl in her teens. I cannot recollect, 
that during all the years of our childhood, we ever paid her a 
visit, that we did not find the little stand at her right hand, 
and Scott's family Bible upon it, most always open, or spread 
upon her lap. She would knit awhile, then read a verse or 
two, with its explanation ; and for every occurrence of life, 
whether of gladness, or of gloom, she had some pertinent 
scripture expression, that seemed to have a dovetail fit, as a 
cabinetmaker would say, I myself having been a kind of 
amateur in that line, at such odd times as it was found a bore, 
and that the mind would not work at orthography, etymology, 
syntax and prosody, for so early as then, I had observed when 
I was not in a studying mood, there was no use in trying. I 
never could do a thing when I did not feel like it. Reader, 
make a note of this, and it will do you and the world some 
good hereafter. Be at it when the fit is on you; then it is 
most likely to be done well, and what is worth doing at all, is 
worth doing well. 

" As I was saying" Hannah Pyke was a cheerful old 
woman, and her love of the Bible, and of doing good, made 
her so. How many and many a dollar of hers went to 
" Princeton," a name as dear to her, as Jerusalem to a Jew. 
How many a bank note stuck to a minister's hand when she 
bade them good-bye ; reader, they say " good-bye" " out 
west;" if you were to say adieu out there, they would think 
something was wrong in the upper story. How many a poor 
preacher went away from her hospitable home, with a coat or 
vest, or other garment that he did not bring with him, nor 
knew it was among his worldly goods, until with delighted 
surprise it was observed to be among the contents of the old 
" saddlebags" as they were spread out on the floor, husband 
and wife and little ones all around in a ring, each one hoping 
father had brought an apple, or cake of sugar, or a picture- 
book, or something else — how many of such presents were 
made, can only be known at the judgment, where both giver 
and receiver have long since gone. There were two other 
things my grandmother read occasionally ; she took the " Mis- 
sionary Herald" from the start, and that square, dumpy, queer 
kind of a newspaper, the u Boston Recorder," then the onlv 



48 HalVs Journal of Health. 

religious newspaper in America. The Bible and her own 
experience told her what God was doing for her ; these two 
papers told her what He was doing for the world outside, and 
what the young " studients," as she used to call them, were 
doing, whom she had placed in the ministry, in whole or in 
part ; a few of whom, have had no equals ; they too, now gone 
with the world's largest honors and most affectionate remem- 
brances upon them. Now with these instances which, as it 
were, have grown up before my eyes, how can I do otherwise 
than to recommend to every young man and woman, who 
wishes to be healthful in mature life, and to pass on to a cheer- 
ful and painless old age— the reading of the Bible as a means 
of health. Some people I know, will turn up their noses with 
contemptuousness at such an idea, but such should remember, 
that sometimes contempt is mutual; and then again, their 
experiences are all on one side. I give one fact out of a mil- 
lion, and I know that the sentiment is true, from a wide obser- 
vation ; it is a moral demonstration, as conclusive and as clear, 
as any of Euclid's, and the sneers of a universe cannot bring 
shame to my face when I know that I am right. I might go 
further and give a " recipe" for reading the Bible with a view 
to its healthful influences, but for the charge of invading my 
minister's premises, to whose discourse on the first Sabbath in 
January, the world is indebted for any of good there may be 
in this tedious article. Still, I will lay aside a Doctor's dig- 
aity, and as " an humble friend of mankind" in general, and 
of the young in particular, I will make a suggestion as to the 
best way of reading the Bible with a view of a daily gaining 
influence over the principles and practices of our lives. Do 
not make an effort to read it all through in a year. Do not 
resolve you will read two or three chapters a day, nor one, 
necessarily ; but do resolve, that you will read any number of 
verses from one to ten, the first thing in the morning, and 
think about what you have read all the time you are dressing ; 
and get into a habit of fixing the mind on some one sentiment 
advanced, to be thought of, several times during the day ; a 
day will seldom pass, that observation will not confirm that 
sentiment, and thus every day will add an argument for Bible 
truth, until, before you are aware of it, your principles and 
your practices will be shaped by its dew-distilling teachings, 



Death 1 s Doings in 1854. 49 

and every word of it will be received with that childlike fear- 
lessness, which none but an heir of immortality can ever 
know, and the possession of which confidence, is worth more 
than all worlds. 



DEATH'S DOINGS IN 1854, 

IN NEW YORK, PHILADELPHIA, BALTIMORE AND BOSTON. 

RATIO OF DEATHS TO PRESENT ESTIMATED POPULATION. 

Deaths Estimated Ratio of deaths 

in 1854. Population. to Inhabitants. 

New York ...... 28,458 625,000 1 to 21.95 

Philadelphia 11,811 500,000 1 to 42.33 

Baltimore 5,738 210,000 1 to 36.59 

Boston 4,418 100,000 1 to 36.21 

The deaths from various prominent diseases in the four 
cities were as follows : 

New York. Philadelphia. Bait. Boston. 

Consumption . . . . i . 2,990 1,389 931 769 

Convulsions 2,327 695 122 151 

Cholera 2,459 601 2 255 

Cholera Infantum .... 1,455 633 393 81 

Cholera Morbus 281 126 129 26 

Diarrhoea 1,106 211 46 54 

Dysentery 827 443 253 147 

Scarlet Fever 484 162 252 64 

Typhus and Typhoid ... 504 166 114 102 

Inflammation of Lungs . . . 1,152 ; 456 151 249 

Small Pox 425 37 29 117 

Marasmus 1,398 439 9 99 

Still Born 1,540 529 345 *— 

Other Diseases 11,510 5,924 2,962 2,304 

Total 28,458 11,811 5,738 4,418 

Under 5 years 15,593 5,874 2,887 1,987 

The above figures show in round numbers that one person 
out of every twenty-two died in New York in 1854; one in 
every forty-two in Philadelphia ; one in every thirty-seven in 
Boston. 

But although they are figures and statistics, they do not 
prove that New York is a more sickly place than Philadel- 
phia, for it is known that great numbers who die, are persons 
who have landed from foreign countries but a few days before 
cheir death ; about a thousand foreigners land here every day. 

3 



50 HalVs Journal of Health. 

Statistics of Old Age. — The census of 1854 shows us that 
the oldest person then living in the United States was 140. 
This person was an Indian woman, residing in North Carolina. 
In the same State was an Indian aged 125 ; a negro woman, 
111 ; two black slaves, 110 each ; one mulatto male, 120 ; 
and several white males and females from 106 to 114. In the 
parish of Lafayette, La., was a female, black, aged 120. In 
several of the States there were found persons, white and 
black, aged from 110 to 115. There were in the United 
States, in 1850, 2,555 persons over 100 years. This shows 
that about one person in 9,000 will be likely to live to that 
age. There are now about 20,000 persons in the United States 
who were living when the Declaration of Independence was 
signed in 1776. They must necessarily be nearly 80 years old 
now, in order to have lived at that time. The French census 
of 1851, shows only 102 persons over 100 years old; though 
their total population was near 36,000,000. Old age is there- 
fore attained among us much more frequently than in France. 



HOW PEOPLE TAKE COLD. 

Not by tumbling into the river and draggling home wet as 
a drowned rat; not by being pitched into the mud, or spilled 
out in the snow in sleighing time ; not by walking for hours 
over shoe-top in mud ; not by soaking in the rain without an 
umbrella ; not by scrubbing the floor until the un-nameable 
sticks to you like a wet rag ; not by hoeing potatoes until you 
are in a lather of sweat ; not by trying to head a pig in mid- 
winter, and induce him to run the other way, for he won't do 
any such thing ; not by steaming over the wash-tub ; not by 
essaying to teach Biddy to make mince pies for Christmas, 
when you don't know how yourself, and then worrying your- 
self into a perspiration because the pies stuck to the pan, and 
came out in a muss, forgetting that pie-pans, like people, are 
rather the better for a little greasing, alias soft soap ; these are 
not the things which give people colds ; and yet people are 
all the time telling us how they " caught their death by expo- 
sure." Horace Greeley once said, " O for a leisure week to 
*ead books." Horace was green then — some say, he is now — 



Row People Talie Cold. 51 

but I rather gi>?ss not; lie is great, specially on people "of 
the color of black," as our three year old once described a bom 
African. Greeley hasn't derived his greatness from books, 
and now he is older, perhaps he don't sigh for a week of 
leisure to read books, at least I don't. All the leisure I want 
is to think and play with the children ; Bob and our new little 
Alice, for example. Books don't feed me, as of yore. Sure 1 
must be getting old or hard to please ; books, somehow or 
other, don't seem to me to meet the wants of the age, they are 
written too much with a view to make a sensation or money, 
and consequently nine out of ten fail to do either; the only 
result being to elucidate their authors into obscurity. Some- 
how or other, the mind wanders. I have to start on a journey 
of eight hundred miles to-morrow night and back, and the 
inexorable printer wants copy, and I must come back to colds ; 
and speaking of the emptiness of books, I was wondering if 
" in the whole course of my life," I had ever seen defined in 
clear decisive phrase, in any book, " the place where and the 
time when" a man takes a cold. Pat, when asked one wintry 
day, what he would take to climb up the court-house steeple 
and remain there, said, "I would take a cold, yer honor." 
Sawney, who stood by, said he would take a dollar. That is 
about the nearest description I have seen in print as to the 
locality best adapted for taking a cold, but that was i falsity, 
not a fact. The seeds of a million deaths of the beautiful, the 
honored and the good, will be sown this year by indifference 
to the statement I am going to make in reference to the time 
and manner of taking colds. I will not now perplex the 
reader with a disquisition on the physiology of colds, but will 
simply bring to mind what any reader will recognize as an old 
but forgotten acquaintance. 

The Tm&for talcing cold, is after your exercise / the place 
is in your own house, or office, or counting-room. 

It is not the act of exercise which gives the cold, but it is 
the getting cool too quick after exercising. For example, you 
walk very fast to get to the railroad station, or to the ferry, or 
to catch an omnibus, or to make time for an appointment ; 
your mind being ahead of you, the body makes an over effort 
to keep up with it, and when you get to the desired spot, you 
raise your hat and find yourself in a perspiration ; you tiXv a, 



£$ i HalVs Journal of Health. 

seat, and feeling quite comfortable as to temperature, you 
begin to talk with a friend, or if a New Yorker, to read a 
newspaper, and before you are aware of it, you experience a 
sensation of chilliness, and the thing is done / you look around 
to see where the cold comes, and find a window open near 
you, or a door, or that you have taken a seat at the forward 
part of the car, and it moving against the wind, a strong draft 
is made through the crevices. Or may be you met a friend 
at a street corner, who wanted a loan, and was quite compli- 
mentary, almost loving ; you did not like to be rude in the 
delivery of the two-lettered monosyllable, and while you were 
contriving to be truthful, polite, and safe, all at the same 
time, on comes the chilly feeling from a raw wind at the 
street corner, or the slosh of mud and water in which, for the 
first time, you noticed yourself standing. 

Young ladies take their colds in grandly dark parlors, 
unused and unfired for a week ; warm enough were the} 
almost too warm in the gay, sun-shiny street without, and tha. 
parlor felt comfortably cool at first, but the last curl of the 
visited would not dangle satisfactorily, and while compelling 
it (young ladies now a-days making it a point of principle not 
to be thwarted in any thing, not even in wedding rich Tom to 
please the old folks, when they love poor Dick, and intend to 
please themselves), while conquering that beautiful but unruly 
curl, the visiter makes an unexpected meeting with a chill 
which calls her to the grave. 

I cannot give further space to illustrations to arrest the 
attention of the careless, but will reiterate the principle for 
the thoughtful and observant : 

GET COOL SLOWLY. 

After any kind of exercise, do not stand a moment at a 
street corner, for any body or any thing ; nor at an open door 
or window. When you have been exercising in any way 
whatever, winter ot summer, go home at once, or to some 
sheltered place ; and however warm the room may seem to 
1)0, do not at once pull off your hat and cloak, but wait awhile, 
rpv o five minutes or more, and lay aside one at a time ; thus 
acting, a cold is impossible. Notice a moment: when you 
return from a brisk walk and enter a warm room, raise your 



Recipe for the Poor. 53 

hat, and the forehead will be moist ; let the hat remain a few 
moments and feel the forehead again, and it will be dry, 
showing that the room is actually cooler than your body, and 
that with your out-door clothing on, you have cooled off full 
soon. Among the severest colds I have known men to take, 
were the result of sitting down to a meal in a cool room, after 
a walk ; or being engaged in writing, have let the fire go out, 
and their first admonition of it was that creeping chilliness 
which is the ordinary forerunner of a severe cold. Persons 
have often lost their lives by writing or reading in a room 
where there was no fire, although the weather outside was 
rather uncomfortable. Sleeping in rooms long unused, has 
destroyed the life of many a visitor and friend. Our splendid 
parlors, and our nice " spare rooms," help to enrich many a 
doctor. The cold sepulchral parlors of New York, from May 
until November, bring disease, not only to visitors, but to the 
visited ; for coming in from domestic occupations, or from the 
hurry of dressing, the heat of the body is higher than natural, 
and having no cloak or hat on in going in to meet a visitor, 
and having in addition but little vitality, in consequence of the 
very sedentary nature of town life, there is but very little 
capability of resistance, and a chill and cold is the result. 

But how to cure a cold promptly 1 that is a question of life 
and death to multitudes. There are two methods of universal 
application : 1st, obtain a bottle of cough mixture, or a lot of 
cough candy, any kind will do ; in a day or two you will feel 
better, and in high spirits; you will be charmed with the 
promptness of the medicine ; make a mule of yourself, by 
giving your certificate of the valuable remedy, and in due 
course of time, another certificate will be made for your 
admission, foot foremost, into " Greenwood." 

The other remedy is, consult a respectable resident physician. 



EECIPE FOE THE POOE. 

Do not give a penny to a beggar, to a street sweeping child, 
or to a young woman at your door, with two babies exactly 
not alike, nor to any dirty person y I never do ; deserving 
poverty is not dirty ; if but a rag to wear, there is mark of 



54: HalVs Journal of Health. 

care about that rag. Shut up all the soup-shops, make no 
more calico dresses to wear once, and then send to Mr. Pease 
for the poor, whose self-respect is never increased by wearing 
the cast-off clothing of another ; or receiving a penny or a 
dinner as alms. No ! that is not the way, but collect every 
dollar possible, raise it to tens of thousands, open your heart 
wide for the poor, and send every mother's son and daughter 
of them towards Nebraska, through New York, Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, and spill them out along the 
road, as I have seen the London wagons spill out the letter 
carriers along their route, the one nearest the entrance getting 
out first, so that the vehicle need not stop a moment. I know 
from having travelled along the road, that tens of thousands 
of laborers, men and women, boys and girls, are needed by 
Western farmers, who w T ould be but too glad to get them for 
their board and clothing ; and would even give fair wages 
besides. 

Humanitarians! You are on the wrong track with your 
soup-shops and your alms-houses. You pay a premium on 
loafering, and men soon get to like it ; you buy away their 
self-respect, and the feeling of independence, which makes all 
the difference between a man and a human thing, and all the 
while, taking the flattering unction to your souls, you are 
doing God service. Help your fellow mortal to help himself, 
and be a man, not a loafer, and angels will smile. 



Ee-Eeading. — A writer in the Home Journal in reference 
to the article on Health, Wealth, and Religion, in the Decem- 
ber No., which has attracted so much attention, does not read 
aright, — when he construes it to say that u the lovely Mora- 
vian Brethren were falling into the habit of selling or renting 
pews in church." We never knew such a case, the assertion 
was intended to apply to the Methodists, and to them only. 

President , of the University of , writes us 

Feb. 1st, that the article above alluded to, ought to be repub- 
lished in tract form for general distribution. As good as the 
December number may seem to be, we think that this Feb- 
ruary number is the best yet issued, and consequently make a 
" tract" of it ourselves, furnished at large discount to the trade. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



VOL. II.] MARCH, 1855. [NO. III. 



MILK SICKNESS, 

Called, by some, the Trembles, is a disease prevalent in some 
parts of the "West and South-West, and many have died with 
it. It is caused by drinking the milk of a diseased cow ; a 
more fatal form of it arises from the use of butter or cheese, 
made from such milk, or from eating the flesh of any animal 
fattened with the milk, while the cow herself, nor the animal 
fattened with her milk, does not necessarily manifest symp- 
toms of disease. One of the first questions of many seek- 
ing homes in the far west is, Has milk sickness ever been 
known here ? Some of the finest lands in the world are with- 
out a market because the disease is in the neighborhood. 

Soon after swallowing the milk, the person has thirst, 
nausea, swimming in the head, vomiting, fever, skin hot, eye- 
balls blood-shot, excessive debility, paralysis, oppression, 
stupor, hiccup, and death. In some cases, the heart beats 
with such violence as to strike the by-standers with horror, and 
even alarms the physician who has never witnessed it before. 

The Legislature of one State at least, and perhaps of several 
others, has offered large rewards for the discovery of the 
thing which caused the cow to give such a deadly aliment. 
Kentucky offered a thousand dollars, but it has never been 
awarded, because various theories have been presented without 
a satisfactory quality of facts. 

A recent visit to the West, and the usual reports of this one 
and that having died of milk-sickness, coupled with the fact of 
my connection with a health Journal, induce me to make a 
statement which I have never seen in print, and which I trust 
will do much good, if the newspaper press should give publi- 
cation to the fact, and the farmers of the west would make a 
practical use of it. I will not take time here to meet objec- 
tions to the statement I am going to make ; the object is got 



58 HaWs Journal of Health. 

argument, but a plain statement of what I consider a fact, 
which subsequent observation will establish in all time to 
come. 

Well fed cotos neve?' give milk-sickness. I have revelled in 
the use of the most luscious milk, and the most delightful 
fresh butter for weeks together, in perfect fearlessness of milk- 
sickness, when several persons had just died of it on the next 
farm. The reason was, the cows were fed night and morning 
in winter with as much corn and meal as they wanted, and had 
sweet hay to eat during the day, and plenty of it ; while, in 
the summer, they had fresh pasture and still something to eat 
of the slops of the kitchen at milking times, and knowing they 
would get something good, they never failed to come of their 
own accord, they thus literally " rolled in fat," summer and 
winter. 

Some persons have attributed it to one vegetable, or weed, 
or grass ; others to drinking from a certain spring, each locality 
having a different plant ; these differences of opinion, together 
with the conceded fact, that it is not known on a well culti- 
vated farm, are proofs, in my mind, of the truthfulness of the 
opinion which I have suggested. 

Most persons who go far out west are poor, and soon become 
improvident. Very many study their ease, and how they can 
best remove the necessities of locomotion. To save chopping 
wood, for example, they take time by the forelock, and cut 
the bark off the tree for the space of a foot all around ; the 
tree dies, and sooner or later, having become dry, the wind 
blows it down, and the limbs break into innumerable pieces, 
which are only to be picked up and put on the fire, cut and 
dried to hand. 

The same improvident carelessness leads many to turn their 
cows like their pigs into the woods, to gather their own food, 
scarcely ever giving them a " nubbin " at milking ; the result 
is, the cattle will eat closer than the} 7 otherwise would, espe- 
cially in the fall of the year, when the grass is drying up, and 
the weeds have been wilted by frosts and being eaten down, or 
nibbed close to the ground, the roots many times give way, to 
which are attached sand and dirt; and I give it as my opinion, 
that this sand and dirt, taken into a system debilitated by 
scaftit feeding, causes the secretion of a milk which it is death 



Poisons. 59 

to use. But whether it is the sand which attaches itself to the 
root of a close nibbed shrub or weed or grass, is not of the 
most practical importance ; the two great facts already named, 
that a well fed cow has never been known by me to give dis- 
eased milk ; and second, the general admission that milk-sick- 
ness is not known on a well cultivated plantation — for he who 
cultivates his land well, w T ill always feed his cattle well — these 
two great facts are sufficiently instructive, and warrant the 
following advice : 

Feed your cows well, and you will never be troubled with 
milk-sickness. 

And when travelling in newly settled parts of the western 
country, or even through old settlements, never stop at a house 
where you see a poor cow at the door. 



POISONS. 

We all have a great horror of being poisoned, without 
exactly understanding what it is. 

Poison is a disorganization of fleshy or blood, or both. 

Poisons are of two kinds. One, the result of medicinal 
agents taken into the stomach or circulation, the other the 
result of bites or stings of living creatures. 

I will now state two ideas, which if generally known, and 
remembered, would save thousands of lives every year. 

If you have swallowed a poison, whether laudanum, arsenic, 
or other thing poisonous, put a table-spoon of ground mustard 
in a glass of water, cold or warm, stir and swallow quickly, 
aud instantaneously the contents of the stomach will be thrown 
up, not allowing the poisonous substance time to be absorbed 
and taken into the blood, and as soon as vomiting ceases, swal- 
low the white of one or two new eggs, for the purpose of 
antagonizing any small portion of the poison which may have 
been left behind. Let the reader remember the principle, 
which is to get the poison out of you as soon as possible ; there 
are other things which will produce a speedy emetic effect, but 
the advantage of mustard is, it is alwa} r s at hand, it acts instan- 
taneously, without any after medicinal effects. 

The use of the white of an egg is, that although it does not 



60 Hall's Journal of Health. 

nullify all poisons, it antagonizes a larger number than any 
other agent so readily attainable. 

But while taking the mustard, or egg, send for a physician ; 
these are advised in order to save time, as the difference of 
twenty minutes is often death. 

CURE OF BITES AND STINGS. 

Almost all these are destructive from their acid nature : 
consequently the cure is an alkali. Spirits of Hartshorn is 
one of the strongest, and in almost every house, and you have 
only to pour out some into a tea-cup, and dabble it on the 
wound with a common rag ; relief is almost instantaneous. 
But suppose you have no Hartshorn, well, then, Saleratus is 
an alkali, every trifling lazy cook in the land has it, we 
are daily eating ourselves into the grave by its extravagant 
use, and the use of half a thimble-full in a week is extravagant. 
Moisten it with water, and use as the Hartshorn. If you have 
no Saleratus or Soda, pour a teacup' of boiling water on as 
much wood ashes, stir it, and in a few moments you will have 
an alkali. The ley of ashes will answer a good purpose while 
the physician is coming. Remember the principle, the bite is 
an acid, the cure is an alkali. 

Have we not before now looked with wonder on the old 
negro, who ran out when the wasp's sting made us " holler," 
caught up " three Tcinds " of weed, rubbed the part well, and 
in five minutes we were happy in the complete relief. But 
why " three " kinds of weed ? Why, in the first place, you 
know " three " and all its multiples are mysterious numbers ; 
and then again, you can scarcely gather up three kinds of 
plants anywhere, one of which will not have more or less of 
alkali in it. If men were only to gather up principles instead 
of specifications, how much easier it would be to know a great 
deal, and to apply our knowledge successfully to the practical 
purposes of life. 



DEBT AND DEATH. 



General Jackson once said that any man who traded on a 
borrowed capital ought to break ; be that as it may, I consider 
him a radically dishonest man who embarks in business wholly 



Debt and Death. 61 

on a borrowed capital, because he is willing to endanger his 
friend for the chance cf his own profit; he cannot lose, but 
his friend may. James Harper, one of the best and purest 
men I ever knew, a Virginia gentleman, of the old school, 
whose heart was welling up unceasingly with human kindness 
to all around him, once said to a gentleman who counted his 
fortune by hundreds of thousands, and who voluntarily offered 
to be drawn upon for any amount, replied : " I can't consent to 
make a fortune at the risk of my friend" A mercantile gen- 
tleman, who was honor personified, Joseph Stephens, once said 
to me : "I leave my bed of a morning bathed in perspiration, 
in the agony of device for meeting the engagements of the 
day." We all know that the fear of not being able to meet 
pecuniary engagements is a frequent cause of insanity and 
suicide to men of refinement and of a high sense of honor, 
while thousands are wasting away around us under the harass- 
ing pressure of debt. The temper is uneven ; at one time 
sad, at another almost unendurably irritable ; the appetite is 
variable, if any at all ; the nights are restless, the sleep unre- 
freshing ; gladness hies from home, and silent gloom pervades 
the fireside circle, thus verifying the scripture assertion that 
they who hasten to be rich shall pierce themselves through with 
many sorrows. 

In view then of its health-destroying influences, I may very 
properly give the admonition in this journal, avoid debt: shun 
it as you would the pestilence that walketh in darkness, or the 
plague that wasteth at noonday ; consider it your mortal ene- 
my — the enemy of your body, your health, your happiness, 
your soul — the enemy of your wife, your children, and every 
kindred tie. 

Take almost any business man, and he will tell you in more 
than three cases out of four, that he has lost more by bad debts 
than he is now worth. It is a monstrous fallacy that " if a 
man expects to become rich he must go in debt." The senti- 
ment originated in the heart of a rogue. Debt is not the pol- 
icy of the most successful men. 

I adopt, with all my heart, a paraphrase of a favorite expres- 
sion of President Lindsley, which I have treasured in my own 
mind for more than a quarter of a century, " I dictate to no 
man, and allow no man to dictate to me." I go in debt to no 



62 HalVs Journal of Health. 

man, I allow no man to go in debt to me. Who can for a mo- 
ment doubt that if this were the prevalent sentiment and prac- 
tice of the time, half of all the sorrow that now palls humanity's 
heart, would be instantaneously annihilated. Men would not 
get on quite so fast in their improvements, in building palatial 
residences, and opening splendid farms, but they would get 
along more surely, and in the end lie down to die with a hap- 
pier heart by far, and have no quenchless remorses to embitter 
the last moments of life. Mr. Everett states in his memoir of 
Peter C. Brooks, of Boston, who died worth millions, "that 
Mr. B. abstained as a general rule, from speculative invest- 
ments; 'his maxim was, that the whole value of wealth con- 
sisted in the personal independence which it secured, and he 
was never inclined to put that good, once won, again at hazard, 
in the mere quest of extraordinary additions to his superfluity.' 
He never made purchase of unproductive real estate, on a cal- 
culation of future enhanced value. He never directly or indi- 
rectly took more than legal interest. He could have doubled 
his immense fortune had he been willing to violate this rule. 
It is mentioned that he believed and often said, that, 'in the 
long run,' six per cent is as much as the bare use of money is 
worth in this country. It was another of his principles never 
himself, to borrow money. What he could not compass by 
present means was to him interdicted. It is doubtful whether, 
with but a single exception, Mr. Brooks 7 name was ever sub- 
scribed to a note of hand. He shunned every transaction, 
however brilliant the promise of future gain, which required 
the use of borrowed means. Mr. Everett well remarks : 

" The bold spirit of modern enterprise will deride as narrow 
minded so cautious a maxim ; but the vast number of individ- 
uals and. families actually ruined by its non-observance — to say 
nothing of the heaven-daring immoralities so often brought to 
light, to which men are tempted in the too great haste to be 
rich — go far to justify Mr. Brooks' course. It is highly proba- 
ble, that, in the aggregate, as much property is lost and sacri- 
ficed in the United States by the abuse of credit, as is gained 
by its legitimate use. With respect to the moral mischiefs 
resulting from some of the prevailing habits of our business 
community — the racking cares and corroding uncertain ties, 
the mean deceptions, and the measureless frauds to which they 



Debt and Death. 63 

sometimes lead — language is inadequate to do justice to the 
notorious and appalling truth." 

With all his rare excellencies of christian character, there 
were few men wiser in this world's wisdom than the late Rev. 
Dr. Milner. His long practice at the bar, and his experience 
as a politician, in and out of Congress, peculiarly qualified him 
to judge of human nature and of the tendency of things, and 
to give prudent advice. " My next door neighbor is in debt. 
Upwards of two years ago he borrowed from me two hundred 
dollars, and immediately afterwards one hundred and ten more. 
The latter sum he engaged to return in twenty-four hours. I 
have never received a shilling of those sums in money ; but as 
he is a bookseller, I have, at his urgent solicitation, taken books 
of him to the amount of nearly two-thirds of the demand. 
His note for the balance is now due, and he urges me to take 
Viner's Abridgment, which satisfies the debt, except thirty or 
forty dollars. 

" During the whole time since the loan, he has persevered in 
a system of cringing prevarication and promises, which he 
must have known at the time he dealt them out, he never 
would fulfil. Various artifices, false tales, shifts, and pretences 
he has made use of ; and I have been the dupe of them. I can- 
not believe him to be so destitute of feeling as not to be mor- 
tified and degraded in his own estimation, by the imagined 
necessity of resorting to them. But in the one case or the 
other, I am unable to point to myself a more humiliating situ- 
ation for a human being to stand in. 

" I have derived from this transaction two pieces of instruc- 
tion, which are, in my view, an adequate compensation for the 
whole sum, had such an event happened : — 

1. To be cautious of hastily and unadvisedly lending money 
to a man of whose ability and punctuality I am not well as- 
sured, unless it be accompanied by adequate security. 

2. To adhere religiously to a determination which I formed 
at the moment of commencing business, never to incur debt 
which I have the remotest apprehension of being unable, or 
even finding it inconvenient to discharge. And, in order con- 
stantly to possess the means of keeping this resolution, what- 
ever my income may be, always to live within it." 



64 HalVs Journal of Health. 

MANAGEMENT OF MILCH COWS IN THE FALL 
AND WINTER 

How a city month waters for a pitcher of rich pure milk 
from the farm-house. A correspondent of the Cincinnati 
Times, thus discourses : — 

" In a former number you made the following remarks : — 
That beets, parsnips and carrots were excellent to produce 
milk ; but you say you prefer carrots to produce not only rich 
milk, but rich butter ; and you ask if there is a better vegeta- 
ble that can be grown for milchcows, all things considered. 
Let us hear from those who are in favor of its cultivation. 
There are many kinds of feed used for cows, such as slops or 
swill, and malt from distilleries ; but this cannot be had by 
every one who keep cows for the production of milk. I hope 
the day is not far distant when such feed cannot be had for 
cows or any other animal. 

Before the blight came on the potatoe, that tuber was more 
extensively grown to feed to cows in order to produce large 
quantities of milk, but not of good quality. I do not think it 
would do to raise potatoes to feed cows at present prices. 

The vegetable I wish to recommend as the best, all things 
considered, is white, flat turnips. Some, perhaps, will object 
to the turnip, because it will affect the taste of milk and but- 
ter. So it does if fed raw ; this can be avoided by boiling. 
For each cow, boil half a bushel of turnips soft ; while hot add 
five or six quarts of shorts, which will swell, and you will get 
the worth of it. A mess like this fed to a cow one day, will 
produce more milk of a good quality than any other feed of 
the same cost. Turnips fed in this way, do not taint the butter 
or milk. One thing in favor of turnips as food for cows is, 
they can be sown as late as August, or the first of September. 
I sowed some as late as September last year, which were very 
fine. Turnips are also very profitable for pigs, when boiled 
in the same way as for cows. 



Influence of Physicians. — Of the list of persons who were 
recently elected to the Board of School Committee in Boston, 
which consists of seventy-two, nearly one-fifth of them were 
physicians. 



Music in Churches. 65 

MUSIC IN CHURCHES. 

BY STORKS WILLIS. 

Worship, to my mind, implies an act. The nature of this 
act may best be expressed by the general word — homage. An 
act of homage may be rendered audibly and visibly, as accom- 
panied by the voice and a corresponding posture of the body ; 
or, it may be rendered silently and invisibly, unaccompanied 
by either voice or significant outward posture. 

Homage is rendered the Supreme Being in Praise — in Con- 
fession — in Petition ; also, as I conceive, in Devout Medita- 
tion on the divine works and attributes, or on one's own spirit- 
ual relations to his Maker — for, herein is a recognition of God, 
which is homage : and the homage we pay a Divine Being is 
of a quality necessarily involving worship. Worship, in its 
truest and highest sense, however, is when the soul ascends to 
the immediate presence of its God, and there pays him intelli- 
gent homage. It may be for a moment, like the upward glanc- 
ing of a reverent thought from the crowded street of a city ; 
or it may be for an hour, in solemn interview with the great 
Father. 

It follows, then, that hearing a choir sing — is not worship ; 
reading the hymn through in a merely intellectual attention to 
the thought — is not worship ; a solemn feeling — is not worship. 
Such a feeling is often the result of architectural or artistic 
causes. A person, for instance, has entered a cathedral. He 
is awed by the grandeur and sacred hush of the place. He 
yields to an irresistible feeling of solemnity, and afterwards 
goes away and feels, perhaps, as though he had worshipped. 
Not so. He has merely indulged in what might be called arch- 
itectural awe. Such a feeling is a legitimate effect of elevated 
art. But this is not yet worship. The place and the Supreme 
Object of worship lie higher than mere architecture or music, 
or sculpture, or painting, passively enjoyed, bear the soul. For, 
in the enjoyment of art, as in the enjoyment of natural scenery, 
we are recipients : the mind, therefore, is in a passive state. 
Whereas, in worship, the mind, as I contend, is in an active 
state. We must rise through nature to nature's God : and in 
sacred art, unless the soul be impelled forward one step further 
to definite religious action, it is not in a condition of worship : 



66 HalVs Journal of Health. 

for no passive state, no condition of mere feeling can involve 
this. "Worship involves an act. Feeling may, and should, 
accompany this act, but cannot constitute it. Thus, in sacred 
song we must not only, in a mere act of intellection, acquire 
the thought of the words, but we must utter that thought up- 
ward to God- — before we can be said rightly to worship. 

In this manner only, as I can conceive, can the singing of a 
church choir ever become devotional to the exterior auditor. 
He may listen, enchanted, to the reiterated Te Deums of an 
extended service through all the churchly year, and yet not 
once have worshipped. Whereas, he may catch a single Hal- 
lelujah, or adoring aspiration, from the lips of the resounding 
choir, and, speeding it individually up from his own heart, 
though no sound have passed his lips, may have known an in- 
stant of true worship. Or, again, the pious eloquence of a 
devout organist mayhave so wrought upon the listener, through 
the mazes of solemn harmonies evolved on the majestic organ 
(beneath which were perceptible not only the skill of artistic 
fingers, but the throbbings of an earnest and religious heart), 
that he has been irresistibly impelled onward spiritually to 
exclaim, Father, I adore thee ! — and music has preached effect* 
ively to his soul ; for — he has worshipped. 

In ordinary church service there are two acts of worship — 
the prayer and the music ; the music, that is, in its ordinary 
accompaniment of the vehicles of intelligent thought — the 
psalms and the hymns. 

This first act it is unnecessary to dwell upon ; its nature is 
sufficiently distinct. The nature of the second act is much less 
clearly defined ; for it is not, and cannot always be, worship ; 
and this for the reason that all our psalms and hymns by no 
means embody the idea of worship. Some are a direct appeal 
to the Supreme Being, and are of this nature, being, in the 
strictest sense, . prayers. But others are addressed to the 
audience ; others to single classes of individuals ; and others, 
still, are made the vehicles of precepts, doctrines, and other 
abstract teachings. 

Longevity in Providence. — The following are the names of 
the persons who died in Providence during the year 1854, of 
the age of seventy years and upward. As usual, the number 
of females in the list largely preponderate. The fact is now 



Longevity in Providence. 



07 



more clearly established, as shown by every census, that after 
the age of seventy, the females exceed the males until the 
age of one hundred is passed, when the males again exceed 
the females : — 



John Howland 


97 


Elizabeth Shaw 


77 


Anne Kelley 


93 


Elizabeth A. Rhodes - 


77 


Mary Field - 


93 


Ann Drew 


77 


Mary Dalson 


91 


Rachel Robinson 


77 


Pardon Salisbury - 


89 


Peter Langley 


76 


Bernard Whitney 


89 


Mary Mason 


66 


Payton Dana 


88 


Bridget Gallagher - 


76 


Nancy Todd 


88 


Charles McGirr - 


76 


Nancy Jillson 


87 


Jane Johnson 


76 


Rosanna Dods - 


87 


Sophia P. Balch - 


75. 


David Walker 


86 


Abraham Stillwell - 


75 


John Smith 


86 


Moses Bartlett - 


75 


Catharine Wise 


85 


Mary Justin - 


75 


Polly Stacy 


85 


Samuel Jackson 


75 


John Murray 


84 


Catharine Hearn - 


75 


Zelinda Weeden 


84 


Joseph Dorr 


75 


Elisha Dyer 


83 


Eliza Lane - 


74 


Ann Sprague 


83 


Sarah A. Matthews 


74 


Michael Walsh - 


82 


Willam Brennan - 


74 


Olive Brown 


82 


Nehemiah R. Knight - 


74 


Gideon Congdon 


82 


Sarah Hill - 


74 


Elhanan W. Wade 


82 


Elizabeth Bowen 


73 


Adah Olney 


82 


Mary L. Potter 


73 


James McKenna 


82 


Sarah King - - 


73 


Elizabeth Wadsworth - 


82 


Mary Stockman 


73 


Joseph Simmons - 


82 


Mary Carpenter 


72 


Dorcas T. Ashton 


81 


Anna Waite 


72 


Joseph Smith 


80 


Elizabeth Corcoran 


72 


Asenath Adye 


80 


Bridget Trainer 


72 


Sarah Haynes 


80 


Samuel N. Richmond 


72 


Margaret Ferguson 


80 


David Barton 


71 


Mary Reed - 


80 


William Mayor 


71 


Phebe A. Babcock 


80 


John S. Reynolds 


71 


Sally Mason 


79 


Samuel Blake 


70 


Earl Potter 


79 


Mary Sollts - 


70 


Deborah Arnold 


78 


John Gerrin 


70 


Sarah Segur 


78 


John Easton 


70 


Nehemiah Scarborough - 


78 


Hannah Frank - 


10 



— From the Providence Journal. 



68 HalVs Journal of Health. 

CONJUGAL AFFECTION. 

A CONDITION OF THE SUCCESSFUL TRAINING OF CHILDREN'* 

Without strong conjugal affection on the part of parents, 
there cannot be that cordial co-operation in the education of 
their offspring — one of the most important of the trusts and 
duties of wedded life, which is essential to success. This want 
of cordial co-operation may not be distinctly seen by the chil- 
dren, but, what is scarcely better, it will be felt by them, and 
will produce an unhappy effect upon their dispositions. If 
there is, as sometimes happens, undisguised dissonance, this 
will be both seen and felt ; and all the charms of home, all its 
genial influences will be wanting. For the children of such 
parents there is no true home, and there are no loving impulses 
pressing them toward the paths of virtue and of peace. And 
even when there is only a coldness and formality subsisting 
between the husband and the wife, this is sufficient to render 
the atmosphere of home too cold and frosty for the growth of 
childlike virtues. It cannot be too deeply realized, that a 
happy home in childhood is as needful for the growth of lovely 
and sweet dispositions, as the genial warmth of spring to the 
development of the budding beauty that then adorns the earth. 
But conjugal affection is the first element of family happiness. 
Without it, children may not know where the difficulty lies, 
but they will feel that the little world of home does not move 
on harmoniously ; they will be deprived of that home felicity 
which is their rightful inheritance, and necessary to the devel- 
opment and growth of some of the best dispositions of the 
heart. Besides, as age advances, they will learn by degrees 
that their parents do not love each other ; and, with this know- 
ledge, there will be likely to come the partisan feeling which, 
instead of honoring both their father and their mother, will 
love the one and hate the other, or else cleave to the one and 
despise the other. Another most pernicious consequence is 
apt to follow from this want of affection. It interweaves with 
the earliest associations of children that doctrine of devils and 
of immortal ruin, that connubial happiness is the dream of 
poetry, or of youthful love, never to be realized in actual life 
— a dream from which those who dream it will wake, if they 
are ever married, and find it but a dream. Beautiful and 



Transplanting Fruit Trees and Evergreens. 69 

imporrant, in every point of view — whether we regard the 
happiness of the domestic circle, or the virtues which should 
there bud, blossom, and ripen into fruit — is the divine direc- 
tion, " Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ loved His 
Church ; and let the wife see that she reverence her husband :" 
for, if she do this, her woman's heart cannot fail to love him. — • 
Magazine for Mothers. 



TRANSPLANTING FRUIT TREES AND EVERGREENS. 

I consider the cultivation of fruits and flowers and ever- 
greens as among the most agreeable, profitable, healthful, and 
refining of all occupations, and therefore transfer to the Jour- 
nal some practical remarks of great value from an unknown 
source. 

A tree should never be taken up whilst it will visibly shrink 
on removal. We have no criterion in the dropping of the 
leaves of the forest trees, as the origin of forest trees are so 
various, that many kinds require a certain degree of cold to 
stop their growth. Young nursery trees, too, being well culti- 
vated, hold their leaves longer, and grow much longer than 
fruit bearing trees in orchards — so the proper time to trans- 
plant is whenever the juices of the tree become inactive. A 
dry summer, with an extreme degree of heat, followed by a 
delightful and seasonable autumn, prolonged into the heart of 
winter, has with us, added a third more wood of late growth 
of trees, and has, at the same time, delayed the season for 
transplanting. 

In South Carolina, we find no difficulty in transplanting 
trees and shrubbery from November 25, to as late in the spring 
as we can retard the leaves. Trees should never be touched 
when the soil is frozen. The milder and dryer the weather in 
the winter, the better the success will be had. We dig our 
holes, after ploughing the land, as deep as we can ; twelve 
inches deep, and at least five feet in diameter. We half fill 
these holes w T ith good, rich compost, broken bones, &c, and 
then place the tree in its proper position, the earth in the hole 
being a little more elevated immediately under the trunk. We 
then place the roots so they are arranged in every part of the 
hole, when it is filled up carefully with a similar compost. The 



70 HalVs Journal of Health. 

tree should not be planted more than one inch deeper than it 
stood in the nursery. When the hole is about three parts filled, 
we pour gently around the stem about five gallons of water, 
after which the operation is finished by completely filling it 
up, and making a slight mound around the trunk. We never 
pack in the earth around a tree, as the water will consolidate 
it sufficiently around the roots to make it grow. This watering 
will be all the tree will require, if it be properly mulched 
with leaves, straw, saw-dust, or old tan-bark. If trees have 
been long out of the ground, the roots should be well soaked 
six hours before planting, and we have frequently revived 
such as were to all appearance dead, by burying them entirely 
in the earth for ten days, after having restored vitality to the 
bark by soaking them in water. The trunks of newly trans- 
planted trees should be protected from the sun. A bunch of 
broom sedge, so common everywhere in the South, if properly 
tied around, is the very best means of doing so. We head in 
all trees severely, no matter how fine the roots should be. 
Bearing trees should be prepared for removal one year pre- 
viously, by cutting in both their heads and roots ; but at best, 
the removal of large trees in the South is hazardous and 
unprofitable. Stakes to trees are useless. When a tree will 
not stand erect, it should be manured and cut in, until it 
requires sufficient vigor to stand alone. We should as soon tie 
a baby to a stake to make it stand, as a tree. The knife and 
food is all that is required to keep it erect and vigorous. Until 
newly planted trees are firmly rooted, they should be regu- 
larly inspected and straightened up. When watering is neces- 
sary, the earth should be removed for a few inches from the 
tree, and the water poured gently around the trunk, till the 
earth in the vicinity of the roots absorb it. 



Professorship of Music in the Normal Schools. — Mr. 
Randall, City Superintendent of Schools, has warmly recom- 
mended to the Board of Education the appointment of a Pro- 
fessor of Music in the Normal Schools. His arguments are: 

The introduction of music, both vocal and instrumental, in 
our public schools, has become general, and has received the 
unqualified sanction of the most enlightened and practical 
friends of education. Through its agency, to a very great 



Color of the Eyes — Hominy. 71 

extent, a complete revolution has been effected in the order, 
harmony, and discipline of these institutions ; and its elevating 
and beneficial effects have have been sensibly perceived in the 
moral influence exerted upon the minds of the pupils. The 
time has arrived when this noble and useful art should be 
scientifically taught in our schools, by the ablest and most 
accomplished professors ; when every teacher should obtain 
a thorough and familiar knowledge of its principles, with the 
ability to communicate that knowledge practically and effect- 
ively to his pupils; and when in all the higher and more 
advanced departments of the schools its cultivation should be 
systematically pursued. The establishment of a Professorship 
in the Normal Schools, where the science could be taught 
methodically and uniformly, could not fail, in the judgment 
of the undersigned, essentially to promote the best interests 
of education in this respect. It is not perceived, however, 
that any substantial advantage could accrue from the exten- 
sion of this plan to the Evening Schools. The limited time at 
the disposal of this class of pupils will not admit of the intro- 
duction of any branches of science not of immediate and 
practical utility. 



Color of the Eyes. — That the color of the eyes should affect 
their strength may seem strange ; yet that such is the case need 
not at this time of day to be proved ; and those whose eyes 
are brown or dark colored should be informed that they are 
weaker and more susceptible of injury, from various causes, 
than gray or blue eyes. Light blue eyes are cceteris paribus, 
generally the most powerful, and next to those are gray. The 
lighter the pupil, the greater and longer-continued is the degree 
of tension the eye can sustain. 



Hominy. — "We know the value of the article as an economi- 
cal, palatable, wholesome, nutricious food ; and we wish we 
could induce every one of our readers to try it, as we do 
ever} T morning for breakfast. Hominy is coining more and 
more into use in this city every year, but not half so much 
as it would if better known, and particularly if our cooks 
knew how to prepare it. Nothing can be more simple, and 



72 HalVs Journal of Health. 

that perhaps is the reason, because it is so simple nobody can 
understand it. We give the formula : — 

Wash the hominy if you think you must — though we should 
as soon think of washing flour before using it — and put it in 
soak in three times as much water as you wish to cook of 
hominy, and set it where it will become a little warm. It 
should soak at least twelve hours. Boil it in the same water 
in a porcelain lined kettle, until it is soft, still leaving each 
grain quite whole. Be very careful to keep sufficient water in 
the kettle to prevent the mass from sticking, or it will burn. 
When done, all the water will be absorbed. Never add salt? 
or butter, or meat to the hominy while soaking. Season it 
after it is done, or leave every one to add. salt, sugar, butter, 
or meat gravy to his liking. 

In this city, the article thus made is called samp, though 
verry erroneously ; and the name of hominy only given to 
the product of a grinding mill, which cracks the corn, which 
is afterwards winnowed of the hulls, and sifted into different 
degrees of coarseness. The coarsest is always best. It costs 
at present about three cents a pound ; it is cheaper and better 
than rice ; it is a good substitute for potatoes; and $3 worth 
of hominy will go further than $10 worth of potatoes — Tri- 
bune. 



Solar Heat. — G. W. Eveleth, in a communication to the 
National Intelligencer, broaches the following curious theory 
respecting solar heat : 

The idea that the heat at the different planets is in propor- 
tion to the squares of their distances for the sun, is incorrect, 
I think. Suppose there to be but two bodies in the universal 
space, namely, the sun and a planet. The sun radiates heat as 
now. The planet is the receiver of f this heat; the receiver of 
it all, since there can be no manifestation of heat without mat- 
ter. It receives it all, whether near or distant from the sun. 
To be sure, the heat, then as now, is lessened in intensity, 
is divided so as to cover a greater surface — greater in pro- 
portion to the square of the distance — the further it extends 
outward ; still, the quantity must be the same at all distances. 
This quantity converges to the planet as to a focus. Now, 
all the planets are convergers of the sun's heat, each one of 



A Healthfal Pull. 73 

them converging a quantity proportional to its size ; that is, 
proportional to the number of particles composing it, among 
which for the heat to penetrate. Then Jupiter, one of the 
planets most distant from the sun, is receiving the greatest 
amount of heat ; and Mercury, the nearest one to him, is re- 
ceiving the least amount, (leaving the asteroids out of the 
account.) The oldest planets have been longest receiving 
heat from the sun, and have passed through the greatest num- 
ber of stages of development, and contain the greatest amount 
of internal fire, reckoning that which has found vent through 
volcanoes, and which has carried with it, away into space, the 
matter composing the multitude of moons, revolving about 
these oldest planets— Jupiter, Saturn, &c. 



A Healthful Pull. — Many a man knows how much it 
contributes to his health and happiness to find peace, and quiet, 
and unity at home. An illustration, — " A bridegroom re- 
quested his wife to accompany him into the garden a day or 
two after the wedding. He then threw a line over the roof of 
their cottage. Giving her one end of it, he retreated to the 
other side, and exclaimed, — ' Pull the line !' She pulled at 
his request as far as she could. He cried c Pull it over.' ' I 
can't !' she replied. * Pull with all your might,' shouted the 
whimsical husband. But in vain were all the efforts of the 
bride to pull over the line, so long as the husband held on the 
end. But when he came round, and they both pulled at one 
end, it came over with great ease. 'There,' said he, i jow see 
how hard and ineffectual was our labor, when we pulled in 
opposition to each other, but how easy and pleasant it is when 
we pull together. If we oppose each other, it will be hard 
work ; if we act together it will be pleasant to live. Let us, 
therefore, always pull together.' " 



Twelve Rules for the Year. — 

1. Get married — if you can ; but look before you leap. Love 
matches are romantic, nice things to read about, but they have 
brimstone in them now and then, so says Ike Mar veil, Esq. 

2. Unite in overthrowing the fashion which translates civility 
into love. 

3. Go to church at least once a week. 



74 HaWs Journal of Health. 

4. Whenever you see a lecture advertised, set the evening 
upon which it is to be delivered apart for reading fifteen pages 
of a good book. 

5. Circulate no scandal. 

6. Avoid all kinds of spirits. 

7. If in the theatre, or other public place of amusement, do 
not level your opera glasses at strangers. 

8. Never notice the clothing of persons attending divine 
worship, nor stand in front of the house of God after the service. 

9. Never ask another man what his business is — where he 
is going to — where he came from — when he left — when he 
intends to go back, or the number of his dollars. You may 
inquire as to the state of his health and that of his parents, 
sisters and brothers — but venture no farther. 

10. Defend the innocent, help the poor, and cultivate a 
spirit of friendship among all your acquaintances. 

11. Never speak disparagingly of women, and endeavor to 
conquer all your prejudices. Believe all persons to be sincere 
in the religion which they profess. 

12. Be economical, but not parsimonious nor niggardly. 
Make good use of your dollars, but not idols. Live within 
your means, and never borrow money in anticipation of your 
salary. 

There are about 300 students in the medical department of 
the University of Nashville, (Tenn.,) instead of 241, as for- 
merly announced. 

Poison of Burning Chaecoal. — The danger of placing 
ignited charcoal in a closed room was thrillingly illustrated in 
the family of Mr. Wm. Day, residing in Danbury, Conn., on 
Tuesday. Two young children were placed in bed at an early 
hour in the evening, and a vessel containing coal was left in 
the centre of the room, through a misapplied solicitude for 
their comfort. Before the hour for retiring of the family, they 
w T ere startled by the sounds of agony proceeding from the 
room occupied by their children, and upon hastening to them, 
they were found nearly suffocated with gas. By this timely 
rescue, and a vigorous application of restoratives, they were 
both saved from a horrible death. 



Tea at Half Price— The Mother— Sudden Death. 75 

Tea at Half Price. — Laysel, a French Chemist, asserts 
that if tea is ground like coffee, before hot water is poured 
upon it, it will yield nearly double the amount of its exhilar- 
ating qualities. 

If this apparently simple discovery is true, the result of an 
industrious, but scientific physician, then tea is in effect reduced 
in price one half, saving to the people of the United States 
millions of dollars every year. It is certainly worth repeated 
trial and observation. 



The Mother. — It has been truly said — The first being that 
rushes to the recollection of a soldier or a sailor, in his heart's 
difficulty, is his mother. She clings to his memory and his 
affection, in the midst of all forgetfulness and hardihood 
induced by a roving life. The last message he leaves is for 
her, his last whisper breathes her name. The mother, as she 
instills the lesson of piety and filial obligation into the heart of 
her infant son, should always feel that her labor is not in vain. 
She may drop into the grave — but she has left behind her 
influences that will work for her. The bow is broken, but the 
arrow is sped, and will do its office. 



Sudden Death.- — Here was a Russian on one knee, in the 
act of taking aim ; the muzzle of his firelock rested on a forked 
stick. He was dead ; the side of his head was knocked off by 
a cannon shot. His death was so sudden and quick that he 
was not knocked dow T n ; and the remaining part of his face 
still looked sternly along the firelock. It was an astonishing 
sight ; every one that could, came to look at him. — Extract of 
a letter from the Crimea. 



During the visit of the old soldiers at Mount Yernon, 
while standing on the steps of the old mansion, one of the 
number from Ohio, aged seventy-nine, by the name of Ridge- 
way, said he had now living fourteen children, one. hundred 
and ten grand-children, thirty-seven great grand-children, and 
seven great great grand-children, and that one of his daughters 
has twenty children. 



76 Hall's Journal of Health. 

OBITUAKY. 

Died, at his residence in Philadelphia, Thursday, February 
8th, 1855, aged thirty-five years, Samuel Wallace Hall, 
M.D., a native of Kentucky. 

Dr. Hall graduated in New York, at the Crosby Street 
Medical School, having attended three full courses of lectures. 
After practising several years in this city, he repaired to Paris, 
where he remained upwards of two years, prosecuting his 
studies under Louis, Andral, and other eminent men of the 
time. On his return to the United States, he resumed his 
practice with prompt and unusual professional success. He 
subsequently married a young lady of fortune, the daughter 
of a Quaker family in Philadelphia, to which city he removed, 
relinquishing a lucrative practice, and resided there until his 
premature decease, the immediate cause of which was expo- 
sure in attending an aggravated case of t} 7 phoid fever; he 
saved the life of his patient, but lost his own, (as many a 
noble fellow has done before, and passed unhonored to his for- 
gotten grave,) but such is the peril of medical life. 

The distinguishing trait of Dr. Hall, as a physician, was 
simplicity of prescription, and next to that was the unwavering 
constancy with which he followed up the case, after he had 
first settled the diagnosis in his own mind. Within a week of 
his death he said to me, " What I wanted was a correct diag- 
nosis, but none of them would ever give it to me." 

On one occasion, a gentleman of fortune had what one 
might suppose a very trivial ailment, a sore toe / but the pain 
was such for days and weeks, as to be almost unendurable. 
Several country physicians had exhausted their skill, without 
affording even a slight relief. Finally, this gentleman was 
advised to have the member taken off, in order to save the 
limb. He concluded, however, that he would first consult Dr. 
Hall, who at once seeing the nature of the affection, ordered 
a cotton rag, saturated with sweet oil, to be kept constantly 
applied ; in a few days, entire relief was procured, and without 
any return of the ailment for these eight years. 

The same resort to safe and simple means, made efficient by 
his thorough knowledge of the nature of the case, was observ- 
able in all his practice. My brother had a great aversion to 
any thing that had the least appearance of being unjprofes- 



Obituary. 77 

Stoned, of attracting practice by announcements or professions 
of any description, not even making the offer of his services 
to the public through a newspaper, on his first arrival at his 
adopted home. ~No one would ever have supposed, from the 
small, plain silver plate of " Dr. Hall " on his door, that the 
owner had enjoyed, for so many years, all the advantages 
which New York and Paris could afford, but in all his life, 
that same plain and unpretending taste was steadily manifested ; 
his idea was, that " true merit will sooner or later find its level, 
and needs no outside influences." He always felt his power, 
even to the last moments of his existence, for within an hour 
of his departure, he wrote an appropriate prescription for him- 
self, in a plain legible hand. 

His moral and religious character is to be gathered from his 
daily life, rather than from any particular act, or from the 
unreliable and hysterical expressions merely of a dying hour. 
A man's destiny is decided for eternity, by the mass of his life, 
through a Saviour's merits. 

Dr. Hall's ancestry have been Presbyterian for genera- 
tions : he was the child of baptism, and prayer, and of 
the church, to which he was united a number of years ago, 
under the ministry of Pev. "N. L. Rice, D.D., now of St. Louis. 
He was married in Philadelphia, June 27, 1849, by the Rev. 
Albert Barnes, D.D. Within a week of his death, hundreds of 
miles from his family, whom he was extremely anxious to see, 
and among whom he had expressed the strongest desire to die, 
when every day might be his last, or any hour, he preferred 
to lay by, saying, " It is not well to travel on Sunday." It is 
perhaps difficult to conceive of any circumstances more justi- 
fiable of Sunday travelling, yet it weighed nothing with him. 
He did lay by, and lived three days after his arrival home. 

We miss him much ; yet we cannot but feel that we shall 
see him again ; the thought ever arises, 

Our loving brother gone before ! 
To that unknown and silent shore ! 
Shall we not meet, as heretofore, 
Some sunny morning 1 

What avails him now, the kindly words of the officiating min- 
ister, the good and venerable Dr. McKinney ; the tasteful 
habiliments of his mortal body, the comely drab, the coffin of 
costly black, edged with plain but burnished silver, the long 
line of carriages, the beautiful place of sepulture in the Cem- 



78 HalVs Journal of Health. 

etery of the Woodlands, on the banks of the Schuylkill, 
shadowed by the beachlet at his feet, amid marble monuments 
to others' memory ? — nothing, all ! 

We shall miss his cordial grasp of welcome, even after short 
absences, and that subdued and kindly utterance, which 
nothing could exceed, — "I'm glad to see you!" 

We shall miss him -in memory of our pedestrian tour to 
Menai Bridge, the Slate Quarries of Wales ; then, through 
Ireland, to the Giant's Causeway, to the land of Burns, to 
Alloway Kirk, and the bridge thereby ; in our walks through 
murky London, and cheery Paris ; the Strand, the Boule- 
vards; the Champs D'Elysees. We shall miss him in mem- 
ory too of our breakfast with George Combe, at Edinburgh ; 
of our visit to Morning Side, and its distinguished occupant, 
the ruddy and merry-faced Chalmers ; of Stokes, and Ram- 
edge, and Marshall Hall, and Louis, and Lawrence, and the 
burly O'Connell in prison : and of our visit to Windsor ; the 
booming of the loud-mouthed cannon ; the trampling of mount- 
ed troops, as they rode up the long avenue to the Castle ; 
the heralds of Louis Philippe and Prince Albert, who fol- 
lowed in their regal chariot, with its gay outriders, and their 
foaming steeds : in every cup of all these youthful memories, 
there will hereafter-be a bitter drop, down to life's close. But 
rest, Brother ! rest thee well, with thy little yearling Carrie, 
who has already followed, and now at thy side sleeps sweetly, 
as infant innocence only can. It will not be long before we 
shall hear the summons, too ; meanwhile, we'll live in hope of 
another meeting in the better land, where we shall be always 
healthy, always happy, and always good. 

WE'LL MEET AGAIN. 

BY OUR SISTER IN HEAVEN.* 

How earthly flowers will fade ! 

How earthly hopes prove vain ; 
And oh, that promise, how divine, 

That friends shall meet again. 
My thoughts of house and home, 

They thrill my heart with pain: 
Ah ! broken, scattered family, 

Shall we not meet again \ 
In that blest world above, 

Be cleared from every stain, 
And be a family with God ; ? 

O, yes, we'll meet again. Amelia. 

* Written January, 1849 ; died July 16th, same year. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

VOL. II.] APRIL, 1855. [NO. IV 



POPULAK FALLACIES. 

It is a great mistake, that a morning walk or other form of 
exercise before breakfast is healthful ; the malaria which rests 
on the earth about sunrise in summer, when taken into the 
lungs and stomach, which are equally debilitated with other 
portions of the body from the long fast since supper, is very 
readily absorbed and enters the circulation within an hour or 
two, poisoning the blood, and laying the foundation for trou- 
blesome diseases ; while in winter the same debilitated condi- 
tion of these vital organs readily allows the blood to be chilled, 
and thus renders the system susceptible of taking cold, with all 
its varied and too often disastrous results. 

I do not wish to dismiss the statement which I have made 
with a simple assertion. The denial of what is almost univer- 
sally considered a truth so palpable, as scarcely to admit of 
proof, may well challenge investigation. Besides, I do not 
want the regular readers of the Journal to have their memo- 
ries crowded with abstract precepts and pithy saws about 
health ; I desire them, on the contrary, to become masters of 
general principles, to know and to understand the reason of 
things ; then, these things can be remembered without an 
effort, while the principle being known, a very varied applica- 
tion is easily made and practically observed, a striking example 
of which is given in the March number, in reference to the 
prompt cure of poisons and bites and stings of insects and rep- 
tiles by the employment of familiar articles of kitchen use. 

What I shall say on the subject of morning exercise is 
intended to apply mainly to all sedentary persons, those whose 
employment is chiefly indoors. And here I will simply appeal 
to the actual experience of any sedentary reader if he has not 
before now noticed, when he has been induced from some 
extraordinary reason to take active exercise before breakfast 



82 HaWs Journal of Health. 

on some bright summer morning, that he felt rather a less 
relish for his food than usual ; in fact had no appetite at all ; 
there was a certain sickishness of feeling, with a sensation of 
debility by no means agreeable. It will be said here, this was 
because it was unusual, that if followed up these feelings 
would gradually disappear. If that is so, it is but a negative 
proof, for the system naturally has an inherent resisting power 
called into action by hurtful appliances. A teaspoon of 
brandy will produce slight symptoms of lightness of head in 
some persons if taken before breakfast, but if continued, the 
same amount will, after a while, produce no appreciable dis- 
comfort ; the cases are precisely parallel ; that a man gets used 
to drinking brandy is no proof that it does not injure him. 

Another person will remind me that the early air of a sum- 
mer's morning seems so balmy and refreshing, so cool and 
delightful, that it cannot be otherwise than healthful. That is 
begging the question ; it is a statement known by scientific 
observers to be not simply untrue, but to be absolutely false. 
It is a common observation in New Orleans, where I lived a 
number of years, by those who remain in the city during the 
raging of yellow fever, that when the air of mornings and eve- 
nings appears to be unusually delicious, so clear and cool and 
refreshing, it is a forerunner of an increase of the epidemic. 
Like the deceitful Syren, it destroys while it lures. 

The fruitful cause of fevers and other epidemics in southern 
climes is the decomposition of vegetable matter : the ranker 
and more dense the vegetation, the more deadly are the dis- 
eases of that locality ; this decomposition cannot take place 
without moisture and heat approaching ninety degrees of 
Fahrenheit. We are all familiar with the sad fact, that thou- 
sands upon thousands who have endured the hardships of 
mining in California have taken the " Isthmus fever" on their 
return, and lingered and died. From the first discovery of gold 
in the Sacramento valley the newspaper press was united in 
its cautions against the almost certain death attendant on 
sleeping at Chagres a single night, and even now it is consi- 
dered one of the most important effects of the railroad finished 
across the isthmus, that passengers do not land at all at Aspin- 
wall, but get into the cars at once and cross to Panama, where 
a steamer is always in waiting to receive passengers for San 



Popular Fallacies. 83 

Francisco, thus avoiding a night on the isthmus. Before the 
removal of the landing from Chagres to Aspinwall, it became 
common to make arrangements to remain on board the steam- 
ers until the passengers were ready to start immediately for 
Panama. All these precautions forced themselves on public 
attention. Now why was all this % Simply to avoid breath- 
ing the concentrated malaria arising from such immeasurable 
quantities of decaying vegetation shooting out of swamps and 
stagnant marshes, and so dense as to make penetration by man 
or beast impracticable. 

The night was more dreaded than the day, for the following 
reason : The great heat of the sun caused a rapid evaporation 
of the malaria, rarifying it to such a degree that it almost in- 
stantaneously ascended to the upper atmosphere after the first 
morning hours; but in the course of the day, when the sun 
declines in power, these vapors gradually condense, get heavier, 
and fall to the earth, thus giving the layer of air within fifteen 
feet of the surface, a density and concentration of malaria 
malignantly fatal ; while in the morning this density is not 
diminished until the sun has gained some power. 

The older citizens of Charleston will tell you, that in early 
years, it was certain death for a stranger to sleep in the city 
one night, that during the most violent ragings of epidemics, 
citizens themselves, would not go to town to attend to neces- 
sary business, except at noon-day, the hottest portion of the 
twenty-four hours, because, then the malaria was most rarified 
and found by observation to be least hurtful. Few knew the 
reason, but the fact was so palpable, that its propriety enforced 
practical attention. ^ 

In the old books which treat of the terrible plagues which 
depopulated the large cities in the middle and earlier ages, 
the people who could not leave town, retreated to the upper 
stories of their dwellings, and would not come down to pur- 
chase necessary marketing from the country people, but 
would let down baskets by ropes, and draw up their provi- 
sions, and thus escaped with impunity, to a considerable 
extent; these were the practical results which followed the 
observation of actual facts, by a comparatively rude and 
unthinking age, and we unfortunates of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, who cannot leave the city in summer, but must have our 



84 HalVs Journal of Health. 

noses always at the grindstone, whose mills stop when absent 
for a single day ; we doctors who never have a leisure day or 
night, or hour, who always have a greater or less number 
who are looking up to us for life ; looking to the hour of our 
anticipated visit as the happiest of the whole twenty-four; 
and we poorer Editors, who could not go if we would, other- 
wise our children would go supperless to bed : I say, we all 
may gather a practical lesson of great value from the customs 
of those of a far ruder age, a lesson which if learned well, and 
acted on, would save to us many a darling child, many a life's 
only hope, many a poor heart's only comfort — thus 

Never allow your children to leave the second or third 
story in the morning until they have had a plain hearty break- 
fast ; and send them up stairs within half an hour after sun 
down, or give them their supper at sundown : these obser 
vances ought to be adhered to from May until October in the 
North, and from April to November in the South. A rigid 
attention to this, would prevent at once, half the diarrhoeas 
and summer complaints, and croups which desolate our hearths 
and hearts so often in summer time in the city. 

It is a striking argument for the perversity of human nature, 
and one which often forces itself upon the attention of obser- 
vant men, that we bolt a concentrated untruth without win- 
cing, while what is true, with all its simplicity and beauty, 
and usefulness, is disputed inch by inch, with a suspiciousness 
and a pertinacity most remarkable. 

So it will be, I have no doubt, with the sentiment I have 
advanced ; instead of being received, and acted upon, many a 
mind will be busied in finding an argument against it, instead 
of considering the force of the proof offered for it, just as we 
all have many times observed when ordinary minds are 
engaged in an argument, it will occur in perhaps nine cases 
out of ten, that the listener's whole attention is occupied in 
casting about for an objection or new proof, instead of weigh- 
ing the argument of the speaker ; consequently, at the end of 
the dispute, neither party is a whit the wiser, but rather more 
confirmed in his previous opinion, from the fact that no argu- 
ment or proof to the contrary was allowed a hearing. I will 
just step aside a moment here to make a useful suggestion, for 
being "free born" and in a remarkably "free country" so 



Popular Fallacies. 85 

said at least ; so free indeed, that if you differ from any body 
else upon any subject, or fail to walk in the exact track of 
your predecessors, or do or say any thing different from Mr. 
Everybody, you are considered a ninny, or a mule ; being as I 
just said, a citizen of this remarkably free and tolerant country, 
why should I be bound to stick to the literal text for six or 
eight pages ; persons meandering along the cow paths in the 
woods, like to step aside occasionally and pick an inviting 
flower, which otherwise would have wasted its sweetness on 
snakes, lizards and spiders ; so I step aside from the consider- 
ation of disease and malaria, and cull a flower for my reader, 
relative to argumentation. It is such an important truth, so 
easily practiced, would save so many hard words, and harder 
thoughts, so many wounded feelings, so much love's labor lost, 
and by the way accomplish so much good, that really I think 
it is worth the whole year's subscription price to the Journal. — 
it is this : 

If you want to convince anybody of anything, argue alone. 

Having delivered ourselves of this great and useful 
apothegm, we will resume the thread of the argument, taking 
it for granted, that the reader has not forgotten the subject 
matter of discussion, it being so imaginatively delightful — 
a summer morning's walk. It sounds charmingly, it brings 
with its mere mention, recollections so mournfully pleasing, or 
associations so delightful, that we long for the realization, at 
least until " sun up" to-morrow, then what a change ! we would 
not give one half awake good stretch, one "five minutes' second 
nap, for all the summer morning walks of a whole year. 
Who does not feel that the vis inertia of the first waking 
moments of a May morning, is worth more than a dozen 
rambles before breakfast. I am for the largest liberty of 
enjoyment ; I am not among the multitude of the weak 
minded folk, the negative sort of minds, to discard what is 
good to eat or drink, or enjoy, for no other reason, that I can 
perceive, than that it is good, and a cross is meritorious. One 
man says tea is injurious ; another Solomon avers that coffee 
makes people bilious, a third, and he a Broadway author too, 
has written a whole book to prove that if we eat wheat bread, 
it will make our bones brittle, and that if we live to get old 
at all, the first time we fall, we'll break all to pieces like a 



86 HalVs Journal of Health. 

clay pipe-stem. Yerily this is a free country, for if every- 
body is to be believed, we are free to eat nothing at all. So I 
do not advise a denial of that most deliciously enjoyable entity, 
a summer morning's nap, because it is for the reasons I 
have named, more healthful than the so lauded "exercise 
"before breakfast /" if you must remain in bed until breakfast, 
or be out in the open air an hour or two before breakfast, on 
an empty stomach, then I say, as far as health is concerned, 
the nap is better than the exercise, for the incontrovertible 
reasons I have already given. 

It requires no argument to prove the impurity of a city 
atmosphere about sunrise and sunset, reeking as it must, with 
the odors of thousands of kitchens and cesspools, to say 
nothing of the innumerable piles of garbage which the impro- 
vident poor allow to accumulate in front of their dwellings, in 
their back yards and their cellars ; any citizen may satisfy 
himself as to the existence of noisome fumes by a summer 
evening's walk along any of our by-streets ; and although the 
air is cooler in the mornings, yet the more hurtful of these 
malaria saturate it, but of such a subtle nature are they, that 
no microscopic observation, no chemical analysis has as yet 
been able to detect, in an atmosphere thus impregnated, any 
substance or subsistence to which these deadly influences 
might be traced, so subtle is the poison, so impalpable its 
nature ; but invisible, untraceable as it may be, its influence is 
certain and immediate, its effects deadly. 

Some will say, look how healthy the farmer's boy is, and the 
daily laborers, who go to their work from one year's end to 
another by " crack of dawn !" My reply is, if they are 
healthy, they are so in spite of these exposures ; their simple 
fare, their regular lives, and their out-door industry, give their 
bodies a tone, a vigor, a capability of resisting disease, which 
nullifies the action of malaria to a very considerable extent. 
Besides, women live as long as men, and it cannot be said that 
they generally exercise out of doors before breakfast. 

Our Knickerbocker ancestry ! the very mention of them 
suggests — fat I a double fatness in fact — fat as to body and fat 
as to purse ; if you catch hold of one of them, instead of get- 
ting a little pinch of thin skin, as you would from a lean 
Yankee, you clutch whole rolls of fat, solid fat — what substan- 



Popular Fallacies. 87 

tial people the real, identical, original old Knicks are ! how 
long they live too ! expectant sons-in-law echo, sighingly, 
" how long /" in fact, I do not recollect of their dying at all, 
at least as we do; they simply ooze out, or sleep aw T ay. May 
we not inquire if there is not at least some connection between 
their health as a class, and the very general habit of the sons 
here, derived from their sires in fatherland, of eating breakfast 
by candle-light ? Another very significant fact in point is, 
that the French in the south are longer lived, and suffer far 
less from the fevers of the country than their American neigh- 
bors ; in truth, their exemption is proverbial ; and as a class 
they have their coffee and boiled milk, half and half, with 
sugar, brought to their bedsides every morning, or take it 
before they leave the house. 

It is not an uncommon thing for persons to go west to select 
a new home for their rising families, never to return : " took 
sick and died /" this is the sad and comprehensive statement 
of the widowed and the fatherless, owing doubtless, in many 
instances, to their travelling on horseback early in the morning 
and late in the evening in order to avoid the heat of the day. 

Many a traveller will save his life by taking a warm and 
hearty breakfast before starting in the morning, and by putting 
up for the night not later than sundown. 

It is of considerable practical importance to answer the 
question, why more persons have died in "the States" from 
Isthmus fever than in California ? Simply, because on their 
way out, their bodies are comparatively vigorous, and there i& 
in addition a degree of mental and moral excitement, which 
repels disease ; but on the return, it is strikingly different ; the 
body is wasted by hardship and privation, while the spirit is 
broken by disappointment, or the mind falls into a species of 
exhaustion, when successful, from the long and anxious strife^ 
for gold : both causes operating, one to weaken the body, the' 
other to take away all mental elasticity ; it is no wonder that 
the whole man becomes an easy prey to disease. 

In subsequent numbers I may discuss other " Popular Fal- 
lacies" in reference to the all -important subject of health. A. 
whole number could be easily filled with them ; but it was not; 
my intention to tell too much at once, it would not be remem- 
bered ; and then again, Wifey has several times given a gentle. 



88 HalVs Journal of Health. 

but a very decided admonition, " Thy Journal reads very well, 
William, hut I am afraid thee will give out." I have, how- 
ever, a ready quietus to these groundless apprehensions, in a 
basket under my table, well filled with scraps, each of which 
affords matter for a leading editorial. The truth is, when I 
think it all over, the world has so many things to learn and 
unlearn, I am afraid I will get gray — what a delightful Tense 
that is — before I can set it right at all points, my ideas of 
right, and propriety, and truth, being considered the standard ! 
What a vain creature is poor know-nothing man ! how little 
indeed does the wisest of us rightly and truly know ! 



For Hall's Journal of Health. 

" WHAT SHALL WE EAT, AND WHAT SHALL WE 

DRINK?" 

BY PROFESSOR CLEAVELAND, OF CINCINNATI. 

" The mind shall banquet though the body pine, 
Fat paunches make lean pates ; and dainty bits 
Make rich their ribs, but banker out their wits." 

Love's Labor Lost 

The fable of the vulture which preyed thirty thousand years 
upon the liver of Prometheus, because he stole heavenly fire, 
seems replete with truth in more senses than one, for those 
who try to obtain the fires of yonth or health in an unnatural 
degree, but search not Heaven — and steal the unnatural fires of 
alcoholic drinks with which to quicken their passions, have 
their livers eaten upon as with vultures, and like their great 
prototype, their livers also are not consumed by the gnawings, 
but continue undiminished and even enlarged by the action of 
the disease. 

Many men perform the wonderful necromantic trick of 
" digging their grave with their own teeth," and others still 
more strangely seem to glide down their own throats into air 
— and thus, perhaps it may be, a part of them have the 
" Throat ail? 

The Friend, or Quaker, it is true, oftentimes has a fair 
rotundity of person, but usually along with it he carries a 
breadth of shoulder and a placid face which indicate a clear 



" What shall we Eat, and what shall we Drinlc P 89 

conscience and a stomach not punished with dyspepsia. And 
of this people it is estimated that more than half their number 
live to the age of forty-five, and that at least one in ten attain 
the age of four score years. Temperance and virtue are among 
the greatest panaceas yet discovered. 

As an evidence of the truthfulness of the play-writer, Sir 
Isaac Newton found it necessary, while composing his work on 
optics, to confine himself to a diet of vegetables, and to drink 
nothing but water. John Locke was told that his intellectual 
powers increased with his increasing years, but he said it was 
because he became more and more plain and simple in his 
diet, and that his work on the Human Understanding was the 
result — not so much of a clear head as of a clean stomach. 
President Edwards, the theologian, made a remark very simi- 
lar in his Diary, in which is recorded that the smallest amount 
of plain food compatible with bodily health was the most con- 
ducive to sprightliness and activity of mind. The younger 
Addison, not only in his beautiful Lines to Temperance, but 
elsewhere and often, bore similar testimony. 

Dr. Franklin and Dr. Rush, agree with Dr. Cheyne in his 
statement, a that he who would have a clear head, must have 
a clean stomach." Cameades of Greece acted on this princi- 
ple, for before he would dispute with Chrysippus the Stoic, 
he took a dose of physic to cleanse out the alimentary canal. 
He would have done better not to allow its obstruction. 

Dr. Hosack says, " like the mark upon the forehead of 
Cain after the commission of his crime, so do the il bubuckles, 
whelks and rosy drops" denote the suicidal practice of the 
habitual dram drinker, and indicate the malignant spirit that 
reigns within. 

Garth says, 

" The first physicians by debauch were made, 
Excess began, and still sustains the trade." 

It will be perceived that the most of these authorities lived 
before the Maine Law was dreamed of by ISTeal Dow, and 
hence they spoke as well of intemperance in eating, as of 
intemperance in drinking. Cadogan, in his work on Gout, 
speaks as well of stimulating condiments as of stimulating 
drinks ; and it may be that these and other improper articles 
of food being more fully indulged in by males than females, 



90 HalVs Journal of Health. 

in the West Indies, and the Southern States, is one reason 
why so many widows in those sections are so anxiously await- 
ing the advent of their second or third husband. 

But the use of tobacco, and crude or improperly cooked, or 
high seasoned food is seldom indulged in to a great extent 
without the accompanying inebriant. 

Each demand the other, and each demands the physician, 
lean pates, and the sexton. Let us all then seriously consider, 
what we shall eat and what we shall drink. 



For Hall's Journal. 

DON'T GET DISCOUKAGED. 

"I am almost discouraged," is the language of many an 
invalid reader ; and for you are these lines penned ; you may 
have been ill for weary months, but look for better days, and 
don't get discouraged. You may have a family to care for, 
and may be far from them, but if you would be restored to 
them in blooming health, don't get discouraged. 

You may have difficulties to encounter, and obstacles to 
overcome, and be far too, from your physician, with no one to 
give you a look, or a word of encouragement, but notwith- 
standing all this, don't get discouraged, but stop for a moment, 
and think, then contrast your condition with that of many 
others, and see how many less cares you have than they ; but 
after all, they don't get discouraged. 

May be you think, that there is no prospect of your ever 
recovering — but indulge the hope that there is, and don't get 
discouraged. Perhaps your physician has often told you, that 
" if you don't maintain a cheerful frame of mind, it will 
retard your recovery." Take his advice, and don't get dis- 
couraged. But it may be your life is fast passing away. 
"For all flesh is as grass, and all the glory of man as the 
flower of grass ; the grass withereth, and the flower thereof 
falleth away : but the word of the Lord end ureth forever." 
You have the promise, if you labor for your Master here, of 
receiving an immortal crown, as a reward for your labors. 
Be patient then, and you may soon be admitted into the new 
Jerusalem, where no discouragements will ever afflict you. 

Mahala. 



Natural Death. 91 

NATURAL DEATH, 

Is to die sweetly without a sob, a struggle, or a sigh. It is 
the result of a long life of uninterrupted health, of a long life 
of " temperance in all things" and such a death should be one 
of the ends and aims of every human being, so that we may 
not only live long, but in that long life be able to do much for 
man, and much for God. 

The love of life is a universal instinct ; life is a duty, its 
peril or neglect a crime; to be anxious to die is the feeling of 
a coward or a loafer. We are placed on earth for a purpose, 
that purpose can be none other than to give us an opportunity 
of doing good to ourselves and to others, and to be anxious to 
be " off duty" sooner than God wills, is no indication of 
true piety. The good man has one ruling, ever present desire, 
and that is to live as long on the earth as his Maker pleases, 
and while living to do the utmost he can to benefit and bless 
mankind ; and to accomplish along and active, and useful life, 
the study how to preserve and promote a high degree of 
bodily health is indispensable. And it seems to have been 
ordained by a Providence both kind and wise, as a reward of 
a temperate life, that such a life should be largely extended, 
and that its decline should be as calm as a summer's evening, 
as gentle as tire babe sleeps itself away on its mother's bosom. 

These sentiments were advocated in one of the first numbers 
of the Journal in the way of argument to induce its readers to 
live temperately in all things, in order by length of life to 
secure the largest leisure for doing the greatest amount of 
good, and as a beautiful illustration of the fact, how easily the 
very old may die, I give here a letter written by the Rev. Dr. 
Green of Tennessee, to the able Editor of the Nashville Medi- 
cal Journal. 

I promised you that I would furnish you with some of the 
facts connected with the last days of Aunt Phillis, an old negro 
woman of mine, who died last fall. Aunt Phillis was at the 
time of her death, at the lowest estimate, 111 years old, and 
the probability is that she was several years older. 

For fifty years she has enjoyed uninterrupted health, and, 
as far as I have been able to learn, she was never sick in her 
life, except at the birth of her children. For thirty years of 



92 HalVs Journal of Health. 

her life, and down to within three years of her death, she did 
not seem to undergo the slightest change in her appearance — 
time exercising but little power over her. The first sign of 
decay was that of sight, which took place about three years 
before her death ; up to that time she was in the full enjoy- 
ment of all her senses ; and at one hundred and four years 
would have married an old negro man of seventy -five if I had 
not objected. 

Her sight failed not in the usual way, but she became near- 
sighted, not being able to see objects at a distance. Soon after 
this her hearing declined, but up to the time of her death she 
could hear better than old persons generally do. The first indi- 
cation of mental failure was that of locality, she not being 
able to find her way to a neighbor's house ; yet her memory 
seemed perfect in all other respects. She recollected hex 
friends and old acquaintances, but could not find her way tc 
their houses. 

I at first supposed this was owing to defective sight, but on 
examination found it was in the mind. Still her locomotion 
was good ; she had the full use of herself, and could walk 
strong and quick like a young person, and held herself up so 
straight that, when walking from me, I often took her for some 
of the younger servants about the premises. The next, and to 
me the most singular sign of decline was, that she lost the art 
of walking — not that she had not strength enough to walk, but 
forgot how to walk. 

The children would lead her forth and interest her for a 
while, and she would get the idea, which seemed to delight her 
very much, and she would walk about the yard and porches 
until some person would tell her she had walked enough— but 
she would no sooner take her seat, and sit for a few moments, 
before all idea of walking would be gone, and she would have 
to be taught over again. 

At length she became unwilling to try to walk unless she 
had hold of something ; take her by the arm and she would 
walk, and walk well, but just as soon as you would let her go 
she would stop, and if no further aid was afforded her she 
would get down and crawl like a child ; and at length became 
so fearful that she refused to walk altogether, and continued 
to sit up during the day, but had to be put to bed and taken 



Our Changing Climate. 93 

up like a child. After a while she became unwilling to get up 
altogether, and continued to lie until she died. 

All this time she seemed to be in good health, took hei 
regular meals, and her stomach and bowels were uniformly in 
good condition. I often examined her the best I could, and 
she had no pains, no sickness, no aches of any kind, and from 
her own account, and from all that I was able to learn, she 
was in good health and all the while in fine spirits. The intel- 
lect and the mind seemed to be perfectly good, only that she 
did not seem to know where she was all the time. 

At length one of the children said to me that Aunt Phillis 
was getting cold, and on examining her I found it even so ; 
the extremities were cold — still she took her regular meals ; 
and did not complain of anything ; and the only change that 
I recollect of was that she slept a little more than usual. The 
coldness increased for two days, when she became as cold 
almost as a dead person. Her breathing began at length to 
shorten, and grew shorter and shorter till she ceased to 
breathe. 

Death closed in upon her like going into a soft, sweet sleep, 
and for two minutes it was difficult to tell whether she was 
breathing or not. There was no contortion, no struggle, no 
twisting of the muscles, but after death she might have still 
been taken, on a slight examination, to have been in a deep 
sleep. So passed away Phillis — the only natural death I ever 
witnessed. 



OUR CHANGING CLIMATE. 

BY WASHINGTON IRVING. 

" Here let me say a word in favor of those vicissitudes of 
our climate which are too often made the subject of exclusive 
repining. If they annoy us occasionally by changes from hot 
to cold, from wet to dry, they give us one of the most beauti- 
ful climates in the world. They give us the brilliant sunshines 
of the south of Europe with the fresh verdure of the north. 
They float our summer sky with clouds of gorgeous tints or 
fleecy whiteness, and send down cooling showers to refresh the- 
panting earth and keep it green. Our seasons are full of subli- 



94 HalVs Journal of Health. 

mity and beauty. Winter with us has none of its proverbial 
gloom. It may have its howling winds, and chilling frosts, 
and whirling snow-storms ; but it has also its long intervals of 
cloudless sunshine, when the snow-clad earth gives redoubled 
brightness to the day — when at night the stars beam with 
intensest lustre, or the moon floods the whole landscape with 
her most limpid radiance. And then the joyous outbreak of 
our spring, bursting at once into leaf and blossom, redundant 
with vegetation, and vociferous with life, and the splendors of 
our summer — its morning voluptuousness and evening glory — 
its airy palaces of sun-lit clouds piled up in a deep azure sky ; 
and its gusts of tempest of almost tropical grandeur, when the 
forked lightning and the bellowing thunder-volley from the 
battlements of heaven shake the sultry atmosphere ! and the 
sublime melancholy of our autumn, magnificent in its decay, 
withering down the pomp and pride of a woodland country, 
yet reflecting back from its yellow forests the golden serenity 
of the sky. Surely we may say that in our climate, the 
heavens declare the glory of God ; and the firmament showeth 
his handy work. Day unto day uttereth speech and night 
unto night showeth knowledge." 



MENTAL EPIDEMICS. 



There are times when a whole community is ravaged by a 
particular disease or pestilence or plague ; at one time they 
sweep along like a whirlwind and all is over in a night, at 
others they move slowly through days and weeks, and months, 
as resistless as an avalanche. The cholera, the plague, and 
the black death, have all had their day. But it is not as 
generally recognized that at different periods in the world's 
history, mental epidemics have had their sway, as resistless 
and as wide, and full as hurtful to the moral, as plagues have 
been to the physical world, as blighting in their influence on 
the mind as the black death or the Asiatic cholera were to the 
body. Mohamedanism, the New Lightism of Kentucky at the 
opening of the present century, when at Cane Ridge in Bour- 
bon county near Paris, men and women as the first steps 
toward " conversion," at one time would be taken with " a 



Mental Epidemics. 95 

falling," and would roll and tumble about on the ground with 
uncontrollable violence ; another man in a different crowd 
would be " taken with a barking," and forthwith a dozen 
others would imitate for hours the barking of dogs. In later 
times, so recently as a third of a century ago, the whole West- 
ern country was overrun with the " anxious seaC furor. At 
the close of a sermon or religious address, all persons, who 
were not members of the church, and felt any anxiety what- 
ever to become religious, were invited to take a specified seat, 
usually the one nearest the pulpit, in order ■" to be prayed 
for;" and " while a hymn was singing," to employ the current 
phrase, some one, who perhaps was least expected to have any 
solicitude in that direction, would rise in the congregation, 
and with every eye upon him, would wend his way among the 
dense and expectant crowd ; and reaching the spot, would fall 
helplessly in his seat, and with a convulsive sob, yield himself 
to uncontrollable grief; in another instant, dozens, and scores, 
and hundreds, as I myself have seen, would make a rush to 
the anxious seat, creating such an influence, such a presence, 
as it were in the assembly, that saint and sinner were dis- 
solved in tears. And any Sunday in New Orleans, you may 
now see, in the African church, a species of mental epidemic 
wholly impossible of counterfeiture. One day I saw a likely 
young man, colored, bend himself backward in the shape of a 
half hoop, and remain as stiff in limb and turgid in muscle 
for many minutes, as if he were in an uncontrollable fit; 
while young women would jump up and down, crying 
" amen," " glory," " hallelujah," or some other scripture 
word, for a length of time wholly impossible for any one in 
his right mind ; and this would at times extend from one to 
another, until there were dancers all over the house. 

Mormonism may be well regarded as another of those men- 
tal epidemics, but of far more pernicious tendencies, judging 
by the first fruits and thus far. As of this same class, we may 
mention millerism, mesmerism, biology, spirit rapping, table 
turning and mediation, more hurtful in their tendencies than 
even mormonism, in their present state of explication : there 
is so much that is conjectural, contradictory and intangible, as 
to make wise men mad, let alone the greater multitude of the 
weaker sort 



96 HalVs Journal of Health. 

It is usual, when epidemical diseases make their appearance, 
to appoint the most competent and capable among physicians 
to observe, analyze and report, and then to adopt such a course 
of experiment as may seem best adapted to elicit truth, and to 
save human life. And it seems to me, that a like course would 
have resulted in great practical good in the recent mental or 
moral epidemics. But this has not been done. The clergy as 
a body have stood aloof, or with elevated hands and uplifted 
eyes, have cried, "jprocul, procul, este profani." The funny 
minded have poked their fun ; the loafing multitude, too lazy 
to examine, have exclaimed, " itfs all a humbug ;" while young 
editors of newspapers, or fledgeling editors of young news- 
papers, regarding it as a godsend for the exhibition of their 
wit and wisdom, have used by turns anathema and ridicule ; 
while all this time the weaker multitude are wondering, and 
then won, and alas ! in many instances, to their own undoing, 
in soul, body and estate. 

" Humbug," has been the general cry as to spiritualism. 
But humbug is the argument alike of the ninny and the knave, 
of the loafer and the numscull ; it is the argument of those 
who are too lazy to investigate, or too weak-minded to com- 
prehend, reason and decide. The exclamation " humbug," is 
no argument, proves nothing, and yet may accomplish a great 
deal — as potent sometimes as " persecution." While this cry 
has been sounded and echoed and re-echoed from plain to 
mountain top over the breadth of this wide land, Joe Smith, 
and Miller and Miss Fox have rallied their hosts and counted 
their followers by scores of thousands, and whether it shall 
reach to hundreds of thousands no man can tell. 

In the earliest ages of Christianity, the great argument against 
it, among the aristocratic learned in Greece and Rome was, 
contemptuous derision ; and even earlier, it was considered 
irrefutable to inquire, " Can any good come out of Nazareth V 
Can a few ignorant fishermen propose any thing deserving 
our consideration ; and when now and then the truths of reli- 
gion swept with resistless power over the intellect and heart of 
some one of their own literati, more candid than his fellows, 
the force of the fact was attempted to be broken by the sum- 
mary exclamation, " He's crazy!" "Much learning hath 
made thee mad /" "We have an exact counterpart in the history 



Mental Epidemics. 97 

of spiritualism in our own day and generation, and with a like 
result too — the conversion of multitudes.* And yet, the men 
who write editorials for religious newspapers follow in the 
wake of the contemptuous abusers of primitive Christianity, 
and write about spiritualism with such an evident impatience 
of temper, with such palpable want of forbearance, as may 
well evoke the inquiry : Is this the spirit of truth ? Is this the 
animus of a true learner ? 

The first error which the educated have committed in refe- 
rence to spiritualism was, in denying too much ; they adopted 
the line of policy of a weak pettifogger, conscious not only of 
his own weakness, but of his cause also — admitted nothing and 
denied every thing. When a sentiment was announced which 
was altogether adverse to their previous views, to opinions 
cherished from childhood, they would break out with an excla- 
mation, " The idea !" How preposterous ! It's absurd. I never 
heard of such a thing. Yery likely it was an idea, and might 
be preposterous and absurd, and it is reasonable to suppose 
they might not have heard of such a thing, but there was no 
argument in any of these assertions. For a long time it was 
denied that there were knockings except by collusion, and 
that the movement of tables could not occur except by decep- 
tion, and yet I believe it is taken for granted now by all who 
have the patience and ability to investigate. The same con- 
temptuousness was exhibited in relation to Morse's telegraph, 
towards Fulton's steamboat, and to all great new truths. That 
being the case, men, capable of investigating abstruse things, 
should have known that a sneer is, if possible more powerless 
against error than against truth. 

I own myself to a feeling of pitying contemptuousness 
towards persons the moment I hear of their leaning towards 
spiritualism, just as I do towards a man when I see him volun- 
tarily place his " head" under a phrenologist's fingers, and I 
often feel sensible that I am thus doing them an injustice and 
seeing the inconsistency, I never deride, never contemn in 
audible words; for this is not the spirit which animates an 

* Judge Edmonds, before he avowed spiritualism, was considered an able law-. 
jer ; and not many men on the bench have had so few of their decisions reversed 
in the superior courts ; and yet the moment he became a spiritualist — " Ms head is 
turned /" 



98 HalVs Journal of Health. 

honorable and candid inquirer after truth. I have lived long 
enough to have embraced things which I once laughed at, and 
feel that at some future day I may admire what I now consi 
der an absurdity or an impossibility. Hence, I like modest 
believers. Yiolent advocates are much like raw soldiers in a 
first battle, very apt to turn about, and march rather more 
vigorously from, than forwards. 

There is a practical lesson which I wish to inculcate by the 
above remarks, for two very different classes of people. 

1st. To those who are not accustomed to investigate abstruse 
points, I commend the injunction of scripture in reference to 
another subject, "Touch not, taste not \. handle not. 77 Have, 
just now, nothing to do with spiritualism, mormonism, Miller- 
ism. " Let alone" is the best policy for ordinary minds. Do 
not go to their meetings, always avoid argument with their 
adherents, never allow any of their books, or papers or publi- 
cations to come inside your doorsj anymore than you would 
the writings of Tom Paine, Lord Byron, or Percy Bishy Shelly ; 
no more than you would allow a man to come daily to your 
house and sell your children sweetened whiskey punch or 
brandy toddy. The more these things abound, the more should 
you read the Bible, the Prayer-book, the Confession of Faith, 
and the sturdy old sermonizers of a hundred years ago. In 
these days of making many books, of gilded infidelity and 
painted corruption and rottenness in things mental and moral, 
the great line of safety is, keep out of hanvus way, go not into 
the way of temptation, tamper not with a possible lurking 
viper. Common people — wait for the light! pitfalls are all 
around you, and groping for yourselves, fathomless abysses 
will receive you. 

But really I have spent an aimless arrow. I have appealed 
to the common people ; but as not a man, woman, or child in 
this free country, believes that he she or it is a common person, 
I must aim again, and hit two birds with one stone, by sug- 
gesting the second practical lesson to the uncommon people of 
this broad land, to the intelligent, to the thoughtful, to the 
candid, to those who are capable of abstruse investigations, 
who can examine Spiritualism or any other ism, with a mind 
open to conviction, not hampered with the firm belief that it 
is all an imposition, and with a determination never to be con- 



Mental Epidemics. 99 

vinced ; to the noble few who are not afraid to admit a truth, 
however it may subverse present opinions or previous avowals ; 
to that class of brave minds who are willing to follow wherever 
truth may lead, be it to the cannon's mouth, be it to the stake ! 
to such I desire to offer a suggestion, that as it is a duty of the 
bodily strong to use their strength when the house is on fire, 
or the ship is sinking, to sa*ve the weaker ones, the children, 
and women, and sick ; and if they do not do it, the contempt 
and curses of a whole community are hurled heapingly upon 
them — as for example the Arctic catastrophe ! — So in the men- 
tal and moral world, the strong-minded, the educated, the men 
of thought and leisure, are as much bound to do a duty, and 
as much deserve execration, if it is not done. That duty is to 
put forth their strength in saving their weaker brethren from 
delusions worse than death : for what American mother would 
not rather see her daughter die, than be the fortieth wife of a 
Mormon, or to be the crazy dupe of Millerism, or the demented 
raver after the crude vagaries of intangible Spiritualism % In 
this age of activity, when nothing waits, are competent men 
to fold their arms, when mischievous errors are promulgated, 
and say, " Oh ! it is all a delusion, and will die the sooner from 
its being let alone ?" But the fact is, if such even let it alone, 
the multitude will not, hence its spread; but the greater ab- 
surdity is to make a starting point by assuming as a truth what 
all Spiritualists deny, and unnumbered thousands of the com- 
mon people deny too, to wit : that Spiritualism is an absurdity. 
That is the point to be proven, and men of mind ought to have 
accomplished it long ago, if possible, and thus have arrested 
in the bud an asserted evil. The plainer the absurdity, the 
easier of proof, it seems to me. And to my mind, the only 
way of proving the absurdity of any sentiment or assertion, is 
to take point by point, specification by specification ; meet it by 
matured, serious, sterling argument, and let it be so conclusive, 
that the commonest mind may see it almost by intuition. It 
is not an easy matter to pick up any " Religious Newspaper" 
so called, of any denomination, among protestants, and find 
anything on the subject of Mormonism, Millerism, Spiritual- 
ism, et id omne, which does not bear upon its face ample evi- 
dence of impatient invective. Common minds feel this, see 
its emptiness of argument, and finding no light from sources 



100 HalVs Journal of Health. 

which ought to afford it ; they do the next hest thing they can, 
and grope and flounder along in darkness visible, through seas 
of argument, as clear as mud, and not less defiling. 

Gentlemen in black, I think verily, that you are not using 
your Master's capital wisely ! You make investments which 
enable you to hew and hack each other right well, Protestant 
against Puritan, and both against Pope, and vice versa ; but 
as to affording the common people light to see the absurdities 
of the isms already named ; I think you are where boys in the 
grammar-school are said to be, when books were neglected for 
play, — in the vocative, — " wanting" 

But to all I say, if you feel called upon to investigate any 
of the " new lights" of the times, and have a desire that you 
should not soon find yourselves " in endless mazes lost," there 
is but one insurance office against so sad a calamity in this 
wide, wide world, and that is the Bible ; make it your guide, 
let it be your Pclar star, plant your foot immovably on its 
clearly asserted principles ; principles which King James' 
translation fully warrants ; principles fairly, clearly deducibie 
from the English text, as it is, without the mischievous u better 
renderings" which sophomore clergymen are so often and so 
mischievously talking about. I say, stand upon the platform 
of such principles, backed, as they must be, by the great and 
good in all past ages, and no fear, I tell ye, that the immortal 
bark shall founder on shore, or breaker, or sunken rock ; but 
passing them all triumphantly, it will find secure anchorage 
in the haven of everlasting rest. 



DANGEROUS NEWSPAPERS RECEIPTS. 

No man who values his own health and life, and those of 
his family, should pay any attention to any newspaper recipe 
of a medicinal character. The door should be shut against all 
family newspapers which habitually insert such things, because 
mainly there are various medicines which do a striking good 
when taken once or twice, but which cause poisonous effects 
if taken four or five times or days in succession. A dose 
of calomel for example, will in many instances, when judi- 
ciously and appropriately given, cause prompt and permanent 
changes in the system of the most gratifying character, but - 



Dangerous Newspaper Receipts. 101 

very often, if a dose is taken three or four days in succession, 
even if " worked off," salivations of the most dreadful character 
arc the result. 

Then, there are other medicines which produce apparently 
good results, but when they are discontinued, the person ine- 
vitably dies. Arsenic is reported to be of this character, that 
if carriage horses are allowed a small portion daily, they soon 
become fat, the hair becomes sleek and shiny, and they foam 
at the mouth profusely when put in harness; the same autho- 
rity asserts, that in Austria and Hungary, the young use it 
to give color to the cheek and fulness of flesh, thus making 
them more attractive to the opposite sex, but if discontinued, 
especially if suddenly, they soon begin to pine away and die. 
We have a very familiar, and most unfortunately a very fre- 
quent illustration of this fact in the use of brandy or porter, 
and other liquors, they at first exhilarate both body and mind, 
and seem to place the drinker in excellent health, but when 
the habit has been long established, it is almost death to aban- 
don it, the w T ant of it is at times so resistless, that a recent 
convict, after exhausting all his ingenuity to get a drink of his 
accustomed " bevel* age !" seized an axe in the penitentiary, 
and in an instant cut off his hand as if by accident, called at 
once for a bowl of brandy, as if to staunch the blood ; the 
keepers were thrown off their guard, in a moment he thrust 
in the bleeding stump, the next, the blood and brandy had 
passed down his throat. 

Let the reader then keep in view the apparently good effects 
of some remedies for the present, with their subsequently 
destructive agencies, and make a practical use of it ever 
hereafter, in reading newspaper recipes. 

Here is one, for example, which has been published and 
republished all over the country. 

Fob making (good?) corn bread. — One pound of Indian, 
that is, corn-meal, pint and a half of milk, five eggs, a piece 
of butter as large as a hen's egg, soda as large as a large pea, 
and a level teaspoon of cream of tartar ; bake it three quar- 
ters of an hour. 

So much for soda and cream of tartar in our bread. Another 
editor recommends as an excellent beverage: 

Dandelion coffee. — Made by washing the roots of the com- 



102 HalVs Journal of Health. 

mon field dandelion clean, without scarifying them ; cut them 
up as fine as coffee berries, roast, grind, and prepare in the 
same way. 

Another recommends 

Columbo water, as a safe stimulant for languid appetite. 
Take four drachms of the bruised columbo root, one drachm 
of bitter orange peel, and two drachms of fresh liquorice root ; 
add a quart of soft water, and simmer as gently as possible 
over a slow fire until half the bulk of the water is evaporated ; 
then strain the liquor, filter it, add one-sixth of good pale 
brandy, bottle it, and take an hour before dinner, of this mix- 
ture, a third of a wine-glass, filling up the glass with cold 
water. 

And as if not satisfied with poisoning our bread, giving us 
physic for coffee, and then drenching our stomach with medi- 
cated water ; another still advises how to kill our cooks and 
washerwomen, by urging them 

To save Labor in Washing, — By putting a tablespoon or 
two of spirits of turpentine in the water ; and thus with the aid 
of villanous camphene for lamps, being essentially turpentine 
itself, we are likely to be poisoned, blown up, burnt up and 
teetotal ly killed, master, mistress, children, servants, dogs, 
cats, and all. Surely we are getting to a pretty pass ; pre- 
sently we will not be able to turn round without taking a dose 
of physic ; and as if to make certainty more sure, lest the 
cook should fail to put the soda or saleratus or cream of tartar, 
it is put in by the manufacturer ready to hand, in the shape 
of " Patent flour." And in case we should not prefer the 
dandelion coffee, and desire the pure coffee, old Java, our 
grocer, for our own good — or his — intersperses it with other 
ingredients, for a case came up for trial a few days since in 
New York, wherein one party sued another for the value of 
forty bags of peas. The plaintiff was a coffee roaster, and 
had contracted with the defendant for 250 bags of peas, 
which, it appeared, were to be ground up with the coffee. — 
Some curious developments came out in the course of the 
trial, showing the extent to which peas, chicory and other sub- 
stances are used for the article which is sold as pure ground 
coffee. 

People seem to think that because an article is familiar to 



Dangerous Newspaper Receipts. 103 

them from every-day use, there can be no great harm in it, 
and forthwith baptize it as simple. Well, look at the effect of 
one of the most familiar of these simples. 

Essence of Peppermint. — A little of it in candy for our 
children on holidays may not be injurious, nor will a little 
peppermint tea, or a drop or two now and then in a little 
water for babies. On some occasions it may be allowable. 

But a case is alluded to recently near Killingly, Connecticut, 
where a man who had been a moderate drinker of spirituous 
liquors and finding his supplies cut off, resorted to pepper- 
mint water, which in a short time killed him. And soda is 
another simple, made as it is out of the ashes of sea weed, as 
saleratus is made of the ashes of wood, so simple that our 
wives drink it down every day, and look upon it with admira- 
tion, as a prompt antidote for sour stomach, that is, an over 
hearty dinner, and finding it so prompt and efficient, and hav- 
ing a strong appetite for the very next meal, they over-eat 
again, and again resort to the soda bottle ; but in a few days 
the dose must be increased or it does no good, and before one 
is aware of it, there is a necessity for its being taken as regularly 
a3 the daily meals ; next, there must be a steady increase 
in amount, or the most intense suffering is the result. Not long 
ago, as appears from the report of a coroner's inquest in Lon- 
don, a gentleman was standing at the door of his daughter, 
whom he had called to see a moment, and while talking to her 
dropped down dead. On examining his body after death, it 
was found to be the result of an impacted mass of solid soda, 
which had accumulated in the tract of the bowels, he having 
resorted to it daily to remove flatulence and " sour stomach." 

Turpentine is another simple, just as simple as the people are 
who persist in its use for burning in their lamps, notwithstand- 
ing a day scarcely passes in which is not chronicled the death 
of some careless servant, or child, or parent — the terrible death 
of burning. 

A person may well wash out some clothing a single time 
without much trouble and without any bodily injury, but sup- 
pose it is repeated every week or oftener, we cannot otherwise 
than expect to witness the legitimate results of its over appli- 
cation, such as violent inflammation of the skin, with extensive 
eruptions from all parts of the body. If applied largely to the 



104 HalVs Journal of Health, 

breast of a liorse it will produce death in a few hours ; and yet 
some thoughtless editor has believed himself to do a public 
service by recommending to washerwomen as a labor-saving 
agent the common use of spirits of turpentine. 

The best corn bread in the world is made by the negroes in 
the west and south-west with the meal, a little salt, a lump of 
hog's lard or butter, and as much water or milk as will give it 
a proper consistence, and put in immediately to bake without 
any other ingredient whatever. 

As for washing clothes, a good soak over night in soft or 
rain water, common soap, and a pair of willing hands, these 
are all that is necessary to make the cleanest " linen" in the 
world and the sweetest; for Beau Brummel declared he knew 
no perfume equal to that of a well-washed garment. 

Therefore, reader, abnegate, abominate and exterminate all 
newspaper " receipts" whatsoever, unless such papers are 
of a scientific character, such as the " Scientific American" 



Drowning at Sea. — A person who will throw himself on his 
back in the water, with his hands held clasped in each other 
at his back, and with his head thrown back so that the nose 
and mouth may protrude from the water, may float for hours 
and cannot sink in that position. 

A common feather pillow tied around under the arms is said 
to be worth half-a-dozen common India rubber life preservers, 
while a common mattrass placed on a blanket, a trunk on the 
mattrass, then both trunk and mattrass tied up in the blanket 
and all thrown into the water together, will float with the tide 
for many hours. 



The physicians of the New York Hospital give some facts, 
showing that seven-eights of all persons attacked by Cholera 
are those who have already been long suffering from some 
organic disease, as of the liver, lungs, &c, and who could not 
live long under any circumstances. 



Lord Shaftesbury says that he would be virtuous for his own 
sake, though nobody were to know it; as he would be clean 
for his own sake, though nobody were to see him. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



OUK LEGITIMATE SCOPE IS ALMOST BOUNDLESS : FOR WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABLE 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS. PROMOTES HEALTH; AND WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. II.] MAY, 1855. [NO. V. 



HEALTH AND HOUSE-HUNTING. 

Many will select a house this month, for a residence, and it 
will be their last home on earth ; it would not have been, had 
they remained where they are, or moved elsewhere. It does 
not express the whole truth to say, that some houses are 
unhealthy ; it is nearer the fact in reference to many dwell- 
ings, that they are deadly. Sometimes certain rooms in a 
house are so impregnated with poisonous emanations, that 
their occupants become ill in a few days. I know of a capa- 
cious mansion (formerly, now a boarding-house) in Walnut- 
street, Philadelphia, which has in it a certain room, known to 
make the parties sick within a few days after they move into 
it. Within a year, a man in perfect health, was placed in a 
room in London, and in a few days died of putrid fever. 
The next, and the next, and the next occupant, were noticed 
successively to become ill. It became so notorious, that the 
authorities took it in hand to examine the premises, and it was 
found that the man who papered the room, in order to fill up 
a cavity in the wall, put in a bucket full of paste and pieces of 
the glazed papering, which in time began to ferment and rot, 
throwing into the room a steady supply of the noxious fumes 
of decomposed lead, and other hurtful ingredients employed 
in the sizing of wall paper. It is known that the sizing on a 
visiting card is enough to poison a child if put in its mouth ; 
being a little sweetish to the taste, it is rather palatable. 

Another English house became so notoriously unhealthy, that 
the common people reported it to be haunted ; it soon gained 
such a reputation, that no body would live in it free of rent. 



106 HalVs Journal of Health. 

Investigation discovered that it was the result of pasting new 
paper on old. 

Lesson. — In repairing a room or house, first pull off the old 
paper, and scrape and wash the walls. 

Within a month, the Grand Jury of the chief criminal 
court of New York City, have repeated their bitter complaints 
against the damp and noisome apartment in which they are 
compelled to sit day after day in the performance of their 
official duties. The recent death of one of their number, is 
attributed by that body to the unhealthfulness of the room 
they occupy. 

The White House at Washington, is believed by observant 
men there, to be the main reason for the ill-health of our 
Presidents, since General Harrison first went there, so soon to 
make it his grave. Its unheal thiness is very justly attributed 
to the construction of a bridge or causeway across the stream, 
which passes near it, thus giving a larger body of still water 
than in former times ; and the neighborhood of stagnant 
water, with the usual amount of decaying vegetation, must 
originate disease in the warmer portions of the year in all 
temperate latitudes. 

These things being true in reference to houses, there are 
other items to be taken into consideration in selecting our 
dwellings, besides price, appearance and neighborhood. 

Very many persons in cities are decided, in determining 
upon a residence for themselves and families, by the appear- 
ance of the street front. An elegant frontage of brown stone, 
towering in stateliness to five stories, brings many a dollar 
beyond its value to pursy landlords. But how vigorously 
fond new husbands and weak old ones have to shin around in 
the slops and snows of winter to pay the rent, and " monstrous" 
hard as it may be in winter, summer heats make it " mons- 
trouser," as Charcoal Sketches would say. How many a restless 
turn at night, how many a Sunday plan, which matter of fact 
Monday morning makes vanish in thin air, how many an 
anxious conjecture it costs, whether this acquaintance or that 
old friend, or nearest neighbor might not make a loan " on 
call^ to help out at quarter day ; how many racks of self 
respect, of personal independence, of wounded pride, of debas- 
ing tergiversation it costs to pay for this purchase of appear- 



Health and House- Hunting. 107 

ances, the initiated can better tell than I can guess, never 
having been a renter " in the whole course of my life," except 
for a short year on trial, in the country ; yes, in the country ! 
delightful summer residence ! on the banks of the Hudson ! 
just over against the Palisades ! as dear a purchase of ima- 
ginary blisses, as of the appearances aforesaid. I like no half 
ways, give me the centre of the largest city on the continent, 
or a log cabin in the far recesses of the unpenetrated west. 

But the waste of money to keep up appearances, is not the 
greatest loss ; health sacrificed, life perilled, is often times an 
"extra" not calculated on, but like " extras," comes with a 
thunder clap of unexpectedness, meeting too, the fate of all 
"extras," an exclamation, a demur, dwindling down to an 
argument and final delivery of the purse strings. 

Lesson 2nd. — Reader^ pay extras and he done with it. 1 
have always found it the quickest and the easiest plan. It saves 
temper, for the more you argue about it, the more angry you 
will get, and the worse you will feel afterwards when you 
find you have not only lost your temper, but your money too. 

Other persons, as intimated already, will put jewelry, plate, 
gold watch, all " up the spout" to make up the usual advance 
on the first quarter, to the landlord, who has not the pleasure of 
their acquaintance ; will do all this, to secure a residence in a 
M genteel street" or " fashionable neighborhood" on " the" side 
of Broadway. There are men and women, that is, grown per- 
sons of both sexes in New York, who would think themselves 
hopelessly disgraced to live in a street which had " East" 
attached to it ; would consider they had lost cast more irreco- 
verably by living on the " other" side of Broadway, than if 
they had, in a pinch, checked on a bank for ten thousand, 
when they had never deposited a dollar there. To such per- 
sons, and to all others living in cities, I wish to make some 
suggestions in reference to the selection of a family resi- 
dence. 

If practicable, let the rear of the house face the south ; 
mainly for two reasons, first and chief, unsightly things, the 
washings of the kitchen and the laundry are deposited there, 
and with other causes, keep the back yards almost always in 
a damp condition ; which, with the dust and unavoidable 
accretions of various kinds, make fit materials for decomposi- 



108 HalVs Journal of Health. 

tions, and their inevitable result, the generation of hurtful 
gases, sometimes actually poisonous. The heat of the sun has 
a drying influence, and with moderate attention, the premises 
may be kept sweet and clean. The second reason is, greater 
light is afforded to the kitchen, where it is so much needed, 
especially in winter time, to allow of the cleanly preparation 
of daily food. A mind of any refinement, revolts at the mere 
mention of cookery in the dark. 

The front of a house in the city does not so much need the 
sun, since the too frequent custom, is to make a parlor of the 
first floor front, for the occasional accommodation or reception 
of guests and visitors, in many instances averaging not an 
hour a day; and for similar reasons, the "spare rooms," are 
those in front in the upper stories. In my opinion, the very 
best, largest and most commodious rooms in a house should be 
appropriated to the daily and hourly use of the family. 

As accumulations are not allowed in the streets, the sun is 
not so much needed on a northern front, while- the passing of 
persons and vehicles, compensate in cheeriness for the absence 
of sunshine ; but it is not a total absence, for there is the sun- 
shine of the countenance of your visitors ; unless of that not 
innumerous class, who are rather disagreeably disappointed, 
when they find you are at home, and had much rather have 
left a card ; their smiles are of the sardonic order, or of the 
mechanical kind, icicling in a moment, all the outgushings of 
kindliness, were it not the fashion to keep our parlors so dim 
and dusky, that we can't tell whether the smile comes from 
the head or the heart. 

In selecting a residence, notice if there is any standing 
water in the cellar, any uncovered drain or well ; I know of 
two adjoining houses in Philadelphia, which have brought 
death to every family that has occupied them for some years 
past, and another not far distant which has proved the death 
of three successive occupants, each of them strong hearty men 
when they moved in. 

Notice the rear premises ; if they adjoin a stone cutter, or 
livery stable, or distillery, or cow yard, or for drays, car- 
riages and the like ; if any of these are within a block of you 
in any direction, the house is dear at any price, it is dear at 
nothing, whatever may be its frontage. 



House-Building. 109 

As a general rule avoid long rows of brown stone fronts, 
built uniformly ; or of brick or any other material ; they were 
built by contract, or for purposes of speculation. If the flues 
do not burn you up, there is large probability that the rats 
will devour every thing you purchase, over and above what 
you actually consume, and the friends whom Biddy your cook 
supplies with their.daily provender. Sometime since I accom- 
panied a gentleman, who wanted to purchase or lease a family 
mansion, on a tour of observation. We looked through one 
of a row of Hve story brown fronts, one of the most imposing 
in appearance outside in New York ; it had been occupied but 
a year, the flue had set it on fire ; the family had left, and 
there being no carpeting or other furniture to cover defects, 
there was revealed to us a quality of carpentership utterly 
disgraceful to both builders and owners ; the flooring had not 
the roughness planed off in many places ; while the spaces 
between the " tongue and grooves," as also between the ends 
of the planks* and between the wash or surboard and the 
floor, w T ere in many instances from a quarter to half an inch 
or more in width ; and this, in rooms w T here the fire and water 
had no access ; these items, together with spoiled locks, broken 
keys, doors hanging awry from a shrinking of the wood and 
" settling" of the building, immovable window sash, made a 
tenement which notwithstanding its fine brown stone frontage, 
was unfit to be occupied by any family who wanted to live 
comfortably. 



HOUSE BUILDING. 



Wooden houses are warm and dry, and for the country as 
well as for town and country in the south, are greatly to be 
preferred. Damp dwellings originate consumption in its most 
insidious and resistless forms. 

If a house is built of brick or stone, the plastering should 
never be laid on the wall itself; the wall should be lathed, so 
as to have an inch or more between the brick or stone and the 
lathing, on which the plaster should be spread. 

When in Havana de Cuba some years ago, for informa- 
tion, not health, I observed that the island w T as composed of 
limestone, so soft that a common pick-axe would dig out the 



110 HalVs Journal of Health. 

cellar in large blocks of stone, out of which the building itself 
was erected ; and not only were these large stones used, but the 
smaller ones, not an inch in diameter, by using mortar largely 
between the large stones, while the small ones were stuck into 
the mortar ; in some cases the small stones and mortar seemed 
to predominate ; but from the hour of building, the wall 
became harder and harder. The large stones themselves 
increased in hardness, so that in the course of a few years the 
wall becomes almost one solid piece of marble, from the influ- 
ence of moisture and carbonic acid absorbed by the soft lime. 
On the same principles, great nature made the conglomerate 
variegated marble columns in the capital at Washington. 

It is by copying after nature, man makes his greatest and 
most useful discoveries. But to get at nature's processes, dis- 
cover the secret of her operations, requires often long years of 
anxious study, of perplexing conjecture, of ruinous expendi- 
ture, of wasting discouragement ; not unfrequently the brain 
itself gives way, and the noble spirit is a wreck 'and ruin, and 
goes forgotten to an unhonored grave. Sooner or later some 
other man, more fortunate, takes up the investigation where 
he left it off, and by being able to bring a store of unimpaired 
energies to the work, pursues it to a successful issue. We glo- 
rify the commonest soldier who has perished on the battle-field 
in trying to kill his brother man, but these unsuccessful strivers 
after great practical truths, our hardy mechanics whose hands 
are scarred and seared with labor, whose joints have stiffened 
and whose bodies have grown bent by incessant stooping toil, 
these are perishing every day, without a drum or funeral note, 
or word of pity or of praise, except indeed to the successful 
few. And yet to the unsuccessful is the world just as much 
indebted. 

I have been thus episodic — still it is somewhat to the point, 
as I wished to honor one of these working men, although 
wholly unknown to me. Ambrose Foster, of Portland, Dodge 
county, Wisconsin, after a long series of experiments, has 
found that if one part of lime is mixed with twelve parts of 
sand, both in a dry state, then run into moulds of any shape, 
and subjected to a pressure of one hundred and twenty tons to 
a single brick, a whitish brick is presented, which piled up in 
regular heaps, so as to allow the air to circulate freely between 



Mind and Health, 111 

them, soon begin to harden, without any other process, and 
without any burning, become in a short time as hard as a solid 
rock, by the moisture in the air being absorbed into the lime, 
which then takes up the carbonic acid, which was driven out 
of it when lime was made by burning the original lime stone. 
All then that is necessary to build a house any where, is to 
have the dry lime and sand, and one of Mr. Foster's pressing 
machines, and bricks can be made without fire, without warp- 
ing, or shrinkage, of any shape or size, and by mixing metallic 
oxides with the material, the bricks can be made of any color, 
needing no paint — both brick and color being as indestructible 
as granite itself — and that too at a less cost than brick or stone, 
while admitting of every variety of perforations, they may be 
made ornamental to the highest degree. 



MIND AND HEALTH. 



Women, the world over, are inquisitive, very ; as largely so 
out of their own sphere as in it. A lady correspondent desires 
to know what the diary of Mr. and Mrs. Sparrowgrass, in a 
previous number, had to do with health ? If courtesy had not 
forbidden, I might have referred her to a Down Easter, on his 
way to Boston, who is said to have been questioned by an 
acquaintance thus : — 

Friend, — Why Eb ! where are you going to-day ? 

Ebenezer. — To Boston. 

Friend. — Why, what upon earth takes you there this time 
of year ? 

Eb. — To get my pension. 

Friend. — Pension ! why, for what % 

Eb. — For services done the country. 

Friend. — What! and how much? Does it pay t 

Eb.—Yes ; well. I get two cents for minding my own busi- 
ness, and two cents for letting other people's alone ! 

But I did not refer my fair inquisitor to Eb ; and more 
pressing matters prevented a reply. I have thought since, that 
perhaps other readers may have had the same inquiry sug- 
gested. It might be well to reply here, once for all. 

1. The first object in determining me tc found this Journal, 
was personal profit 



112 HalVs Journal of Health. 

2. The second object was personal pleasure. 

3. The third object was public good. 

As far as I know, I have not as yet failed in either of these 
three respects, and trust that I will not. The second object 
answers the inquiry. But in connection, I wish to make a 
statement, in reference to which, there is a very great over- 
sight in the public mind ; and that is, that when the subject 
of health is concerned, we instinctively think of physic and 
physicians, of surfeits, and exposures, of dieting, and starva- 
tion, of cramps and pains and all that ; but of the states 
of the mind in their bearing on health and disease, we 
hardly ever make a note. If a man dies of consumption, or 
" sweet seventeen" pales and pines away and dies, it does not 
therefore follow that exposure to wind and rain, or thin stock- 
ings, or wet feet, have done the injury. If another dies of 
inflammation of the brain, we are not to conclude necessarily, 
that intense devotion to some literary or scientific subject, has 
worked the mischief. If still another looks well in the face, 
but has no relish for food, has no sweet sleep at night, but 
dreams and tosses and tumbles by the hour ; and if ever a 
smile lights up his countenance, it is as fitful and as transient, as 
a spark from the smoke-pipe of a locomotive ; these manifesta- 
tions are not as a matter of course the effect of some bodily 
disease, or functional derangement ; but in cases least thought 
of, the malady is in the mind — a mind working so intensely 
as to eat out all the nervous supplies, not leaving enough to 
carry on the bodily machinery. A case of this kind has 
recently occurred in Washington city, in reference to a gen- 
tleman whose indomitable perseverance in following out his 
plans, when water and winds and fire and man, seemed com- 
bined to thwart them, and who for weary months of dis- 
couragement and long years of baffled purposes, right nobly 
has stood up, and breasted all, but in the last conflict he died, 
March 5th, 1855, at his residence, on Capitol Hill, Washing- 
ton city, and as is believed, from the effects which ill treatment 
by some of the officers at Washington, had on his mind. The 
highest authority inquires — A wounded spirit, who can hear f 
It was Robert Mills, civil engineer, and planner of the national 
monument. From similar causes, many a noble heart has 
perished before, whose organization was too highly strung to 



Mind and Health. 113 

meet the rude bufferings of a world like this. Thus it is, that 
I address myself often, in the conduct of this Journal, to the 
passions, to the sensibilities, to the social conduct, as a means 
of health, and as a cause of disease. Laughing makes the 
body fat, is a familiar and a truthful saying ; therefore what 
promotes innocent and instructive laughter, promotes health ; 
and if any body can read Mr. and Mrs Sparrowgrass's experi- 
ence in living in the country, and not laugh until the tears 
run down the cheeks, as freely as if a whole onion had been 
squeezed into each eye, it is rather more than I can do ! 

Whatever promotes a comfortable and harmless state of 
the mind, promotes health. If I tell my readers what po- 
liteness is, and how they may become so, and it is practiced, 
I thus am found in the legitimate conduct of a health journal. 
Who does not know that a single courteous act, or even word, 
will sometimes break up in an instant, a reverie of sadness, and 
place a gladness, where, but an instant before, there was 
gloom. And any observant reader may, in his own experi- 
ence, harrow up instances, full numerous even in a short life, 
where an act of thoughtless or unexpected, or undeserved rude- 
ness, has caused a tempest of feeling which hours and days have 
failed to allay — aye, half a century sometimes, a fruitful 
source of fresh resentment whenever thought of, for the whole 
of after life — long after the churl or boor who excited it, has 
gone to his grave ! In the same way, if I teach young men to 
be punctual, and thus save to others the fretfulness of dis- 
appointment ; if I teach them to be methodical, and by 
having a place for every thing and every thing in its place, 
save them from fits of passion, by not finding it in its place on 
emergency ; if I council them not to go in debt in early life, 
beyond what they have ample and certain means to pay, with- 
out a sacrifice, and thus save them from that wasting solicitude 
which has destroyed many a noble minded merchant ; if I say, 
by these and other means, I promote politeness, punctuality, 
honorable dealing and other mental and moral virtues, I thus 
am promoting human happiness and necessarily human health. 
For morals, virtue, religion, health, all react on one another. 

Southey was a man of method and of system. Although he 
effected so much, his friend Wordsworth said of him he never 
found him in a hurry, yet he accomplished an amount of labor, 



114 Hall's Journal of Health. 

with such little apparent effort, as to be almost incredible. 
General Washington had such a special arrangement of his 
time at Mount Vernon, after retiring from the presidency, that 
he had his kindling wood brought in over night, so that he not 
only need not disturb the servants unnecessarily early, but that 
by kindling his own fires, his mind might not be ruffled in 
the early part of the day, to give its tinge to subsequent 
duties, and more, that he might not lose time in waiting for a 
servant, who might oversleep himself, or might fail occasion- 
ally to " hit it," in the way of kindling ; thus wisely avoiding 
the way of temptation for himself, and sparing his servants, 
showing at once his method, his kindness of heart and his 
industry. How many an hour is wasted, no one can tell, by 
the young especially, in waiting in bed for the servant to 
come and kindle the fire of a cold morning, and what angry 
words and more angry thoughts are engendered every day for 
the want of method, in this little domestic item. 



EYES AND COLD WATER 

The aquatic furor has become so general, that for the simple 
reason that cold water is a pure, natural product, it is claimed 
to be a universal and beneficial application. Arsenic is a pure, 
natural and simple product ; so is prussic acid, as obtained from 
a peach kernel. A single drop of tobacco oil will kill a eat or 
dog in five minutes. 

Many persons are daily ruining their eyes by opening them 
in cold water of mornings. Cold water will harden and roughen 
the hands, and much more will it do so to the manyfold more 
delicate covering of the eye ; or, the eye will, in self-defence, 
become scaly in the manner of a fish ; that is, the coats of the 
eye will thicken, constituting a species of cateract, which 
must impair the sight. That water, cold and harsh as it 
is, should be applied to the eye for curative purposes, in 
place of that soft, warm, lubricating fluid which nature manu- 
factures just for such purposes, indicates great thoughtlessness 
or great mental obliquity. Nothing stronger than luke warm 
water should ever be applied to the eye, except by special 
medical advice, and under special medical supervision; for we 
have only one pair to lose. Even warm water should be 



A Great Medicinal Recipe. 115 

applied only by closing the eye and flapping it against the lid 
with the hand, patiently, scarcely letting the fingers touch the 
lid. This cools the eye more rapidly than cold water does, 
and without the shock, while its soothing effect is delightful, 
dissolving or washing out the yellow or other matter which 
may have accumulated over night, in half the time required 
by cold water. 



A GREAT MEDICINAL KECIPE. 

A new use for physic, not to kill men, nor rats nor bed-bugs, 
but to detect counterfeit bank notes. The daguerreotype prin- 
ciple has been so much improved, that not only a facsimile of 
a man's face can be imprinted on a metallic plate, but the fac- 
simile of any bank note can be imprinted on bank note paper, 
so that no bank teller can by the most minute examination 
say which is the counterfeit or which the genuine ; and scien- 
tific men have supposed, that therefore, the days of bank notes 
were ended ; but they reckoned without the doctor. Half a 
dozen grains of corrosive sublimate, dissolved in a teaspoonful 
of water, will kill a man, and a million of bed bugs ; but if it 
is spread over a daguerreotyped bank note, with a camel's hair 
pencil, it instantly obliterates the letters, while it has no effect 
on a common printed note. 

As the time may come when every man who handles paper 
money, will have to keep by him a small bottle of the solution 
above mentioned, and might happen in the hurry of business 
to associate it in his mind with other bottles, and drink it 
down in a fit of absence of mind, it is well enough to add, that 
as the man would be dead before the doctor could come, the 
white of an egg or two beat up in water and swallowed down 
instantly, will be an antidote. If eggs are not at hand, the 
next most accessible expedient is to swallow a table spoon or 
two of flour, stirred quickly in a glass of cold water, or drink 
largely of fresh milk ; ten minutes delay is death. But in any 
event send for a physician. 



How True. — " The forms and ceremonies of politeness may 
be dispensed with, in a measure, in the relations and intimacies 
of one's own fireside, but kind attentions never." 



116 HalVs Journal of Health. 

A PATENT AND PATTERN MOTHER. 

A physician of superior abilities in a neighboring state had 
a daughter of sweet seventeen, whose health was not as good 
as was desired, and not wishing to give her medicine, he made 
arrangements for having her travel leisurely through New 
England for several months, as the most likely means of her 
restoration. At the same time her mother obtained a supply 
of various patent medicines, and placed them in the travelling 
trunk, with private instructions to take them while travelling. 
The daughter to accommodate herself and her father, took the 
journey, and in obedience to the mother, took the physic, and 
as a matter of course, is — still an invalid. The father remains 
in ignorance of the cause of the failure of beneficial results 
from his prescription. 

Lesson. — The child who privately does a thing for one parent, 
Tcnown to oe contrary to the toishes of the other, and the parent 
who can counsel it, are equally guilty of a violence against 
domestic rule, which will not cease to bear the pernicious fruits 
of deception and discord, to the latest hour of their lives. 



TO CURE A COLD. 



A bad cold, like measles or mumps, or other similar ailments, 
will run its course of about ten days, in spite of what may be 
done for it, unless remedial means are employed within forty- 
eight hours of its inception. Many a useful life may be 
spared to be increasingly useful, by cutting a cold short off, in 
the following safe and simple manner. On the first day of 
taking a cold, there is a very unpleasant sensation of chilli- 
ness. The moment you observe this, go to your room and stay 
there / keep it at such a temperature as will entirely prevent 
this chilly feeling, even if it requires a hundred degrees of 
Fahrenheit. In addition, put your feet in water, half leg deep, 
as hot as you can bear it, adding hotter water from time to 
time for a quarter of an hour, so that the water shall be 
hotter when you take your feet out than when you put them 
in ; then dry them thoroughly, and put on warm thick woolen 
stockings, even if it be summer, for summer colds are the 
most dangerous ; and for twenty-four hours, eat not an atom of 



Dieting for Health. 117 

food ; but drink as largely as you desire of any kind of warm 
teas, and at the end of that time, if not sooner, the cold will 
be effectually broken, without any medicine whatever. 

Efficient as the above means are, not one in a thousand will 
attend to them, led on as men are by the hope that a cold will 
pass off of itself ; nevertheless this article will now and then 
pass under the eye of a wise man, who does not choose to run 
the double risk of taking physic and dying too. 



DIETING FOE HEALTH. 



A man may diet as well as physic himself to death. Some 
time since a young man called to see me, thin, pale, despond- 
ent, and with a great variety of symptoms. On inquiry, I 
found he had been reading about diet, vegetable food and 
other similar subjects, and concluding that as many persons 
owed their ill health to over eating, he would eat very little 
of any thing, discarded meat of all kinds, and considered tea 
and coffee as decidedly poisonous in their ultimate effects. 
By this means, provisions being high, he concluded he would 
save money and health too. He had for some time been 
living on bread and potatoes, a small daily allowance, with as 
much cold water as he could possibly swallow, the object of 
that being to keep himself washed out clean. No wonder 
that such a man was an invalid — mind and body full of symp- 
toms. " Dieting" is not starvation, it is living on substantial 
nourishing food, in amount sufficient to satisfy the wants of 
the system. A man is in little danger of eating too much, if 
he will confine himself to two or three plain articles of diet at 
any one meal ; this is a secret which every man and woman 
in the land ought to know. Living exclusively on cold food 
will soon engender disease, especially in cold weather. And 
as certainly will a scant diet do the same if persevered in. A 
striking illustration of this is found in the history of one of the 
greatest men of modern times. 

Napoleon the First, while a subaltern, was in such extreme 
poverty in Paris, that he was sometimes not able to raise ten 
cents with which to purchase a scanty dinner, and conse- 
quently had to go without any ; he had even to borrow worn 



118 IlalVs Journal of Health. 

clothes from acquaintances, and to go out alternately with his 
brother, in the same coat. His food was so scanty that his 
face became pinched, harsh and angular ; at length the skin 
became so diseased that it almost filled one with disgust to 
look at it, and it required all the skill of that eminent and 
able practitioner Corvisart, for several years to eradicate it. 

Lesson 1. — Disease will as certainly be engendered by too 
little food as by too much. 

2. — Dieting consists in adapting the food in quantity as well 
as quality, to the wants of the system. 



BAD TEMPER AND INSANITY. 

Passionate people, the hasty kind, who flare up in a blaze, 
like fire to tow, or a coal to powder, without taking time to 
inquire whether there is any ground for such a pyrotechnic 
display, and then get more furious, when they find out there 
was no cause for their fiery feats, may learn a useful, as well 
as a serious lesson from an item in Dr. Blanchard's report of 
the King's County Lunatic Asylum, that " three men and three 
women became insane by uncontrollable temper." 

We all feel a sympathy for one who has become demented 
from loss of kindred, from disappointment, and from a hard 
lot in life ; but we can have no such feeling for quarrelsome, 
ill natured, fretful, fault finding, complaining, grumbling crea- 
tures, the greater part of whose every day life tends to make 
those whose calamity it is to be bound to them, as miserable 
as themselves. I consider ill nature a crime, and like other 
crimes, is ordained in the government of God, to meet, sooner 
or later, its merited reward. Other vile passions may have 
some points of extenuation, the pleasure for example, which 
may attend their indulgence, but ill nature, that is, a fretful, 
fault finding spirit, in its origin, action and end, has no 
extenuating quality ; and in the application of the Scrip- 
ture principle, " with what measure ye mete, it shall be 
measured to you again" will find a pitiable end. Therefore, 
with all the power God hath given you, strive, reader, and 
strive for life, to mortify this deed of the flesh. Watch hourly, 
watch every moment against the indulgence of a hasty temper 



Hardening the Constitution. 119 

as being offensive to your Maker, and contemptible in the 
eyes of your fellow man ; contemptible, because for the per- 
son who possesses it, and knows it, yet indulges in it, and 
makes no effective efforts to restrain it, no human being can 
have any abiding attachment or respect, founded as it is, in 
low morals, or low intellect, or both. 



HARDENING THE CONSTITUTION. 

Men talk about " hardening the constitution^ and with that 
view, expose themselves to summer's sun and winter's wind, 
to strains and over efforts, and many unnecessary hardships. 
To the same end, ill informed mothers souse their little 
infants in cold water day by day; their skin and flesh, and 
bodies, as steadily growing rougher and thinner, and weaker, 
until slow fever, or water on the brain, or consumption of the 
bowels, carries them to the grave ; and then they administer 
to themselves the semi-comfort and rather questionable conso- 
lation, of its being a mysterious dispensation of Providence, 
when in fact, Providence had nothing to do with it : He 
works no miracle to counteract our follies. 

The best way I know of hardening the constitution, is to 
take good oare of it, for it is no more improved by harsh treat- 
ment, than a fine garment or new hat is made better by being 
banged about. 



NEW YOPwK AND LONDON MORTALITY. 

People live longer in London than in any other large city 
in the world. And excepting epidemics, it is more healthy 
than the country, notwithstanding its dirty streets, its count- 
less cesspools, its infecting cellars, and thousand other sources 
of disease. 

31 die each year out of 1000 under 20 years of age. 
10 " " from 20 to 40 " 

23 " « " 40 to 60 

72 " " « 60 to 80 " 

224 " « « 80 upwards. 

Estimating for the first week in July, 1854, one person a 



120 HalVs Journal of Health. 

week dies in London out of seventeen hundred and ninety-six, 
while in a corresponding week in New York, one person dies 
a week, out of five hundred and eighty-five. 

In London, each week, 1 dies out of every 1796. 

In New York, " 1 " " " 585. 

According to this calculation, three times as many die in 
New York as in London, according to the population. Chemi- 
cal analysis seems to point to the fact that smoke is a great 
absorbent of noxious emanations. London is enveloped in 
everlasting smoke. Can it be that the remarkable exemption 
of Pittsburgh from cholera is partially owing to this cause ? 
It is worthy of observation. 



Average Illness at Different Ages. — It is stated that 
between the ages of 20 and 30, each person has on an average 
nearly 7 days' illness a year ; at 40 it is increased to 8 days ; 
at 45 to 9 ; at 50 to 11 1-2 ; at 55 to 14 ; at 60 to 18 3-4 ; at 
65 to 27 1-2 ; at 70 to 43 1-2 ; and 75 to 66 ; and at 80 to 
97 1-2. 



PETEK'S WIFE'S MOTHER ; 

OR, THE LONG-WINDED SERMON. 

In a small town where the custom was to toll the village 
church bell when any of the citizens died, a clergyman 
announced for his text, " And Peter's wifes mother was laid 
and sick of a fever" He found some means of expatiating on 
it largely, to the extent of several discourses. At length there 
was very decided murmuring among the townsfolk, ending 
in a deputation to the parson, requesting a change of subject, 
but it failed of its effect. And while the congregation were 
devising some more decided procedure, the village bell com- 
menced tolling, to the surprise of every one, as it was not 
known that any one was sick ; several persons went directly 
to the church and inquired with considerable anxiety who was 
dead ? " Peter's wife's mother" replied the sexton. 

Lesson. — Do not spin out your discourses to the little end of 
nothing sharpened J let them he filled with great and weighty 
truths, and leave it to your hearers to expatiate them- in prac- 
tical life. 



Long Prayers. 121 

LONG PKAYEKS 

Are impolitic — they engender an irritable frame of mind, 
and make the body restless. Short, earnest, fervent prayers 
wake up the attention and soften and soothe the unquiet spirit. 
How it is with others I do not pretend to say ; but this I know 
for myself, that when I am compelled to listen to a very long 
prayer, instead of joining in with the petitioner, I am all the 
time praying thatme would quit. I know it is very wrong to 
do so ; but it steals over me before I am aware of it, and leads 
me into another wrong doing, that of feeling more thankful 
that the prayer is over, than for blessings from above. Long 
prayers are for the closet, for the secret chamber, where none 
can witness but the All-Seeing Eye. 



HOW TO PKEACH EFFECTIVELY, 

And with the least wear and tear of mental and physical 
strength. 

1st. Have a thorough knowledge of your subject. 

2. Be deeply impressed with its importance. 

3. Open the discourse with an earnest enunciation, in con- 
cise language, of some striking truth ; this will inevitably 
wake up attention. 

4. Then plunge in medias res, with the fervor of a man who 
is speaking for the last time as to himself or as to some one or 
more hearers as to him, and upon whose skirts hangs the blood 
of immortal souls. 

5. As soon as the burden of the discourse is delivered, sit 
down, even if you have been speaking but twenty minutes, 
but fifteen, but ten ! the value of a discourse is not its length, 
but the nailing home of some great truth on the understanding 
and the conscience ; and be assured that such a truth is there 
for life. Thus you will preach easily for yourself, profitably to 
those who hear you. 



The forms and ceremonies of politeness may be dispensed 
with, in a measure, in the relations and intimacies of one's 
own fireside, but kind attentions, never. 



122 HalVs Journal of Health. 

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS 



Cockroach Riddance. — The Scientific American of New 
York, which fails not in its weekly appearance to give some 
little family recipe, which may he relied on, of more practical 
utility than the two dollars which would pay for its yearly 
subscription, vouches for the fact that 

" Common red wafers, scattered about the haunts of cock- 
roaches, will often drive away, if not destroy them." 

These wafers, like candies, are colored red by oxyde of lead ; 
a most deadly poison, and so is the acetate of lead, or sugar of 
lead, as it is sometimes called, on visiting cards, which being a 
little sweetish, has been known to destroy young children to 
whom they were handed, to be amused with. Fashion for 
once acts sensibly in discarding glazed cards, using instead, 
Bristol hoard, more pliant, less cumbersome, and really more 
delicate. And while we are speaking of one of the pests of 
housekeepers, it may be well to know, 

How to get rid of Rats, old, young, and middle aged, 
with the shortest possible suffering to them, and with small 
probability of their dying in their holes, or other uncomeatable 
places. 

Spread a level teaspoon of flour or corn-meal on a chip or 
small piece of dirty board, sprinkle over this half a grain of 
strychnine ; it kills the rat before he can get to his nest. 

It would be wrong to let this statement pass, in a journal 
like this, without cautioning the reader that strychnine is a 
fine white powder, much like flour, made from the seeds of a 
fruit which looks like an orange, growing on a moderate sized 
tree in the East Indies, in the Island of Ceylon and neighbor- 
ing islands. A sixth of a grain of pure strychnine will kill a 
dog - in half a minute. One grain, which would easily lie on a 
three cent piece, or even less, may prove fatal to a man. 
Hence the reason for not mixing more than half a grain at a 
time, and by putting it on a chip, or dirty board, it would not 
be likely that children would taste it, although the mixture 
with flour, looks very much like white pulverized loaf sugar. 
As it is such a deadly and instantaneous poison, no more than 
half a grain should be purchased at a time ; it should not be 



The Proportion of Deaf and Dumb in Europe. 123 

allowed to pass out of the hands of the head of the family for 
a single moment. The mixture should be placed in a room 
the last thing at night, the door locked, the key put in the 
pocket, and removed the first thing in the morning, by throw- 
ing chips and all into the fire, washing the hands well after 
doing so, as also after first mixing it, for a great deal less than 
a grain would kill a man, if it happened to fall on a sore or 
cut finger. 



A New Wrinkle. — It is said to have been satisfactorily 
demonstrated that every time a wife scolds her husband she 
adds a new wrinkle to her face ! It is thought that the an- 
nouncement of this fact will have a most salutary effect, espe- 
cially as it is understood that every time a wife smiles on her 
husband it will remove one of the old wrinkles ! Mr. Caudle 
is delighted with the discovery, and anticipates sunshine the 
year round, as Mrs. Caudle has an unquenchable desire to 
appear young and handsome, and mourns deeply over the 
rapid departure of her youthful charms. Poor, curtain-lec- 
tured husbands are looking up. 



Punishment of Babbling Women in " Old Virginny." — 
As late as 1792, the following act is said to have been passed 
by the Legislature of Virginia: ■" An Act for the punishment 
of scandalous persons. — Whereas, many babbling women slan- 
der and scandalize their neighbors, for which their poor hus- 
bands are often involved in chargeable and vexatious suits and 
costs in great damages. — Be it therefore enacted by the autho- 
rity aforesaid, that in actions of slander, occasioned by the 
wife, after judgment passed for damages, the woman shall be 
punished by ducking; and if the slander should be so enor- 
mous as to be adjudged at greater damages than five hundred 
pounds of tobacco, then the woman to suffer a ducking for 
each five hundred pounds of tobacco adjudged against the 
husband, if he refuses to pay the tobacco." 



The Proportion of Deaf and Dumb in Europe. — It ap- 
pears that the proportion of deaf and dumb in Ireland is one 
in every 1,593 inhabitants ; in the Duchies of Luxembourg 
and Wurtemburg, and the kingdoms of Tuscany, Bavaria, Bel- 
gium, and Holland, one in every 2,209 ; in Sardinia, Norway 



124 HalVs Journal of Health. 

and parts of Switzerland, one in every 642. In some of the 
Swiss cantons the average is as high as one in every 506 — more 
than seven times as great as in Ireland. 



Square Feet in an Acre. — An acre contains 43,560 square 
feet. 

A plot of ground 208f feet square is very near an acre, 
being just 1-16 of a rod over. A nearer approximation is 208 
feet and 9 \ inches. The square of this number diifers less than 
a foot from an acre, being 43,559 1-6 feet. 

A plot of ground 12 rods 10 feet and 8J inches square, is an 
acre. For ordinary purposes it will answer to take a plot 12J 
rods square, which will give 160 2-5 rods, 160 being an acre. 

An acre is contained in a plot 3 by 53J rods ; or 4 by 40 ; 
or 5 by 32 ; or 6 by 26} ; or 7 by 22 6-7 ; or 8 by 20 ; or 9 by 
17 7-9 ; or 10 by 16 ; or 11 by 14 6-11 ; or 12 by 13± 



Causes of Insanity. — In the report made by Dr. Blanchard, 
of the Kings County Lunatic Asylum, some singular features 
are developed as to the causes operating to produce insanity. 
The relative liabilities of the two sexes to be affected by causes 
operating upon the affections are also exhibited. The loss of a 
daughter caused the insanity of one woman, and the loss of a 
wife produced the same result in one man. One man and two 
women were crazed by disappointed love, one man and three 
women by jealousy, one woman by the desertion of her hus- 
band, and one man by domestic difficulty ; three men and 
three women became insane by uncontrollable temper, one wo- 
man by hatred of her step-mother, three men and three women 
by religious enthusiasm, twelve men and eleven women by 
dissipation. 

Boiled Plum Pudding. — Take one pound of good suet, cut 
it into small pieces, and add one pound of currants and one of 
stoned raisins, eight eggs, one nutmeg grated, one teaspoonful 
of ginger, one pound of flour, and one pint of milk ; to the 
eggs, previously well beaten, add one-half the milk, and mix 
well together ; stir in the flour, the spice, fruit and suet, and 
as much milk as is requisite to reduce the mixture to a plastic 
consistency, but quite thick. Boil from four to five hours. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



our legitimate: scope is almost boundless: for whatever begets pleasurable 

and harmless feelings. promotes health; and whatever induces 

disagreeable sensations, engenders bisease. 

VOL. II.] JUNE, 1855. [NO. VI. 



A SUGGESTION TO CHRISTENDOM. 

Taking it for granted that the Bible is a revelation of 
Heaven, whose object is to Christianize the whole human 
family : that this should be done in the speediest manner possi- 
ble : that it is not to be accomplished by miraculous power, but 
through human instrumentalities, the main of which are the 
circulation of the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, 
and their oral exposition by educated men: that "the field is 
the world" embracing every kingdom, and tribe, and people 
of the habitable globe, and assuming the conceded fact, that 
multitudes are daily passing down to endless night, for the 
lack of that gospel ; admitting these things to be true, what is 
the obvious, the great practical inference which obtrudes itself, 
with resistless power, on the intellect and the heart of every 
thoughtful Christian ? — That whole armies of educated minis- 
ters should be starting out from the church all the time, bound 
for all the world, with copies of the Sacred Scriptures as nu- 
merous as the drops of morning dew, for judicious distribution. 

How to raise these armies of new clergymen, I purpose dis- 
cussing, one of these days, with a startling, yet truthful devel- 
opment, not seen by the many now, but by the few seen and 
winked at. 

The point most deplored at present, is the fewness of the 
laborers, and the alarming fact, as to the United States at least, 
that ministers are but slowly increasing as to numbers and popu- 
lation, while there are fewer communicants, proportioned to the 
whole people, than there was eleven years ago ; while foreign 
immigration, with its anti-christian, revolutionary and panthe- 



136 HalVs Journal of Health. 

istic sentiments, with its indecent and impertinent interference 
with our institutions, loudly demands, in tones of a thousand 
thunders, the immediate and large increase of a thoroughly 
educated and well paid ministry. 

But next in importance to increasing the number of clergy- 
men, is the taking proper care of those who are already in the 
field ; and this brings us within the more immediate scope of 
a Journal of Health. I mean the preservation and restoration 
of the health of ministers. As a class, I think I may very 
truly say, the clergy of the United States are a sickly race. You 
can scarcely come across one anywhere, who has not an ache, 
or a pain, or a symptom of some kind ; and it is notorious, 
that many of them perish long before their prime, or are ren- 
dered incapable by ill-health of continuing their official duties, 
and thus their services are almost wholly lost to the church, as 
far as their ministerial functions are concerned. 

As to those who are blest with good health, they may be 
dismissed with the suggestion that it is their duty, as it is in 
their power, to maintain that good health ; that it is a talent 
entrusted to their care, and for its preservation and employ- 
ment, the great Head of the church will hold them to a strict 
accountability. To the large class of invalid clergymen, and 
to the church, whose servants they are, I wish to make some 
suggestions, which would give a vigor to church aggression, to 
" church extension" which no man or set of men now living 
have perhaps dreamed of. 

Hunt up every regularly educated sick clergyman in 
the land, who is able to mount a' horse, and whose standing 
among his brethren is " without a spot or wrinkle, (yr any such 
thing f assure him of two dollars a day, rain or shine, through- 
out the year, regularly paid on* the last day of each month, 
present him with a good horse, a Bible, a hymn book, and a 
concordance, adding, if you please, the prayer book, or a con- 
fession of faith of his denomination, and require him to travel 
and preach every day and Sunday too, continuous, from one 
year's end to another, reserving his daily wages, and imposing 
a fine of two dollars for every day he does not preach ; require 
him to preach at least four times a year at each post-office 
station within a certain number of counties ; let him be 
required not to sleep in the same house over twice a year, nor 



A Suggestion to Christendom. 137 

to eat at the same table more than thrice in succession. Now, 
what would be the effect of a plan like this, carried out with 
energy ; such an energy, indeed, as the times of the world now 
most imperatively demand? Some of the first and more im- 
mediate results would be, that 

1. A large class of our worthiest, best educated, law-abiding, 
most influential, and competent men, would be relieved of that 
crushing apprehension of want, which is enough to cripple the 
energies of the stoutest heart 

2. The gospel, as to its great essentials, would be preached 
to thousands every day, who do not now hear it, in its purity, 
once a year, or even in a decade, in places not a few, even 
on this side the Mississippi River, as I know. 

3. From the very first week, the health of these men would 
improve, in nine cases out of ten, while the ease of preaching, 
being a daily business, would steadily increase, whether they 
had Bronchitis, Throatitis, Lungitis, or any other kind of " itis," 

4. By eating and sleeping at different houses every time, 
they would have opportunities of offering a prayer here, of 
reading a chapter there, and dropping a word of exhortation 
yonder, to some diffident boy, some shamefaced girl, some 
rough farm-laborer or neglected servant maid, which might, 
yes! would, with demonstrable certainty, spring up after- 
wards to the fruitage of a Webster, a Catharine, or a Joseph 
Hume. How are the watchmen sleeping, while the day almost 
breaketh, the time for their labor almost gone ! 

Be assured, Christian men and women, the Sebastopol of the 
Prince of darkness will never be taken, as long as you and 
your ministers work but one day in seven. If I understand 
aright, you enlisted "for the war" not for one-seventh portion 
of it. Religion and preaching must be an every day work 
to every one of you, or the millennial day glory will never 
dawn on your eyes ; especially while so many of your leaders, 
your clergy, are on the sick list. There is full, there is double 
work for every one of them ; the church cannot afford to have 
a single hand sick ; wake up, then, to some such plan as I 
have now suggested, and its heaven-saving effects will not 
cease, till the last wave of time is rolled into eternity's ocean. 

These are not mere sounding words, the jingle of a well- 
turned sentence, but a great truth, that work banishes sickness, 



138 HalVs Journal of Health. 

that hard, steady labor promotes sound health, with constantly 
increasing capabilities of mind and body, while such an entire 
immersion in soul-saving, as every day preaching would in- 
volve, would in time give a presence, a moral power to the 
speaker in every emotion of his heart, in every glance of his eye, 
in every expression of his countenance, almost equal to the 
eloquence of an angel. It was the brightness of Moses' face, 
when he had been forty days in communion with his God, 
which carried with it a power, almost supernatural, over the 
hitherto impenetrable hearts and consciences of the Israeli tish 
multitude. 

As confirmation of some of the statements made, I give 
here the illustration of facts in the case of Dr. Williams, who 
is even now preaching with almost youthful vigor, and with 
more than youthful efficiency, three times every Sabbath day, 
at the age of seventy-five years. Fie upon you, ye sickly folk, 
yet in your twenties, whom a single Sunday's discourse " lays 
up" for the balance of the week; go to, crack rock, peddle 
books on commission, do anything honorable to secure the 
means of purchasing a horse, if your Christian brethren around 
you are not noble-hearted enough to furnish you, and like good 
old Father Williams, scale mountains, penetrate valleys, ride 
miles by the thousand, and by it get the health which he has, 
and which these very same tilings helped to secure to him, 
and like him live in usefulness, and efficiency, and honor, to 
the same green old age. But start not out, unless the minimum 
salary I have named is guaranteed by the church, whose servant 
you are ; on the ground that the laborer is worthy of his hire. 
A common drayman gets two dollars a day, and surely an 
educated clergyman is worth a drayman's wages, when it is 
considered that his mission is not to lift up bales and boxes, 
but to raise up men ; not to transport bags and barrels along 
the highway, but to conduct humanity to heaven. If the 
church will not sustain you, then you are free to lay down 
your tools, as her public servant, and to shake the dust from 
your feet as her disgrace and her anathema. Working for 
nothing and finding oneself is not the requisition of the Chris- 
tian system ; a man may do it, but his Master does not require 
it of him ; no man of reflection can possibly entertain 
such a sentiment for a moment, if considered maturely. 



A Suggestion to Christendom. 139 

The point I am arriving at is the restoration to full health and 
to capabilities of full ministerial duty of the large number of 
clergymen, who are now more or less inefficient in consequence 
of ill-health ; of health lost in the service of the church. A 
soldier disabled in trying to shoot his brother man, is at once 
placed on the pension list, but a clergyman whose youth and 
manhood have been spent in the effort to throw around this 
world a chain of love, and raise it up to heaven, if he is disa- 
bled in his God-like work, is turned out to die like an old dray 
horse. 

The first step towards their regeneration is to place them 
and their families above the fear of want ; a second means is 
to present to their eyes an open door of labor in the good old 
cause, around which gather the fond associations of youth 
departed ; even like the old war-horse, the first sound of the 
trumpet "to charge," will of itself awaken them out of half 
their ailments ; for be assured, that a man who has been once 
a clergyman at heart, will never cease to be one in will, when- 
ever there is a way. 

These two items — relief from the fear of want, by the 
securement of a liberal salary, and the prospect of immedi- 
ately entering upon their favorite work,— would at once pro- 
duce such a reaction in the nervous system and that of the 
blood, as would make of this estimable class, new men ; while 
being followed up by the healthful influences of horse-back 
exercise, of out door air, of change of food, and of a new 
object ahead, some new point to be gained, every hour, there 
would be a change of bodily health for the better, which, if 
any medicine could produce, would give its possessor, in a 
single year, the wealth of Croesus a thousand times told. As 
confirmatory of these views, and as food for serious considera- 
tion, I will close this, without further remark just now, with a 
communication from the ably conducted Baptist paper, the 
Watchman and Reflector ', Boston. 

" The reverend and venerable Dr. Williams is closely con- 
nected with the family of John Henry, who in 1693 suffered 
martyrdom in London, and is considered by many as the 
" morning star of the reformation of Cambria," and the orig- 
inator of the first proposal of the movement of the Pilgrim 
fathers to this country. Mr. Williams inherits no small portion 



140 HalVs Journal of Health. 

of the noble spirit of the martyr." He is pastor of the Inde- 
pendent or Congregational church at Troedrhindalar, in Wales, 
and for fifty years has maintained a high reputation through- 
out his native country as a preacher and pastor, and is yet a 
hale and vigorous workman. He is the oldest minister in 
Wales, and though now seventy-five years of age, preaches 
regularly three times every Lord's day. He began to preach 
when he was twenty-one ; was ordained a pastor in 1803, and 
for some years his labors were of the most arduous and 
self-denying character ; and though his engagements have 
been varied and laborious, and have compelled him to take 
frequent journeys across the mountains, and almost pathless 
wilds, through rain and snow, he has never once been disabled 
from preaching. In his younger days he was considered a 
splendid horseman, and even now he would tire many a hunter. 
He must have spent some years in the saddle, for the number 
of miles he has traveled on horseback is almost incredible. 
As the apostle of Breconshire, and as a regular preacher for 
forty years, at all the large out-of-door gatherings in North 
and South Wales, his traveling has been beyond reckoning. 
The church at Troedrhindalar, of which he is pastor, has 
had only three ministers during the last one hundred and sixty 
years. The present pastor has held his office for fifty years ; 
his predecessor, the Rev. Isaac Price, was the minister for fifty 
years; and. his predecessor, the Rev. Thomas Morgan, was the 
minister for sixty years. Mr. Williams testifies that during 
the whole of these one hundred and sixty years, the church 
has enjoyed uninterrupted peace and harmony. During his 
pastorate alone it has received above fifteen hundred into fel- 
lowship. 



HOW TO LEAYE CHURCH, 

Shut Your Mouth and Move on. — That tells the whole 
story. To spread out all the advantages, as the subject merits, 
would require several pages. City human nature is to be 
always in a hurry — it is a necessity. We must be in a hurry, 
or out of bread. Five minutes is half a dollar or half a thou- 
sand to some business man in New York, in character or 
money in almost any day in the year. Banks are closed at the 



How to Leave Church. 141 

moment. All the great lines of rail cars and steamboats leave 
at the moment, and that moment lost, is twelve or twenty-four 
hours gone forever. Many a reader will acknowledge a 
decided feeling of irritation or impatience, if not actual mental 
anathema, at the inconsiderate practice of many church goers, 
of stopping to shake hands in the aisles, at the close of religi- 
ous services. This leads to exchange of compliments, and 
inquiries and answers, standing still the while, and thus hin- 
dering all the crowd behind them. Others reserve their loiter- 
ing until they reach the door-steps, and then take a deliberate 
view of the throng before them, apparently satisfied with hav- 
ing reached the fresh air themselves. There is scarcely ever a 
religious assembly, at which there is not one or more persons 
whom some urgent business — some sick child, or suffering 
parent does not call away in all haste, compatible with the 
decencies of the occasion, and no one has a right to deprive 
me of the earliest return to loved ones at home. Not only is 
that minute lost to me, — and how long is even a minute to the 
suffering expectant one there — but an equal time is lost to the 
fifty or five hundred who may be behind me. To those who 
aim to " Do justly and love mercy" I commend reflection on 
this point. 

Besides, when I have heard a good discourse, — when I have • 
been really fed in the sanctuary — I don't want to be irritated 
out of it, by a thoughtless loiterer, who thus makes me run the 
risk of losing an engagement or missing an appointment. 
Then again, when one has been warmed up religiously by a 
heart-searching gospel sermon, and his whole soul is subdued 
by the soothing influence of Bible preaching, it falls harshly 
indeed upon the ear, to have remarks made, whether of idle 
compliment, or cold formality, or profane mirth. ISTot long 
since, in a Fifth Avenue church, I was obliged to listen to a 
lady in the aisle, remarking to a gentleman, on the comparative 
merits of a dinner of soup or one of mush and milk. She 
averred they were both excellent — for poor people ; for I soon 
learned she was connected with a benevolent soup society, or 
a soup benevolent society. That did alter the case some ; for 
it is an old time maxim of mine, that the case heing altered, 
alters the case. Still, altered as it was, the sense of the ridicu- 
lous had got such an ascendancy, that every idea of the ser- 



14:2 H.alVs Journal of Health. 

mon, if it had any, took to itself wings and flew away, and 
what is more, they never came back again ; and for hours 
after, there were floating about in my brain, images of poverty 
and Fifth Avenue, gospel soup, mush preaching, philanthropic 
barege, muslin de'laines, cashmere shawls. The preaching of 
that day was lost to me. I had understood, before, that the 
gospel was " oread" — that it was the "pure milk of the word;" 
and on one occasion, in the little English chapel in Paris, not 
far from the Champ D'Elysees, that it was the real Eau De vie, 
and ought to be drank freely ; but that it should be mixed up 
in my mind with such things as "soup," "stirabout," "mush," 
yes, vulgar " mush" is too bad. 

But near that lady there may have been another, upon 
whose heart the sermon had fallen with penetrating power, 
whom it had almost persuaded to be a Christian; and as he 
was slowly passing out, he might have been just on the point 
of deciding to be a Christian now. Would not the sound have 
fallen upon his ears as Milton's doors, turning upon their rusty 
hinges, " grating harsh thunder." The sound of mush ! 

Not very many years ago, a young man had been deeply 
impressed with the importance of religion, and concluded 
that after the service, he would call upon the minister for con- 
versation and instruction ; but a person near him was over- 
heard to say, " What a tedious sermon that was ; " he immedi- 
ately reflected that surely his feelings were overwrought, and 
that he had attached more importance to the discourse than 
was merited. The result was, he did not call upon the minis- 
ter, and died several years afterwards, never having had a 
return of those serious feelings. Humanly speaking, tins man 
was almost saved ; died, having been in sight of heaven — but 
never reached there. He died not far from home ; but never 
got nearer ! 

But this subject has a bearing on health, of greater impor- 
tance than many might imagine. If churches are chilly, the 
sooner you get out after service, and walk briskly, so as to 
wake up the circulation, the greater will be your chances of 
not taking cold. 

Usually in cold weather, churches become warm — almost 
oppressively so — towards the close of the services ; the ther- 
mometer approaching seventy degrees, causing in many actual 



How to Leave Church. 143 

perspiration. If you go immediately into the street, and the sun 
gives no sign of thaw, there is a change in a moment's time, 
of some forty degrees. Under such circumstances, walking slow 
and conversing, the raw wind penetrates the clothing and chills 
the skin, while a cold dash of air is thrown in upon the tender 
lungs at each word or two or sentence, through the open 
mouth ; thus in a moment's time checking external perspira- 
tion and chilling the whole lungs. But suppose you walk fast ; 
that creates a vigorous throwing of the warm blood to the skin, 
to the surface, and counteracts the effects of a cold wind, to a 
very considerable extent; while, if the mouth be closed, the 
cold air is not at once thrown in upon the lungs, enervated by 
breathing hot air for two hours; but it passes up the nostrils, 
and making a circuit through the head, down to the throat, is 
thus thoroughly warmed before it gets to the lungs, and causes 
no shock at all. It is the neglect of this simple precaution, 
which originates colds, and not unfrequently fatal ones. Many 
persons are kept from going to church because they "are sure 
to take cold there y" though I have not known a person to 
avoid the theatre, the concert, or the opera on that account. 

I do not advise by any means that persons should bolt out of 
church as if the house were on fire. For common decorum 
requires a pause after the benediction has been fully pro- 
nounced ; but when you have once left your pew, move on 
with decent pace ; make no pauses : engage in no conversa- 
tion with any one, until you have reached the side walk, and 
if when you get there, your sense of propriety allows you to 
stand still, obstructing and staring at passers by, be it so. It 
is not quite so objectionable as barricading a church aisle. 

Taking every view of the case, a short practice will convince 
any observer of the advantages physical, polite-i-cal, and reli- 
gious, of following the advice at the head of this article — " In 
leaving church, shut your mouth and move on" 



TO PREVENT OUSTING. 

If you want to go to a church other than your own, and do 
not want to be marched in and out of the pew two or three 
times in the course of the service, go early, take a lady with 
you, ask the sexton for a seat, go in first yourself to the far- 



144 HalVs Journal of Health. 

ther end of the pew, and let the lady follow ; you will be well 
paid in the feelings of relief from the annoying apprehensive- 
ness, that every person nearing the pew door is the owner or 
lady, to whom it is necessary to pay the accustomed deference 
of getting up and allowing them to pass in. 

The history of this valuable discovery of mine may be 
instructive. In 1843, I happened to be in Philadelphia at the 
time when persons were returning from the springs and other 
places of public resort. It was announced in the papers that 
Dr. Bethune had returned to the city, and would preach next 
day, (Sabbath) ; the public were invited to attend. Having a 
desire to hear the celebrated poet-preacher, I went, taking 
with me a southern gentleman, an invalid. We went early, 
to prevent disturbing others, and were shown to a pew in the 
central block. I was reading a hymn, and on looking up, 
noticed a man and woman standing at the pew door. I inter- 
preted a nod of the head from the former to mean that he was 
the owner, and wanted us to come out and let his companion 
in ; accordingly, she passed in and took the seat farthest from 
the aisle, and he occupied the one next the door ; not observ- 
ing any intimation that we should return, we went to the ves- 
tibule and asked the sexton for a seat ; he said we could find 
seats in the gallery, but my friend could not conveniently go 
up stairs ; so we waited in the vestibule until the congregation 
appeared to be all collected, when we went in again and occu- 
pied the bench up against the wall nearest the door, which 
seemed to be free to all. My friend was by this time so wea- 
ried in body, and ruffled in mind, that the sermon did him no 
good at all. I was sorry for it, because it was the last he ever 
heard. As for myself, I had become case hardened ; inter- 
course with the world and travel had rhinocerosed my sensi- 
bilities, and I employed myself in devising some method of 
effectually preventing the recurrence of such a contre temps. 
The result was three resolutions : 

1. Go to no church but my own. 

2. If called occasionally to go to another church, without 
public invitation, to take the seat without cushions or books 
nearest the door, usually appropriated to negroes and " poor 
white folks." 

3. If by public invitation, construing it to mean that seats 



How to he Eloquent. 145 

are free to all who come, to take a lady, go early, and pass 
into the pew before her. 

I have found this an unfailing recipe, and it is worth being 
remembered, if you are modest or ugly and conscious of it, 
do not like to be seen. If you are handsome and well dressed, 
take the usual method, and you will have several opportunities 
of attracting the attention of the whole congregation. 



HOW TO BE ELOQUENT. 



Eloquence consists in feeling a truth yourself and in making 
tlwse who hear you, feel it. Oratory is not vociferation ; it is 
not stamping a hole in the platform, nor beating all the dust 
out of the cushion of the pulpit ; nor tearing off your coat-tail 
in the violence of your gesticulations, a la Gavazzi ; it is not 
holding the breath until the face is purple and the eyes blood- 
shot ; it is not hissing through the teeth like the fizzle of a 
squib, nor crouching down, then bounding upward like a wild 
cat springing on a 'possum ; nor ranting about from one side 
of the rostrum to another until the skin is drenched in perspi- 
ration, and the body weakened into helplessness : you are not 
eloquent in all this, unless it be for the grave, for it is suicidal. 
I will tell you how : — The minister of my youth preached thus 
and perished — went from health to the grave in twenty-four 
hours. He was an earnest speaker in a small church, in cold 
weather at night from home ; he was invited to the house of 
an elder near by ; it was late, and they ushered him into their 
best room, seldom used except by the most favored ; no fire 
was kindled, the sheets were cold and damp. Being modest 
he said nothing, but hoped no harm would result from it ; but 
harm did result — the perspiration was checked at once — the 
efforts of the day had produced such physical exhaustion, that 
there was no power of reaction ; the result was a congestive 
chill, terminating fatally in a few hours. Not long since, a 
gentleman came to me, who had been an effective political 
speaker ; after the close of an exciting address, he rode several 
miles in a cold east wind, checking perspiration, falling on 
the throat, travelling downward to the lungs, and he will not 
live sixty days. The lives of ministers, oftener than those of 



146 HaWs Journal of Health. 

any other class of persons, are thrown away in this manner 
constantly. The February number for last year advises as to 
conduct under such circumstances. I, as a world's wanderer, 
found out a long time ago, that very often, the best side of a 
led was the outside. If the minister just referred to had lain 
on the bed with his clothes on, and drawn the cover over him, 
he might perhaps have rumpled his shirt collar or his dickey- 
bosom ; but then he would, humanly speaking, have been alive 
to this day, working for the Master. It is wonderful, what 
multitudes of men blunder along life's pathway in utter 
thoughtlessness ! This excellent gentleman was a fine scholar, 
and a leader of his brethren ; he was our neighbor, and came 
in one day to request a younger brother to come and stop a 
hole in his fence to keep the pigs out from the street ; he said 
he had been thinking how to do it himself, but could not 
make it out. He reminded me of another, some say it was Sir 
Isaac Newton, who had a favorite cat, and she had a parcel 
of kittens ; as the weather was cold, he concluded to have a 
hole cut in a side door to enable her to come in and out ; when 
that was done, it occurred to him that there was greater need 
for the little kittens to come in and get a warm once in a 
while, so he had a small hole for their accommodation cut 
beside the large one. And so it is with many learned men ; 
they will not think about what they deem small matters, and 
in consequence often lose life, and with it all things. Let all 
remember, then, that perspiration suddenly checked in the 
way just named, or in any other, slays annually its thousands. 
Not even an " iron constitution" can bear with impunity sud- 
denly checked perspiration. 

Eloquence, as I was saying at the commencement of this 
article, is not in the tempest or the tornado; not in the rolling 
of the thunder nor in the coruscation of the fierce lightning, 
for inspiration says, it is in the still small voice, in the mur- 
murings of the gentlest zephyr. So it is with man among his 
fellows ; it is not boisterous wordyism, but calm and earnest 
truthfulness. We need more of heart and less of voice, if we 
would carry men with us, and take them captive agaist their 
will. In the stern, hard, dry place of a court-room, tears spring 
unbidden to eyes that seldom weep, as the judge passes sen- 
tence of long years of imprisonment or a terrible death ; but 



The Food we Eat. 147 

whoever heard of a judge being boisterous there? And is not 
every sermon a " savor" of endless death to some ? Be 
assured, our clergy must feel more ; until then, the preaching 
of the gospel will be still, for the most part, as sounding brass, 
or a tinkling cymbal. 



THE FOOD WE EAT. 



Men, women, children and cattle have been within a year 
past, and are now, starving for the want of necessary food, in a 
country too, capable of feeding abundantly a population fifty 
times greater than at present. It is stated that in Polk and 
Floyd counties, Georgia, there is such a scarcity of provisions, 
that many of the families are almost starving, and public meet- 
ings are called, to adopt measures of relief, in this year of 
1855. 

This state of things is attributed by some, to the want of 
rain or other unpropitiousness of season ; by others to the high 
price of provisions, dependent on the European war. But 
reflection will perhaps convince all that the real reason is, too 
many people are trying to get along without work — to make 
money by speculation. Too many parents consider labor 
degrading, and consequently push their children into the pro- 
fessions, into salaried positions, when in reality they are far 
better adapted to the plow. Manual labor everywhere merits 
respect and honor. I have never pulled off my hat to man or 
woman born ; but I do instinctively raise my hand to the brim, 
when I pass an iron foundry and see the men all blackly 
begrimmed, patiently working hour after hour in sweat and 
heat and dirt, and for a remuneration too, which barely covers the 
necessities of life for them and theirs ; showing, however, they 
prefer thus to live and drag out an existence of toil, rather than 
by questionable practices, by gaming, by going in debt through 
false pretences, then failing full-handed, live the remainder of 
their days in idleness and ease. No man of reflection can help 
respecting such men, any more than he can help looking with 
contemptuousness on the well dressed loafer, or the aristocratic 
spendthrift who would not care to be seen talking to the toil- 
worn workman. And yet although we all know this, we turn 
right around and bring up our children to a mode of life which 



148 HalVs Journal of Health. 

exempts them from manual labor. Thus it is, that people are 
starving in this most fruitful portion of the habitable globe. 
Not because of the potatoe rot, or from want of rain and fruit- 
ful seasons, but from the inconsistencies of parents in the 
middle and upper classes of society. 

But the evil is upon us, and we want present relief; and to 
that end I propose offering some suggestions on the true 
economy of food. If we have not a good deal of it, and have 
but little money to purchase, the obvious plan should be to 
ascertain what kinds of food are most nourishing and cost 
least ; and what are the most economical methods of prepara- 
tion. For many of the facts I shall use, I am indebted to that 
useful and ably conducted weekly, the " American Agricul- 
turist," published in New York, by Allen & Co., at two dollars 
a year ; and also to the Scientific American, which needs no 
commendation — for it commends itself weekly to its tens of 
thousands of prepaying subscribers. 

The most nutritious articles of food are meats and the cere- 
als : that is, corn, wheat, oats, rye, &c. Vegetables are the 
least nutritions, and in cities especially, the most expensive; 
such as turnips, cabbages, parsnips and the like. Vegetables 
then being expensive and least nutritious, and as meats are not 
used by many from principle, and by a larger number from 
want of money, and moreover, as it ought not to be eaten but 
once in a day except by those who work hard, I will confine 
this article mainly to the consideration of the cereals and their 
preparation, of which the chief is 

GOOD BREAD : AND HOW TO MAKE IT. 

To make good wheaten bread, take a handful of hops, pour on 
three pints of water ; boil, strain, and to the liquor add three 
large potatoes, after they have been washed, pared and grated, 
being stirred in while the liquor is boiling; then add one table- 
spoonful of salt, one tea-cupful of sugar or molasses, and thicken 
with a spoonful of flour; pour it out, and when cool enough, 
add yeast sufficient to rise it ; when light, put it in a cool 
place, for use. 

Next, pare and cut two quarts of potatoes, boil them in 
water enough to mix one gallon of sponge ; when well boiled, 
wash and strain through a cullender, stir in flour while hot; 



To Make Com- Bread — Hominy. 149 

when cool enough, stir in a tea-cupful of yeast — then set to 
rise ; next morning make up your bread in the usual way ; 
when light, mould it into loaves and let it stand until fit to be 
put into the oven. After it is baked, lay it on a wooden shelf 
to cool ; when cooled, wrap it up in a cloth of some kind to 
keep it from drying and becoming hard. 

TO MAKE CORN BREAD. 

Being a native of the land of " corn dodgers," I speak of 
what I have seen. My mother used to say that saleratus was 
poison — so it never appeared on our table in any form. The 
real, genuine, original " corn bread" is made as follows : — 

Sift the Indian or corn meal, so as to be sure there are no 
bugs, crickets, spiders, sticks, nails, pebbles, &c. in it. By the 
way, our flour was sifted also. Stir as much water in this 
coarse sifted meal as will just make it stick together ; take up 
a double handful, lay it over on one hand, flattening it a little 
with the other ; lay it in the skillet, having been first greased 
a little. Usually, three of these handfuls fill the skillet, one 
u dodger" being laid beside the other ; place the skillet on the 
hot coals and ashes, put on the lid, and cover it with the same, 
(from wood.) and when baked sufficiently, place them imme- 
diately on the table, in the shape of three real " pones" of 
bread ; open one side-ways, put in a lump of fresh grass but- 
ter, and eat ad libitum. This is the way the negroes make it 
for themselves. The whites prefer to use milk instead of 
water, adding butter and eggs before cooking. Either wav, 
the bread is delightful. But it cannot be made thus in the 
East, because our millers will persist in grinding it so fine, that 
it mixes into a paste, and in baking, becomes hard as a rock, 
unless it is puffed up and poisoned with saleratus, soda, 
cream of tartar, or some other physic. 

HOMINY 

Is another cheap, nutritious and delightful article of food. 
Having been raised on " Hog & Hominy," I speak from the 
card. There is virtue in the original hominy mill ; so I will 
begin at the beginning, and tell all about it. " Our John" was 
a manufacturer of hominy mills, and was great on wooden 
brooms, ("scrub brooms,' 7 as we called them;) and here, I 



150 HalVs Journal of Health. 

almost drop a literal tear to his memory, as he has just passed 
away, faithful in his old age to the last hour ; for he was 
drowned in some unaccountable manner, while watering the 
plow horses. We never felt any hesitancy " a long time ago," 
in entrusting to him any amount of money; a more faithful, 
honest-hearted fellow never lived, and I trust he may look 
down and see by these lines, that he is not unhonored and for- 
gotten. 

But the hominy mill : A log was cut, four feet long and 
from twenty to thirty inches across. It was set on end, a fire 
kindled on the top, and kept burning until it was burned out 
in the shape of a bowl, large enough to hold a peck or more. 
This was called the " hominy block / " a few handfuls of corn, 
in the grain, were put in at a time, and with a wooden pestle, 
were pounded, until each grain was broken into four or five 
pieces. The chaff was blown off ; some of it was placed in an 
earthen vessel, with just enough water to cover it, and let 
stand all night ; early in the morning it was put on to boil, 
and kept boiling slowly, all day, stirring it occasionally, and 
adding water, just enough to keep it from burning. It may 
then be placed on the table, to be seasoned and eaten as each 
one may fancy. Some put salt on it; others butter, others 
molasses, others eat it with fresh milk. It is as good cold as 
warm. If any is left, it may be made into cake next morning, 
and warmed up with a little fat or butter. Nothing better, 
safer, cheaper and more nutritious, can be eaten, and it is 
wonderful, that in the great scarcity of provisions at this time, 
more of it is not used. It is as good with sugar or molasses, as 
in any other way, and children will revel in it thrice a day 
for weeks together; and sugar too is the only article of human 
consumption that is cheap at this time, as far as I remember; 
and more, it is very highly nutritious, as well as healthful. 
And as corn may be easily kept from one year's end to 
another, a poor man may snap his fingers triumphantly at beef 
steaks, 25 cents per pound, at two dollar potatoes, and thirteen 
dollar flour, by purchasing 

Eight bushels of shelled corn, say . $8 00 

One barrel brown sugar, . . . . 11 00 
A hominy mill, 7 00 

Total, $26 00 



Hominy, &c> 151 

Upon this outlay of twenty-six dollars, a good sized family, 
with a few other articles of trifling value, may subsist, may 
live, and will certainly fatten, for six months. 

I here take occasion to say, that the Scientific American, of 
May 5th, 1855*, page 268, describes a family hominy mill, to 
be obtained from the patentee, B. Bridendolph, Clear Spring, 
Washington county, Maryland, 

This mill is so arranged, that it will grind corn and cob for 
cattle, or grind the corn grain into hominy ; or finer, into meal. 
A hand power will make a bushel of hominy in an hour, while 
a horse power will grind from fifty to eighty bushels a day. 

The two following tables, prepared by Orange Judd, the 
industrious editor of the American Agriculturist, are highly 
useful and instructive in their practical bearing on the economy 
of food 

TABLE NO. ONE. 

Muscle forming Fat-forming Relative Husky or 

elements. elements. proportion woody- 

100 lbs. of each. fiber. 

Barley, 14 lbs. 64 lbs. 1 to 4^ 15 lbs, 

Beans, 26 " 42 " 1 to If 10 " 

Beets 2 " 12 " 1 to 6 (?) 

Buckwheat, 8 " 54" 1 to 6f 25 « 

Carrots, H " 10 " 1 to 6f 3 « 

Corn, 12" " 77 " 1 to 6 J 6 " 

Oats, 17 " 66 " -1 to 4 20 " 

Peas, 24 " 52 " 1 to 2| 8 " 

Potatoes, 2 " 19 " 1 to 9£ 4 « 

Turnips, (field,) ... 1J " 9 " 1 to 6 2 " 

Do. Swedish, . . 2± " 12 " 1 to'SJ 2 " 

Wheat flour, .... 11 u 79" 1 to 7 

Wheat bran, .... 18 u 6 " 1 to | 55 " 

Cheese, (whole milk,) . 28 " 27 " 1 to 1 

Do., (skim-milk,) . 45 " 6 " 1 to | 

TABLE NO. TWO. 

Muscle-producing Cost of muscle 
Cost. elements. producing 

elements. 

Barley, $1.50 pr. bu. 8.4 lbs. 18c pr. lb. 

Beans, 2.50 " 16.6 " 15 " 

Corn, 1.10 " 6.7 " 16| " 

Oats, 68 " 5.2 " 13 " 

Peas, 2.00 " 14.3 " 14 " 

Potatoes, 1.50 \< 1.6 " 94 " 

Turnips, 50 " 1.2 " 41 " 

Flour, (fine,) 12.00 per bbl. 22.0 " 54 " 

Flour, (unbolted,) . . 11.00 " 24.8 u 44 " 



152 Haffis Journal of Health. 

These tables will richly pay their patient and mature study ; 
for their practical use will save many a dollar to the industri- 
ous poor. The estimates will be better understood by remem- 
bering that the muscle-forming elements means strength — the 
strength of labor— or you might better term it ft labor power." 
For example, eighteen cents worth of barley gives one pound 
of labor power. A bushel of barley gives over eight pounds 
of labor power. We may make a comparison in parallel lines, 
to render it clear and memorable. At the prices above named, 

One pound of labor-power from potatoes, costs 94 cents ! ! 



fine flour, 


a 


54 < 


unbolted flour, 


a 


44 < 


turnips, 


a 


41 < 


barley, 


(C 


18 < 


corn, 


cc 


17 < 


beans, 


« 


15 < 


peas, 


u 


14 < 


oats, 


a 


13 < 



After all, " Sawny" is not only a money-making machine, 
but a philosopher ; he revels in oat meal porridge on princi- 
ple — on the solid principle of its helping him to do the most 
labor at the smallest possible money cost. But Jonathan won't 
eat oats, and it isn't worth while to talk about it. So we fall 
back on beans in general ; but being a Kentuckian in particu- 
lar, I'll stick to the corn — that is, in theory. As to actual 
practice, I must say I do not particularly like corn bread. 
Our mother being an Englishman, used to say it tasted to her 
like sawdust ; so we imbibed her prejudices, which remain to 
this day. But I have no doubt corn bread is good, judging 
from its universal appearance on western tables. 

Beans then, as an article of food, are six times cheaper, at 
two dollars and a half a bushel, than potatoes at a dollar and 
a half a bushel ; that is, give six times more substantial nutri- 
ment. 

CABBAGE, 

not from the tailor's shop, but the product of mother earth, 
would, says the " Country Gentleman" soon become the leading 
article of human food, if cooked thus : — Boil it by itself, in 
pure water, till cooked perfectly soft, then serve up, adding 



The Use of Fruits. 153 

butter and -salt to your liking, without vinegar or pepper." 
One pound of cabbage seed will yield 24,000 plants, and about 
eight thousand plants are required to an acre ; with such pro- 
ductiveness, I accord with the New York Tribune, when it 
declares in an able article on u starvation prices," that it is 
the duty and interest of every man who owns a piece of land, 
wherever he can sow a bushel of seed, not to allow the spring 
to slip by without doing it 

THE USE OF FRUITS. 

While on the all important subject of eating, I may as well 
make a few suggestions as to their use, although this article is 
already long. 

Some people have a perfect phobia of fruits — especially in 
summer time, when most abundant, most perfect and in their 
season. As there is no help for the ratiocinative capabili- 
ties of such folk, we will pass them by, and address our remarks 
to people of plain common sense ; that happy class who have 
no kinks on either side of the skull. 

Fruits and berries of every description, if properly used, are 
the great preventives of all summer diseases, of fevers, fluxes, 
head aches, side aches, neuralgias, blue devils, dumps didoes 
and desperations. 

How % 

Because their natural tendency is to prevent constipation, 
and by keeping the bowels soluble, that is, daily acting, they 
give an outlet to all febrile and bilious " humors," thus keep- 
ing the system cool, and carrying from it all its excess of 
blood. Our perversity takes everything in its season but fruits. 
Even a pig is tabooed in summer ; but fruits we muss up, and 
distort with sugar, and molasses and spices, to be consumed in 
winter time, when we don't want any cooling off. But that is 
always the way with people of uncommon sense ; so we folks 
who are fortunately lower down in the scale of practical life, 
may luxuriate in the greater abundance. I may be told here 
that General Taylor was killed by a dish of fruit, and so he 
was ; and that multitudes of children in cities are destroyed 
by eating "such trash" as it is called, and so they are — not; 
for only rich people can afford to buy fruit at any season of the 



154: Hall's Journal of Health. 

year, in large cities ; and in the summer time they take their 
children out of town. 

It was not the fruit that killed the honest-hearted old sol- 
dier ; but it was the ice and cream he took with it, while the 
system was exhausted with heat and fatigue, consequent on the 
ceremonies attendant on laying the corner stone of the Wash- 
ington monument, on the fourth of July. This might not have 
been sufficient, had he not within a short time after, while 
these articles were still but half digested, eaten a very hearty 
dinner, contrary to the express remonstrances of a friendly 
physician who was present. 

Fruits and berries are healthy every day of the year, whether 
a man is sick or well ; actual observation has established the 
fact, that fruit is medicinal even in diarrhoea, inasmuch as it 
has a curative effect, when properly used. It is a first truth in 
allopathic medicine, that in almost every disease, the bowels 
must be kept free ; and that is the natural tendency of fruits 
and berries of every description. I know from actual observa- 
tion, that there is not a more healthy class of people in the 
world, than the negroes who work in the cotton fields and 
sugar plantations of the south ; to look at them working in the 
hot sun of 112° Fahrenheit, and breathing the clouds of dust 
which in a dry time arise from the use of the hoe, one would 
think that they would actually melt ; but they neither melt 
nor die, but will work all day and go home at night, sing 
songs and " dance juber" by the hour — in which I have joined, 
and therefore am a competent witness ; for in younger days, I 
delighted " immensely" to peer about and look — how look, 
reader? There are many ways of looking now a days : I did 
not look under or over or around things, but straight at them, 
and that is precisely the reason I know so much according to 
the unanimous opinion of me ipsum. 

Well, what has a cotton plantation, which John Mitchell 
wanted so badly and didn't get — what has a cotton plantation 
and its" hands" to do with the healthfulness of fruit, the verv 
thing they never see ? That is true, but it is necessary to eke 
out copy, lest I should tell you so much important truth you 
cannot remember half of it. But let us go back and " make 
the connection" a thing which railroad companies and hungry 
hotel keepers do not always do, on purpose. I was saying, 



How to Use Fruits. 155 

that in the hottest fields of the south, and under the hardest 
labor, the laborers thrive and shine — yes, literally shine, as any 
well-fed negro will do ; well, these " hands" have two actions 
of the bowels daily, that is, I have questioned them on the sub- 
ject, and they told me so. It is fair, then, to infer that a free 
state of the bowels in summer time is an attendant of sound 
robust health ; all know that fruits have that tendency, and 
consequently they must be healthy. The banana of Cuba is 
the meat and bread, the all and all of the slave population ; 
they can live wholly on that alone, as I have seen them do, for 
weeks together, and the banana is nearer in its nature to fruit 
than any thing else we know. 

Now, reader, if I have not convinced you of the value of 
fruit in summer, just let it alone, and send your share to Forty- 
two Irving Place, New York, and I will receive it with many 
thanks, and cure up your throat and knock the consumption 

out of you for a consideration, that is, beside the fruit 

present. One poor fellow, two or three summers ago, kept me 
supplied with fruit all the season, more than I wanted, so I 
sent it around to friends : yet I didn't cure him, he died ; but 
he didn't follow the directions, and of course I was not to 
blame ; among the chief of these was, uniformly, pay as you 
go, but he forgot that, and perhaps that was the reason I did 
not cure him. But to come at once to the conclusion of the 
whole matter, it only remains to tell 

HOW TO USE FRUITS 

In the summer time, so as to derive from them all those nutri- 
tious, delightful and health-giving influences, which a kind 
Providence intended doubtless should follow their employ- 
ment. Fruits and berries should be ripe, fresh, perfect — • 
should be eaten, the earlier in the day the better, not later cer- 
tainly than three o'clock in the afternoon — should be eaten 
alone, unless with loaf sugar, not within two hours of eating 
any thing else, and drinking nothing within half an hour of so 
eating them. 

The reason for these restrictions I cannot here add, after 
such a long article ; but for the present, the reader must search 
for himself ; in the mean while, let him use fruits and berries 
as directed, and he may do it without restriction as to quan- 



156 HalVs Journal of Health. 

tity, and will find them to be among the most delicious, as 
well as the most healthful and invigorating aliments in all 
nature. 



MONEY A MEDICINE. 



Prosperity is the best pill, it wakes up the failing pulses of 
life, and renovates the whole machinery of man. Take two 
poor men who are equally ill, to whom exercise is alike applica- 
ble, condemn one to the unendurable drudgery of walking a 
mile thrice daily to a certain post, and when he gets there to 
turn round and walk back again ; and let another spend 
an equal time in collecting bills, or obtaining subscriptions at 
a per centage, which clears him ten dollars a day, if he is dil- 
igent ; it is easy to conjecture which of the two will convalesce 
the more rapidly. One thing I am certain of, making money 
helps me amazingly, it is the elixir of mind and body both. 
This idea of the hygienic value of money on men is strikingly 
illustrated in the report of M.Vellerme, as the Secretary of the 
Poor Law Commissioners in Havre, where the average age of 
the rich is twelve years greater than that of the poor. 

1088 prosperous persons died at an average age of 42 years. 

4791 middling class " " 29 " 

19849 poor " " 20 " 

Therefore, as it is easier to take money than to take pills, I 
advise my readers, one and all, as a means of long life, to get 
rich by prudent industry and honorable economy. 



A LIFE-SAYING THOUGHT. 

An amount of sickness, suffering and death will be saved to 
multitudes during any spring and summer, if the suggestions 
which I am about to make were attended to. 

Children eat for three objects : 

1. To keep them warm, 

2. To supply the wastes of the system, 

3. To afford materials for growth. 

Hence, children who are in health, are always hungry, 
are always eating; we can well remember the happy time 



A Life-Saving Thought. 157 

when we could eat apples all day, and melons and grapes and 
gingerbread and candies, besides the regular meals of morn- 
ing, noon and night. But in mature life, the experience of 
each will tell him how changed ; the reason is, one object of 
eating has ceased to exist — we grow no longer, and nature, 
with her watchful instinct, steps in, and moderates the appe- 
tite ; for if we ate as when we were children, very few would 
survive a third of a century. 

The objects, then, for which men eat are two only: first, to 
keep them warm ; second, to supply the wastes of the system — 
and whatever is eaten beyond what is necessary for these two 
things, engenders disease in every body, everywhere, and 
under all circumstances, and never fails, no more than fails 
the rising of the daily sun, for nature's laws are constant as 
the flow of time. 

No man works as hard in summer as in winter, consequently 
the wastes of the system are less ; therefore a less amount of 
food is wanted in summer than in winter. The supply must 
be regulated by the demand. 

Again, we eat to keep us warm. Some articles of food have 
ten times more fuel than nutriment. [See Bronchitis and 
Kindred Diseases, 8th ed., p. 290.] It must therefore be 
apparent, that we do not require as much food in summer as 
in winter for this reason also, that there is not the same 
demand for heat, and kind nature, ever watchful, steps in 
again and takes away our appetite as soon as the warm wea- 
ther begins. All of us are sensible of a diminution of appe- 
tite even in early spring. But forgetting the natural reasons 
for it, we begin to think we are not well, and either by tempt- 
ing the appetite, or taking tonics, or "forcing" food, crowd the 
system with more aliment than the body requires. For a 
while, the bodily powers, with the excess of winter vigor, are 
able to work up this extra supply, and convert it into blood, 
but there is no use for it all, it is not called for, and it accu- 
mulates in the body, stagnates, or, in medical phrase, causes 
" congestions." Congestion in the brain, causing us to feel 
dull and heavy and stupid and sleepy: congestion in the 
stomach causes loss of appetite : congestion in the liver gives 
rise to nausea, sick headache, diarrhoeas, dysenteries, and the 
whole catalogue of fevers. 



158 HalVs Journal of Health. 

The brute creation, obeying their instinct, are not troubled 
with summer complaints, and the thousand ills which affect 
and destroy men. But we overpower our instincts, and making 
ourselves the slaves of appetite, contrary to reason, perish in 
multitudes. Investigations have shown, that we require in 
mid-summer, near one-half less food than in mid-winter. I 
throw this great practical truth before the people, and for the 
present, leave it. 



For the Journal of Health. 

BE CONSTANTLY EMPLOYED. 

We believe it is universally observed, by such as have 
looked upon life with a thoughtful eye, that those whom 
necessity requires to be constantly employed, are the most 
healthy and cheerful among mankind. A constant employ- 
ment of time, is therefore conducive to health and happiness. 
It has been wisely ordered by the Ruler of the Universe, that 
man should obtain a livelihood by the sweat of his brow, and 
that this very labor should give health to his body, and con- 
tentment to his mind. Nature, by her mysterious promptings, 
teaches us all that exercise is necessary ; for unless all the 
muscles are daily called into use, they will soon decrease 
in size and power. So without proper exercise, our mortal 
frame will soon be shorn of its strength. By being constantly 
employed, it helps to while away many an hour which would 
otherwise have been spent in thinking of the unhappy past. 
By being engaged in some pleasant employment, your sadness 
has no time to fasten on your spirits. Employment prolongs 
life. It is true it cannot subdue death ; but it can defer that 
hour, and cause many enjoyments to linger around our path- 
way, and make it a pleasure to live. We would earnestly 
request you, dear reader, to employ a portion of your time in 
worshipping God. You will then pass your days with com- 
fort to yourself and those around you, and when the ties which 
bind you to earth are dissevered, you will receive the welcome 
plaudit, " Come ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom 
prepared for you." MAHAL A. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



OUR LEGITIMATE SCOPE IS ALMOST BOUNDLESS \ FOR WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABLE 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS. PROMOTES HEALTH J AND WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. II.] JULY, 1855. [NO. VII. 



INHALATION AND CONSUMPTION. 

Lsr the outset we propose some first truths, which had better 
be scrutinized closely before being admitted, for we wish to 
wage an open warfare on a fair field. We abominate sur- 
prises, ambuscades, and coup-d'etats in all their varieties. 

We speak feelingly, for we have been touched in the tender- 
est of all points — the pocket. But we do not trust our pen to 
paper in a storm, or at least until we have got used to it : for a 
man who does that, is very apt to write himself a concentrated 
ninny. We have been blown up entirely by what we now 
war against, and a reason of the war is, the diminution of our 
professional receipts one-half; that, however, is a mere private 
matter, but " that a generous public should be fleeced first, 
and then left to die by default, or killed out and out by mal- 
practice, is too bad :" that is to say, Buncombe would discourse 
thus, not we of the Journal, because we advocate the largest 
liberty. We hold that if people have made money honestly, 
they have a right to spend it in any manner most pleasing to 
themselves, provided no wrong is done to another thereby. 
The world is pretty much made up of humbuggers and hum- 
bug-geese (that will do.) But there is a small class of inter- 
mediates, very small, you and I, reader, who are neither the 
one nor the other, outsiders, disinterested spectators, lookers-on 
in Vienna ; and while the Kilkennies are eating each other up 
— while the riders and the ridden are exhibiting their antipo- 
dal feats, we can look on and enjoy the fun. 

But as to the first truths: 

1st. An abuse of power, of influence, is a great wrong. 



160 IlalVs Journal of Health, 

2d. An abuse of trust is a greater. 

3d. An abuse, abandonment, of principle, is greatest. 

If each of these singly is a wrong, then the three combined 
in one must imply an extraordinary lack of moral rectitude : 
extraordinary in persons among the common walks of life, but 
when found among the educated, the elevated, the progressed, 
we may well pause and inquire, are the foundations of society 
resting on enduring ground ? This is a medical question, but 
being one in reference to Consumption and kindred diseases, 
it more or less personally concerns every man, woman and 
child in the land. The treatment of it by " Inhalation," by 
drawing into the lungs air impregnated with medicinal sub- 
stances, has been largely written about, and the propagation 
of the news of it has been so extensive, that it has not remained 
unpublished in perhaps any single county in the Union. The 
persons who practice this treatment are making money by tens 
of thousands, the rush to their offices, as reported, is extraordi- 
nary. 

The question is two-fold : 

1. Is there purely any such practice ? 

2. Is there any conclusively reliable evidence of its sole and 
permanently curative power? 

To both these inquiries I answer with a decided " No." 
Let it be remembered that " Medicated Inhalation" is the 
great, the overshadowing treatment insisted on. In reading the 
publications on the subject, the uninitiated do not dream that 
anything else is requisite, that any other means are worth a 
passing thought. " It seems very reasonable," has been re- 
peated a thousand times, " that if the lungs are affected, the 
most speedy means of cure are to make applications to the 
affected part directly." This, too, is the published argument, 
followed up by the assertion, that the old mode of taking 
things into the stomach, to cure a lung affection, is simply 
ridiculous. 

Can the reader remember any human ailment which is radi- 
cally cured by only appliances to the spot diseased ? We have 
been in the habit of thinking that the only safe and radical 
cure of disease is through the general system, is constitutional. 
If you cut off a weed at the surface, it soon sprouts again, 
either there or elsewhere : if you take it up by the roots, there 



Inhalation and Consumption. 161 

is an end of it. So it is with all sickness : it is not by putting 
on, but putting under, that we can expect to cure. The foun- 
dation of disease is in the state of the blood ; the blood is 
made out of the food we eat ; if that food is manufactured per- 
fectly, good blood is made, and we get gradually well. The 
duty of the physician is to superintend that manufactory, to 
regulate it by means best adapted to each case, whether by 
food, by medicine, by air and exercise, by water, or by infini- 
tesimal dilutions ; but all these are intended to act on the 
stomach, liver and bowels, these being the great manufactories 
of the blood. 

Now is it not most extraordinary, that a few men within a 
twelvemonth — men who were never heard of beyond the cir- 
cuit of a dozen miles of their own homes — should scatter them- 
selves over this whole land, locating in every principal city 
and town — an Englishman in one place, an Irishman in another, 
an imitative and enterprising Yankee in a third, while in a 
fourth a " Hair Dye Vender" hangs his banner to the breeze, 
according to Bees' Medical Gazette for April, 1855, p. 178. 
That such a class of persons should suddenly discover that all 
previous medicine was founded on false principles, and that it 
was reserved to them to be heralds of the true, in these later 
ages ! these things should at least cause us pause. That the 
people should swallow them all is not particularly surprising, 
for that personage can swallow anything, as history abundantly 
testifies, even itself. 

Header, can we induce you to think for half a minute ? 
You have cut a piece out of your finger before now, or chipped 
off a bit of skin ; it was trifling, you let it alone, and it got 
well, it healed up. Could any external appliance known to 
man have replaced that bit of flesh or skin? yet it was re- 
placed. How ? The blood bore there the materials of repair, 
which materials were drawn from the stomach, from the food 
you had swallowed. And yet, without a moment's reflection, 
you pronounced it " very reasonable that the lungs should be 
healed by appliances made directly to them, instead of the 
stomach," and you posted off to get an inhaling apparatus, and 
have been puffing away for very life ever since at thirty dol- 
lars a month, a dollar a day in advance ; why it is worth that 
to " blow " all day ; a good many people make a living by 



162 HalVs Journal of Health. 

doing that and nothing else, while you pay for the privilege. 
Alas for Jonathan ! he must be in the sear and yellow leaf, 
for he is losing the cuteness on which he has prided himself so 
long. Think again, bilious and other fevers have been cured 
millions of times. Bilious fever and jaundice are founded 
in the liver. Medicine is swallowed into the stomach, and the 
man is cured. Has any one ever been so insane as to propose 
to cure bilious fever or jaundice by making applications 
directly to the liver ? You have had a violent headache, have 
eaten a good portion of a fine turkey, aided and abetted by a 
glass or two of champagne ; and by the time the turkey and 
champagne were gone, the headache was gone too. Is it 
likely the headache would have disappeared had you poulticed 
the skull with a conglomeration of wine, turkey, and its 
etceteras ? 

So far from its being " reasonable'' that a malady should be 
more speedily cured by applications made directly to the spot, 
it is in many instances the most certain means of destroying 
life. Every educated physician knows that many a life has 
been lost by applications to old sores, which caused them to 
heal up there, only to be manifested in some more critical 
part. How many have lost life by skin diseases being " driven 
in" by external appliances, as in hives, measles, chicken pox? 
A case occurred not long ago, where a man was advised for a 
scratch on the breast to rub it with candle-grease ; he did so, 
and died in consequence, some verdegris having been formed 
on the candlestick. One of our prominent citizens was advised 
to put a little creosote on a pimple on the shoulder of his little 
child ; he did so, and the child died in convulsions within 
twenty -four hours. Multitudes of instances can be given, 
showing that local applications are attended with serious con- 
sequences : showing that they are exceedingly dangerous, and 
that nature cukes nothing in that way, not even the scratch 
of a pin or the gash of a knife, but that her cures are through 
the roundabout way of the general constitution. Instances 
are numberless in our reading or observation, where men and 
animals from accident or design or war, have been left in the 
open field for dead, so cut and gashed and bruised were they ; 
and yet afterwards revived, and crawled to some shelter and 
got well, without any medical means whatever, internal or ex- 



Inhalation and Consumption. 163 

ternal, nature applying nothing to the wounds, but gradually 
supplying them with reparative matter through the blood 
So that the most palpable of all truths is, that applications to 
the spot diseased is never natural, it is directly the reverse of 
nature's mode. We may well be suspicious of the truth of 
any system, the champions of which resort to means of sup- 
port which are roundabout, to give it no harsher name. 

What is the modus operandi of these advertising men, these 
advocates of inhalation ? Not wishing to be personal, we will 
use fictitious names. An advertisement is before me, headed 
" Inhalation," stating that " Dr. Jean, one of the most cele- 
brated physicians in New York, writes as follows," (which is 
omitted) and signs his name, street and number ; on turning to 
the Directory, we find no such name in it, nor on the door of 
the house specified. Appended to the letter is the " caution," 
that this vapor is "'the original and only genuine article." 

Another Inhalist is at the expense of advertising the public 
extensively, and especially strangers who come to New York, 
that wishing them not to be imposed upon by pretenders, he 
takes this means of advising them to come to him, and thus 
not fall into the hands of imposters. 

In the Daily Times of Saturday, June 2d, 1855, appears the 
following, names omitted : 

[Advertisement. ] 
Consumption, and How it Uffay t>e Prevented. 

Dr. 's letter, which should appear in our columns of this 

morning, is necessarily deferred until Tuesday next. It will 
be found to be the most truthful and powerful article ever 
written upon the proper and only method of preventing Con- 
sumption. It embodies more sound, practical common sense 
upon this subject than has been published by any physician 
for the last hundred years. He tells the consumptive invalid 
u the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth." Dr. 

, who has charge of the , is justly considered to 

be the most correct and accurate detector " of the various dis- 
eases of the lungs " and throat in this country. We would 
advise those of our readers who have perused his previous arti- 
cles to read with attention the one which will appear on Tues- 
day next. 



164: HalVs Journal of Health. 

The mass of readers not noticing the word " Advertisement" 
in the smallest letters in the article, would suppose it was 
written by the editor of the paper. It certainly reads as if 
the editor had written the notice. The impression made 
is certainly that some other person than the Inhalist was 
the writer. All of us know, however, that it was written under 
the direction of the man himself. If Inhalation be true, can 
it require a course like this ? And here is a newspaper, wil- 
ling to be a partaker in all this, for two dollars. See our three 
first truths. 

Another of these men writes : 

" Who is Cock Eobin ?" 
and goes on to say who he is, where he was born, how he 
came to be possessed of the great health secret, the long years 
he spent in studying it out, his wonderful success, and seeing 
that success, he considers it his duty to take this method of 
letting a suffering world know it. He carries it to a publisher, 
whom he has taken pains to ascertain beforehand, will do any- 
thing for pay, lays down five hundred or a thousand dollars, 
next day the paper appears with the aforesaid Autobiography, 
u We hasten to present to our readers the following interesting 
autobiography of an eminent physician." If there is still 
some little conscience for truth left, it is simply headed, " For 
the Daily Bribee," or more modestly still, " Communicated." 
Now and then we see a paper too independent to be so palpa- 
bly particeps criminis of deliberately deceiving its patrons, 
and gives the truthful heading, " Advertisement," then its 
intelligent readers know where they stand ; still, the masses 
are not intelligent, and are consequently deceived, hence again 
the violation of our First Truths. 

But this is not all ; the next step is to purchase extra copies, 
these are sent off to the country newspapers, with a letter 
inclosing five, fifty, or a hundred dollars, with a request for 
insertion among the reading matter as credited to the Daily 
Bribee, or other paper supposed to have a wide name, reputa- 
tion and influence, as if the article had found its way there 
by virtue of its inherent importance. 

This is the operation, and in view of it, does Truth require 
such tortuous modes of propagation % If so, we say Jet such 
truths perish ! 



Inhalation and Consumption. 165 

There are a few newspapers, which scorn to participate, 
even remotely, in trickeries like these. The religious press, 
strange to say, is not among these honorable exceptions, as a 
class, edited, although they be, by clergymen, whose name 
and office and standing are thus prostituted to the dissemina- 
tion of these deceptions among their wide list of patrons, who 
look up to them for all that is truthful, and open, and fair. 

I wish in the most direct manner to offer the explanation of 
facts, in behalf of conduct so apparently inconsistent on the 
part of men, to whose talents, and education, and piety, and 
good citizenship, this great land owes, to a principal extent, 
the existence and the perpetuation of its liberties. Clerical 
editors are not the owners of the papers they conduct, they 
are merely paid to provide suitable reading matter ; aWpaid 
matter is under the sole control of the owner of the paper. 
Still, the power which every editor has over his readers, 
his influence, is on the side of the deception, for the great 
mass of readers, out of cities, take it for granted, that impo- 
sitions would not be allowed by a clergyman ; they hold him 
to a certain extent responsible for all that appears in his 
paper, advertisements and all. This is wrong to be sure, but 
an editor knows this feeling does exist, and knowing it, is 
to a degree responsible. There is not a religious newspaper 
in the land, perhaps, which would not feel itself insulted, if 
a liquor dealer were to offer an advertisement of his wares ; 
and yet, these very papers, with some exceptions, advertise 
patent medicines without any compunctions whatever. They 
write ravingly against men whom they suspicion of selling 
adulterated, drugged liquors, and yet they will advertise 
drugged molasses and water, and be glad of the job, because 
all patent medicine dealers "pay well? But public opinion 
is against drugged brandy, and for drugged molasses and 
water. That's the reason, because why ! ! ! 

In this manner is the clergyman used as the cat's paw of 
the mercenary publishers, in favor of quackery against regu- 
lar medicine, to which his own intelligence compels this same 
clergyman to resort, in case of illness ; and yet, with the ex- 
pectation of gratuitous services. Such expectation, be it 
known, is not realized in us. 

This detail of facts, may well originate the inquiry, Ought 



166 IlalVs Journal of Health. 

a clergyman to accept the editorship of a religious newspa- 
per, without the provision that nothing unbusinesslike or 
deceptious, should ever appear in any department of the paper ? 
As it is, our First Truths are all violated in this thing, prac- 
tically violated by the best educated, the most refined, and 
progressed men in the land. 

There are instructive side inquiries, which may throw some 
light on Medicated Inhalation. If it is so efficient a remedy, 
why should these men have left their native land, where the 
disease more abounds than here ? Or, if leaving for any 
necessary reason, why was not some agent, or friend, or rela- 
tion left in London, or Paris, or Berlin, to afford their own 
countrymen the full benefits of this great discovery? 

If the system possesses substantial merit, why is it neces- 
sary to keep it before the people, at the expense of tens of 
thousands of dollars, and at the greater expense, to an honora- 
ble mind, of personal respect, which is involved in the adver- 
tising practices already referred to ? We would suppose that 
every person cured, would be a walking advertisement, not up 
and down Broadway, but all over this broad land, until soon, 
there would not be a cow path in all America untravelled by 
them, and no advertisement would be needed. 

If "Inhalation" is the great remedy for Consumption, why 
is it that cart loads of medicines are wheeled from, the doors 
of these men, and white powders, and morphine, and other 
anodynes are nightly swallowed by their direction to abate the 
cough, or has every patient a cough in the stomach ? Or if so, 
why do these men reiterate, day after day, in the public prints, 
" that the swallowing of drugs and medicines is the discovery 
and invention of human minds and means, against the indica- 
tions of nature and common sense?" This is the verbatim 
language, the literal conduct being to send medicines by mail 
and express to swallow nightly. Can truth stand in need of 
such aids£ Would truth deign to countenance them? 

It is a broad truth among men, that a gentleman, among 
gentlemen, is the last one to imagine a dishonorable act on the 
part of his compeers, but even if imagined, he would sooner 
make the largest sacrifices, than frame his suspicions into 
words. Yet one of these Inhalists publishes to the world 
that he charitably believes that the great majority of physi- 



Inhalation and Consumption. 167 

cians know the inefficacy of drugs and medicines, but employ 
them still, rather than be candid and honest to their patients, 
and yet these same persons send medicines to swallow nightly, 
in one case I know. 

If Inhalation is the remedy, why is it that in some cases 
patients are visited daily, and as often as one medicine fails, 
another is substituted, until the mantel is filled with vials, 
and packages, and all that ? 

If Inhalation is the remedy, why is it that some patients who 
have cough are not advised to use it, and why is it, too, that 
after four, and five, and six months' diligent attendance, per- 
sons have left not a whit better than on the first day of trial, 
and others go steadily down to the grave, whose certificates 
are not asked or wanted ? 

If Inhalation is the great remedy, why is it that in every 
section of the country, men are found practicing it, each claim- 
ing for himself the originality, and branding the other as an 
"imposter," "pretender," "shark," while a third party gets 
up an "improved" inhalation; and why is it, that each one 
claims for himself to have the only curative inhalent, while 
another, who sends out annual circulars by the scores of thou- 
sands, has within a year paid hundreds of dollars for a single 
advertisement, in which medicated inhalation is not even 
hinted at, now publicly announces that he has used it among 
other means for years, and heads his advertisement with In- 
haling Treatment, as if it were the principal means of cure, 
followed by certificates of cure, which say not one single word 
about Inhalation. Showing that these men watch the wind, 
and sail with it. They go with the tide. They ride trium- 
phantly on popular credulity, the people paying for being thus 
ridden, which they have a right to do. 

One of the New York dailies in a recent editorial, takes 
upon itself to say that the " letters" published so extensively 
on medicated inhalation, are " at once clear, learned and free 
from charlatanism," yielding to the author " an income of over 
a hundred thousand dollars a year," and that " there is no 
reason to suppose him to have been actuated by a desire 
to make money." And commends the " manly boldness" of 
one who " breaks through the conventionalities of his profes- 
sion." There is honor among even thieves, except those who 



168 EalVs Journal of Health. 

are below them. These are a law unto themselves. The editor 
commends this breaking away from professional convention- 
ality. It pays him well to do so, the paper having, on its own 
statement, received eight hundred dollars for one such job. 
Would that same paper break through the professional con- 
ventionality of the Printers' Trades Union ? "Would not the 
journeyman printer, who had once given his word to be regu- 
lated by a certain standard of prices, be looked upon with 
loathing by his fellow "jours" the moment they found him 
recreant to his obligations, more sacred than an oath, the only 
bond being pledged honor? Such is the bond among honorable 
and regularly educated physicians, and yet this paper speaks 
of these violations as an act of manly boldness at least in an- 
other, but incapable of such an act itself, that is, until " its 
price'' is offered. We might well inquire, how this sub-editor 
knows that these " letters" are clear, learned and free from 
charlatanism? To be be capable of such a criticism, the 
whole range of medical science should be familiar to him, 
while the expression itself bears ample evidence of his igno- 
rance and presumptuousness in pronouncing that " learned" 
which is a tissue of ingenious misrepresentations, and in dicta- 
ting to the medical profession what should be its convention- 
alities ; and in further stating the monstrous untruth, that it is 
dangerous to professional standing to announce in a respectable 
journal any new remedy discovered or any new operation hit 
upon. So far from such being the case, there are scores of 
journals published in the United States for the express pur- 
pose of communicating new truths and discoveries. No sooner 
does a regular physician become convinced of an important 
new practical truth or remedy, than it is sent to one of these 
journals and within a year is known, with all its minutia, to 
the medical profession of all civilized nations. This is a univer- 
sal conventionality, and it is the dereliction of so humane, so 
unselfish, and so magnanimous a regulation, which consigns 
all these advertisers, in the estimation of educated physicians, 
to a position below entitlement to the States prison, because it 
is humanity, education and oath of honor, all violated at one 
fell swoop ; for each inhalist proclaims his own as possessing 
the tdiisrinetive curative quality, but what that is, he locks up 
in his own bosom ; and this is what the paper before us char- 



Inhalation and Consumption. 168a 

acterizes as manly boldness. " Boldness" indeed it is, but as to 
its manliness, that is another question. 

When a man once steps aside from an honorable path, when 
he once violates his convictions of truth, when he once de- 
scends to trickery, no optics sharp can see where that man 
will go, no divining rod can measure the depth of degradation 
to which he may descend. Really we are waxing warm, and 
perhaps had better sail on another tack awhile, lest we should 
become personal. We will finish the sheet and cool off at 
Barnum's baby show. But we are almost unrestrainably in- 
clined to give a medical cotemporary a dig, for lending its 
columns to the purposes of these advertising inhalists. I was 
surprised. Physicians in New York who are honorably and 
proudly known everywhere, and who have been here much 
longer than I, have stated that " it did not surprise" them. 
By which we learn the fact, " that the same things affect 
different persons differently." Quod erat demonstrandum, as 
Euclid would say. 

One other fact worth noting is, that some of these inhaling 
men, have for ten and twenty years been treating consumption 
as a speciality, and yet are changing their treatment, from 
time to time. Within fifteen years, the Inhaling Tube was 
furnished to every patient, as the thing essential to a cure in 
every case. In process of time, these same men laid aside the 
tube, when it became an old thing, and a common quill an- 
swered the purpose, without the expense of a five dollar tube, 
which cost fifty cents, and the Abomable Purporter, as dame 
Partington would say, became the rage. Braces were to cure 
every thing. If a man had throat disease he had only to have 
something to hold up his belly. If his lungs were affected, 
the same thing was advised. If he was of the slab-sided sort 
and had no abdominal, the supporter was still advised to be 
applied, until the patient could " get up" one, as a supporter 
was certain to improve digestion, which was the first step 
towards getting fat. The advocate of this theory announced 
publicly that he had a great many cases, amounting to thou- 
sands, notes of which had been carefully and industriously 
kept, amounting to "ninety volumes," which, " in the language 
of the London Lancet, forms one of the most valuable and 
comprehensive body of notes ever presented to the public 



1685 HalVs Journal of Health 

eye." Now, a casual reader would suppose that the London 
Lancet, which is perhaps the leading monthly medical publi- 
cation in the world, had made this statement in reference to 
these very "ninety volumes" of notes made by the adverti- 
ser, when in reality, they were made in reference to the pri- 
vate notes or medical cases of an eminent London practitioner, 
who had just died. Whether it was the design of this person 
to produce the impression, without saying so, in as many 
words, that this quotation was made in reference to his notes, 
the reader must judge for himself. But the question again 
recurs here, Can truth need such aids as these? 

But notwithstanding " ninety volumes" of such notes were 
made, "which, in the language of the London Lancet, forms 
one of the most valuable and comprehensive body of notes 
ever presented to the public eye," and notwithstanding these 
notes were avowedly made " in treating forty thousand con- 
sumptive persons, nineteen out of twenty of whom recovered," 
without even mentioning medicated inhalation, but by relying 
on the tube first, and then the "Purporters" aforesaid, this 
same person, within a year of such advertisement, now comes 
before the public with " Inhaling Yapor " at the head of his 
advertisement, affirming, in addition, that he has been using 
medicated inhalations for years, and that he is therefore not a 
new man in these things, like the others are. 

But what, after all, is the succinct history of Inhalation as 
a means of cure for pulmonary affections ? Simply this, it 
was proposed a half a century ago. Sir Charles Scudamore 
wrote and wrecked himself on the practice ; and every few 
years since, it " turns up" again like sharp-toed shoes, or trow^ 
serloons, with suspenders at both ends. But each successive 
Bedivivor assures the public, that the reason of previous fail- 
ures was that the genuine inhalent was not used until he, by 
some rare chance, discovered it. Yet he fails to let the public 
know what his inhalent is, so that they might know whether 
it was different from all others or not. 

Inhalations of air saturated with moisture or medicants, 
have been used by the regular profession for hundreds of years 
in cases of affections of the air-passages — J5ir* hut only as 
temporary alleviants, to gain time for the employment of more 
efficient means, and this is all they are worth. But to stifle 



Inhalation and Consumption. 168c 

coughs and disease by the fumes of alcohol or opium, these 
being the principal things which these men use, though they 
affect to put in something else of more primary importance, 
as a blind, is no more curative than shutting down the hatches 
of a vessel, whose hold is on fire ; only retarding for a season, 
to break out with greater malignity. That some men, having 
a slight cough of long standing, or a severer form of it of 
more recent date, do get well under medicated inhalation, is no 
proper proof, for millions get well of both, while doing 
nothing. 

The fact is, time has not been allowed to test the reality of 
a single cure, for it is less than two years since we saw the 
first certificate of cure, and it is well known that the average 
duration of life even after a person has become consumptive, 
is near two years. 

But by making strenuous efforts to persuade the public that 
every cough a man has, or every clearing of the throat, or 
every speck or streak of blood in the expectoration, is a serious 
sign of consumption begun, whereas a streak or speck of 
blood in the expectoration is no sign of consumption at all, 
but is from the upper part of the air tubes or throat, and 
not from the lungs, but making this impression, and driving 
the people to them, through fear on the one hand, and prom- 
ises of certain cure, by easy means, on the other, it is no 
wonder that their receipts are counted by tens of thousands 
of dollars ; for such ailments would in many instances dis- 
appear of themselves, with slight attention to diet, and bowels, 
and exercise; but, under the circumstances, inhalation gets 
the credit of cure in an ignorant mind, each of which is a 
walking advertisement, a peripatetic blower, or a drummer up, 
for the Inhalist. 

Let every reader propose to himself this simple test-ques- 
tion : — 

Do I know a single individual who had serious symptoms 
of actual consumptive disease of several months' standing, 
who a year ago placed himself under medicated inhalation, 
and is now a well man ? 

I will pledge my existence that not one single such case 
can be found. I defy every Inhalist in the Union to produce 
from their combined practice one well-marked case of this 



168d HaWs Journal of Health, 

kind. And more, no man of observant intelligence, and of 
what we call " position," can be produced, who will affirm to 
any such statement in his own experience. 

If there had been curative merit in the practice of inhala- 
tion as to efficiency and permanency, physicians of undoubted 
standing and of educational ability, would have long ago 
instituted a searching investigation, but as far as I know, not 
one single such physician has thought it worth while to inves- 
tigate so transparent a fraud ; for in medicine, fraud and 
secrecy are twin sisters, and each of the hundreds who prac- 
tice inhalation, claim to be the possessor of " the" secret, and 
keeps it. 

The practice of all honorable 'physicians, he it known, is, over the 
world, one and the same : the very moment they are satisfied of having 
discovered a new and valuable remedy, it is sent off to some respectable 
medical periodical, and within a year, the remedy and its uses, is in 
the possession of every educated physician in Christendom. It is con- 
sidered a mutual duty, and he who fails of it, is immediately placed 
beneath contempt. 

If there is any error on this subject, it consists in making 
premature publications. The anxiety to communicate what is 
supposed to be new or valuable is such, that in many instances, 
time is not allowed to perfect observations, but hints are 
thrown out, so that the attention of other practitioners may be 
directed to the same points, thus securing the co-operation of 
many observant minds towards one point, by which the public 
are every way benefited, while the discoverer thus volunta- 
rily loses the chance, as it were, of securing a higher distinc- 
tion and a greater glory by perfecting the discovery within 
himself. If any set of men on the face of the earth can give 
equal proof of a pure magnanimity to those constantly given, 
as a habitual thing, as a matter of course, as a sense of pro- 
fessional courtesy and duty, I have yet to know it. And these 
are the men to whom interested and paid editors volunteer 
advice designed to throw unnumbered thousands of money 
into their own pockets, as to what is conventional propriety 
and morality — these are the men whom advertising inhalists 
charge with " a lack of candor and honesty" in administering 
drugs w T hich they know are useless, while these same inhalists 
conceal the means of cure, which, if what they say is true, 



Inhalation and Consumption. 1686 

would save multitudes from a consumptive's grave ; and yet, 
rather than give the profession the knowledge of their secret, 
they keep it to themselves, and allow all to die who cannot 
receive the boon at their hands. Well may it flush the cheek 
of a man, to think that such can claim the name of human. 

These are the men whom the press of this country laud as 
exhibiting " manly boldness, in breaking away from profes- 
sional conventionalities," helping them, by good editorials, 
well paid for, to get rich at the expense of the health and hap- 
piness of their patrons. Gentlemen of the tripod, we ask you 
to make a note here. Et Tu, Brute ! are you also, with your 
superior education and habits of thought, are you also actuated 
by the same seven principles of the vulgar multitude away 
down yonder, to wit, the five loaves and the two fishes, five 
and two making seven ? Proh Pudor ! 

But the Public is a free horse, and as long as it likes to be 
ridden, let it please itself. Why, then, do we write upon this 
subject? To regain the hundred per cent, of receipts which 
we stated to have lost in the commencement of this article ? 
Not at all, for in the reaction, our receipts from professional 
sources are larger now, and have been for some months, than 
they have been for corresponding months since we came to 
New York, without any unusual efforts on our part. We write 
more for future capital than for present profit, hoping, how- 
ever, that we will be the means of imparting useful informa- 
tion to the observant few, and thus contribute something 
towards building that great temple of truth which is to make 
this earth a paradise for man now and a heaven hereafter. 

From all great public delusions, great practical public truths 
are learned, and so in this particular case. When the man 
who " cured nineteen cases of consumption out of every 
twenty," by using the inhaling tube and the abdominal sup- 
porter and shoulder brace, and while doing so made ninety 
volumes of notes, which, " in the language of the London Lan- 
cet, forms one of the most valuable and comprehensive body 
of notes ever offered to public inspection " — when these are 
suddenly dropped as principal agents, and medicated inhalation 
is placed in glaring capitals at the head of the advertisements, 
what can w T e suppose other than that the tube and the sup- 
porters were ridden as hobbies to make money, and when the 



168/* HalFs Journal of Health. 

hobby would not ride any longer, the first fresh nag that came 
along was appropriated, and the Gilpin race began anew. 

It may be instructive for me to state here, that I think I was 
the first regularly educated physician in the United States who 
began the treatment only of consumptive diseases, and I con- 
tinue, as far as I know, to be the only physician in the United 
States, who rigidly confines himself to the treatment of such 
diseases, except when called upon by friends or neighbors in 
emergencies, when no charge is made. 

Such being the facts, it is natural that I should be better 
posted up in what pertains to Consumption, than perhaps any 
other. And not being dependent on my practice for a living, 
I have not the inducements which may beset others to miscolor 
or distort in any direction. I think that no man can be hap- 
pily and permanently benefited by laboring to produce an 
untruthful impression under any conceivable circumstances ; 
on the contrary, they who closely practice the truth will live 
and prosper by it. Really the Baby-show has had a wonderful 
effect. Awhile ago, we had " waxed warm" went to Barnum's 
our Bib along, and lo and behold, we have become ethical and 
homiletic. We think of hinting to Barnum the propriety of 
making the Baby-show a permanent institution of the country. 
We think it would be a good idea to make a baby -show an 
accompaniment of the next Congress of Nations for the pro- 
motion of peace principles, just as the jewsharp, the fiddle, 
and the banjo are accompaniments of a monkey-show — they 
help to harmonize. Who can feel warlike after looking at 
the tweetest itty bitty baby ever was, to tweet canH be any tweeter, 
and if the sight of one baby has such a mellifluent effect, 
what would be the effect of seeing the hundred and forty 
which Barnum got! 

We suggest that Barnum and his Babies be appointed 
Uncle Sam's representative to the next Universal Peace Con- 
gress. By the way, Barnum ought to divide a portion of the 
profits of the show with the Journal, the first hint of such a 
thing having been given in one of our earliest numbers. In 
fact, we beat Barnum. Just as Fowler told us not long ago, 
when we made an experiment on him in cog. He made our 
'Originative bump one of the largest. But hold — may-be he 
mneant we were fabricative, in the moral sense ! Never 



Inhalation and Consumption. 168^ 

thought of that until this moment. The fact is, we never had 
any respect for phrenology ; its dictas may be interpreted to 
mean every thing or nothing. Besides, some fifteen years ago 
he told us we were good at any thing, great in nothing ; so we 
left in disgust, and now that he tells us we are great at fib- 
bery, we are " disguster." 

My own views are, that no medicine known has any direct 
curative effect in consumptive diseases ; that the only cure is 
in the perfect action of the Ohylopoietic Viscera, that is, of 
the food digesting and blood making organs, the chief of 
which are the stomach, liver and bowels. 

Consumption is literally defective nutrition; the whole 
man dwindles ; flesh, strength, breath, all waste away by 
painfully slow degrees ; not the lungs alone, which make but a 
small part of what is really affected, the whole machinery of 
the man is in disorder. The patient may eat heartily to the 
last day almost, yet the system has not the power to extract 
from the food eaten, and properly appropriate, the nutriment 
which it naturally possesses; hence the uniform remark "I 
eat well, but it does not seem to strengthen me." In almost 
all other diseases, the ability and appetite to eat is followed 
very shortly with increasing flesh and bodily vigor. How 
then can medicinal substances applied to the lungs, have any 
really curative effect, when it is in the stomach, liver and 
bowels, where the very foundation of the ailment lies? for it is 
there the blood is made, out of which the tubercle, the seed of 
consumption is formed, as all allow. The blood is not made 
consumptive in the lungs, but carries consumption with it to 
the lungs in its imperfect elimination, in its imperfectness of 
material, which material is drawn from the food after the 
stomach has acted upon it. And all that medicine can do 
towards curing consumption, is by the aid which it affords the 
stomach, liver and bowels in calling for, in receiving and in 
digesting the food which we swallow. Whatever gives appe- 
tite, and with it an increase of digestive power, that is radi- 
cally curative of consumption. Any man who can be cured 
at all, will be cured by taking into his lungs the largest amount 
of out door air, and by imposing upon his body the largest 
amount of muscular exercise, not involving actual fatigue, the 
most favorable combination of all which, is found in continu- 



168A HalVs Journal of Health. 

ous, active, horseback exercise on the open road, from morning 
till night, from one week's end to another, with some pleasura- 
ble and profitably absorbing object ahead, other than the mere 
health; in all of which, being under the care of some one, 
honorable, educated physician who possesses your confidence 
and respect. This, reader, is the embodied result, without any 
mental reservation whatever, of the observation and experience 
of a young life time, spent in the treatment and study of this 
one disease, and upon its truth, I, with steady confidence, do 
stake my reputation and my daily bread. But why is active 
exercise on horseback on the open road so largely insisted on ? 
simply because in the experience of all, nothing else is so 
effectual in giving a good appetite, and securing a good diges- 
tion ■; the exercise giving the digestion without the over fatigue 
attendant on bodily labor, and every breath drawn being a 
breath of pure air, unloads the blood of its impurities in the 
lungs, to be sent thence to the most distant portion of the 
human body at the rate of a hogshead an hour; imparting life 
and energy to every fibre. 

What then the need of a physician ? To know first the 
actual condition of things and to meet incidental and occa- 
sional symptoms promptly, before they gain power. An 
infant's arm may stop an avalanche, a moment later and mil- 
lions of men are powerless. And then again, comparatively 
few have it in their power to carry out the practice indicated, 
at least to its full extent ; then, the judgment, tact and expe- 
rience of the physician are to be brought into requisition to 
provide substitutes, medicinal and otherwise. 

It is not contended that there are no benefits whatever to 
be derived from breathing air saturated with something else, 
whether drugs, liquors, aliments or other things, but we do 
contend that such effects are transient, are not radically cura- 
tive, but mere alleviants, only giving time for other more 
efficient means to be brought to bear. We tried the whole 
thing years ago and found no worthy result in any single 
instance. But say these new men, " that was because you did 
not use the right material and in a proper manner, but we 
have found out a new inhalent, and hence our success." 
How do the people know that these men use a new inhalent, 
as long as they studiously conceal their secret ? If it be really 



Inhalation and Consumption. 168* 

new, why is not the name and all the minutiae given ? If it 
be a remedy of striking efficacy, the State of New York alone 
would give them millions of dollars every year, beyond what 
they can ever use, while millions of their fellow creatures out- 
side of New York would be saved if the instrumentalities 
were committed to other hands. The Arctic is going down, 
one man alone of all the throng knows the means of safety, 
and could in a moment's time impart instructions which would 
enable others to be as efficient in saving human life as he him- 
self; but no, he only saves those who place themselves in his 
hands ; the others may perish for what he cares, and yet such 
men as these are they whom " an independent and intelligent 
press" are lauding to the skies as men of " manly boldness" as 
men " free from charlatanism and not influenced by merce- 
nary considerations !" 

Make the contrast between these advertisers and Dr. Horace 
Green. When he conceived himself to have become the pos- 
sessor of one of the most important medical instrumentalities 
of modern times, he published a book with the fullest details, 
and opened his office, free of charge, to every man who even 
said be was a physician, and patiently instructed them day 
after day, until they could easily perform the operation, when 
he said to them, " go, cure as many as you can, there is room 
enough for us all." Can humanity any where show a larger 
heart than this ? and yet such a man, with the whole class to 
which he belongs, and of which he is a representative, these 
advertising inhaler's declare, " are not disposed to be honest 
and candid with their patients, and give counsel upon a sub- 
ject which they know little or nothing of, neglecting the plain 
indications of nature and common sense." And in using such 
language, are complimented by some editors as acting with 
u manly boldness." If this is not a prostitution of power, of 
confidence, of principle, then is there no such thing under the 
sun. And if such prostitutions are accomplished in the person 
of those who are educated, elevated, progressed, well may we con- 
template with sadness the fact that we have fallen on evil times. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



VOL. II] AUGUST, 1855. [NO. VIII. 



The following article on Cholera is a reprint of August and September of 
last year, in consequence of the general prevalence of the epidemic for two seasons. 

WHAT IS CHOLEKA? 

Cholera is the exaggeration of intestinal vermicular motion 

This definition, explained in language less professional, would 
do more good than all the popular recipes for the cure of Cho- 
lera ever published, because it expresses the inherent nature of 
Cholera and suggests the principles of cure, in its early stage, 
to the most unreflecting mind. 

The public is none the better, or wiser, or safer, for one of 
all the ten thousand " cures " for Cholera proclaimed in the 
public prints, with a confidence which itself is a sufficient guar- 
antee that however well-informed the authors may be in other 
matters, as regards Cholera itself they are criminally ignorant ; 
for no man has a right to address the public on any subject 
connected with its general health unless he understands that 
subject in its broadest sense, practically as well as theoretically. 

As Cholera has become a general and perhaps, at least for 
the present, a permanent disease of the country, and at this 
time is more or less prevalent in every State of the Union — 
and one, too, which may at any hour sweep any one of us into 
the grave — it belongs to our safety to understand its nature for 
ourselves, and do what we may to spread the knowledge among 
those around us. 

A " live " cheese or a cup of fishing worms may give an 
idea of the motion of the intestines in ordinary health. The 
human gut is a hollow, flexible tube, between thirty and forty 
feet long ; but, in order to be contained within the body, it is, 
to save space, arranged as a sailor would a coil of rope, forever 
moving in health — moving too much in some diseases — too 
little in others. To regulate this motion is the first object of 
the physician in every disease. In head-aches, bilious affec- 
tions, costiveness and the like, this great coiled-up intestine, 

15 



170 Mall's Journal of Health, 

usually called "the bowels," is "torpid," and medicines are 
given to wake it up, and what does that cures the man. Cos- 
tiveness is the foundation — that is, one of the first beginnings — 
or it is the attendant of every disease known to man, in some 
stage or other of its progress. But the human body is made 
in such a manner, that a single step cannot be taken without 
tending to move the intestines ; thus it is, in the main, that 
those who move about on their feet a great deal have the least 
sickness, — and, on the other hand, those who sit a great deal, 
and hence move about but little, never have sound health ; it 
is an impossibility — it is a rule to which I have never known 
an exception. 

Cholera being a disease in which the bowels move too much, 
the object should be to lessen that motion ; and, as every step 
a man takes, increases intestinal motion, the very first thing to 
be done in a case of cholera is to secure quietude. It requires 
but a small amount of intelligence to put these ideas together, 
and if they could only be burnt in on every heart, this fearful 
scourge would be robbed of myriads of its victims. 

There can be no cure of Cholera without quietude — the 
quietude of lying on the back. 

The physician who understands his calling is always on the 
look-out for the instincts of nature ; and he who follows them 
most, and interferes with them least, is the one who is oftenest 
successful. They are worth more to him than all the rigma- 
role stories which real or imaginary invalids pour in upon the 
physician's ear with such facile volubility. If, for example, a 
physician is called to a speechless patient — a stranger, about 
whom no one can give any information — he knows, if the 
breathing is long, heavy and measured, that the brain is in 
danger ; if he breathes quick from the upper part of the chest, 
the abdomen needs attention ; or if the abdomen itself mainly 
moves in respiration, the lungs are suffering. In violent cases 
of inflammation of the bowels, the patient shrinks involuntarily 
from any approach to that part of his person. These are the 
instincts of nature, and are invaluable guides in the treatment 
of disease. 

Apply this principle to cholera, or even common diarrhoea, 
when the bowels do not act more than three or four times a 
day ; the patient feels such ar. unwillingness to motion that he 



What is Cholera? 171 

even rises from his seat with the most unconquerable reluct- 
ance; and when he has, from any cause, been moving about 
considerably, the first moment of taking a comfortable seat is 
perfectly delicious, and he feels as if he could almost stay there 
always. The whole animal creation is subject to disease, and 
the fewest number, comparatively speaking, die of sickness ; 
instinct is their only physician. 

Perfect quietude, then, on the back, is the first, the impera- 
tive, the essential step towards the cure of any case of cholera. 
To this art may lend her aid towards making that quietude 
more perfect, by binding a cloth around the belly pretty firmly. 
This acts beneficially in diminishing the room within the abdo- 
men for motion ; a man may be so pressed in a crowd, as not 
to be able to stir. This bandage should be about a foot broad, 
and long enough to be doubled over the belly ; pieces of tape 
should be sewn to one end of the flannel, and a corresponding 
number to another part, being safer and more effective fasten- 
ings than pins. If this cloth is of stout woollen flannel, it has 
two additional advantages — its roughness irritates the skin and 
draws the blood to the surface from the interior, and by its 
warmth retains that blood there ; thus preventing that cold, 
clammy condition of the skin which takes place in the last 
stages of cholera. Facts confirm this. When the Asiatic 
scourge first broke out among the German soldiery, immense 
numbers perished ; but an imperative order was issued, in the 
hottest weather, that each soldier wear a stout woollen flannel 
abdominal compress, and immediately the fatality diminished 
more than fifty per cent. If the reader will try it, even in cases 
of common looseness of bowels, he will generally find the most 
grateful and instantaneous relief. 

The second indication of instinct is to quench the thirst. 
When the disease now called Cholera first made its appear- 
ance in the United States, in 1832, it was generally believed 
that the drinking of cold water, soon after calomel was taken, 
would certainly cause salivation ; and, as calomel was usually 
given, cold water was strictly interdicted. Some of the most 
heart-rending appeals I have ever noticed were for water, wa- 
ter ! I have seen the patient with deathly eagerness mouthe 
the finger-ends of the nurse, for the sake of the drop or two of 
cold water there while washing the face. There are two ways 



172 HalVs Journal of Health. 

of quenching this thirst, cold water and ice. Cold water often 
causes a sense of fulness or oppression, and not always satisfy- 
ing ; at other times the stomach is so very irritable, that it is 
ejected in a moment. Ice does not give that unpleasant ful- 
ness, nor does it increase the thirst, as cold water sometimes 
does, while the quantity required is very much reduced. 

A CASE. 

About a year ago, I was violently attacked with cholera 
symptoms in a rail-car. The prominent symptoms were a con- 
tinuous looseness of the most exhausting character, a deathly 
faintness and sickness, a drenching perspiration, an overpower- 
ing debility, and a pain as if the whole intestines were wrung 
together with strong hands, as washerwomen wring out cloth- 
ing. Not being willing to take medicine, at least for a while, 
and no ice being presently obtainable, at the first stopping- 
place I ate ice-cream, or rather endeavored to swallow it before 
it could melt. I ate large quantities of it continually, until 
the thirst was entirely abated. The bowels acted but once or 
twice after I began to use it, I fell asleep, and next morning was 
at my office, as usual, although I was feeble for some days. 
This may not have been an actual case of Asiatic Cholera, 
although it was prevalent in the city at that time ; but it was 
sufficiently near it to require some attention, and this is the 
main object of this article, to wit: attention to the first symp- 
toms of Cholera when it prevails. 

According to my experience, there is only one objection to 
the ice-cream treatment, and that is, you must swallow it with- 
out tasting how good it is ; it must be conveyed into the stomach 
as near an icy state as possible. 

The second step, then, in the treatment of an attack of Cho- 
lera, is to quench the thirst by keeping a plate of ice beside 
you, broken up in small pieces, so that they may be swallowed 
whole, as far as practicable ; keep on chewing and swallowing 
the ice until the thirst is most perfectly satisfied. 

PRACTICAL RESULTS. 

The first step, then, to be taken where Cholera prevails and 
its symptoms are present, is : 
To lie down on a bed. 



What is Cholera ? 173 

2d. Bind the abdomen tightly with woollen flannel. 

3d. Swallow pellets of ice to the fullest extent practicable. 

4th. Send for an established, resident, regular physician. 
Touch not an atom of the thousand things proposed by brains 
as " simple " as the remedies are represented to be, but wait 
quietly and patiently until the arrival of your medical at- 
tendant. 

But many of my readers may be in a condition, by distance 
or otherwise, where it is not possible to obtain a physician 
for several hours, and where such a delay might prove fatal. 
Under such circumstances, obtain ten grains of calomel and 
make it into a pill with a few drops of cold water ; dry it a 
little by the fire or in the sun and swallow it down. If the pas- 
sages do not cease within two hours, then swallow two more of 
such pills, and continue to swallow two more at the end of 
each two hours until the bowels cease to give their light-colored 
passages, or until the physician arrives. 

WHY? 

In many bad cases of Cholera, the stomach will retain noth- 
ing fluid or solid, cold water itself being instantly returned. A 
calomel pill is almost as heavy as a bullet ; it sinks instantly 
to the bottom of the stomach, and no power of vomiting can 
return it. It would answer just as well to swallow it in pow- 
der ; but the same medium which would hold it in suspension 
while going down, would do the same while coming up. 

THE FIRST OBJECT 

Of a calomel pill in Cholera, is to stop the passages from the 
bowels. This is usually done within two hours ; but if not, 
give two next time, on the principle if a certain force does not 
knock a man down the first time, the same force will not do 
it the second. Hence, to make the thing sure, and to lose no 
time — for time is not money here, but life — give a double por- 
tion. Not one time in twenty will it be necessary to give the 
second dose — not one time in a thousand the third. But as 
soon as your physician comes, tell him precisely what you 
have done, what its apparent effects, and then submit yourself 
implicitly to his direction. 

When the calomel treatment is effectual, it arrests the pas- 



174 HalVs Journal of Health. 

sages within two hours ; and in any time from fonr to twelve 
hours after being taken, it affects the bowels actively, and 
the passages are changed from a watery thinness to a mushy 
thickness or consistency, and instead of being the color of rice- 
water, or of a milk and water mixture, they are brown or yel- 
low, or green or dark, or black as ink, according to the violence 
of the attack. Never take anything to " work off" calomel, if 
there is any passage within ten hours after it is taken ; but if 
there is no passage from the bowels within ten, or at most 
twelve hours after taking calomel, then take an injection of 
common water, cool or tepid. Eating ice or drinking cold 
water after a dose of calomel, facilitates its operation, and 
never can have any effect whatever towards causing salivation; 
that is caused by there being no action from the bowels, as a 
consequence of the calomel^ sooner than ten or twelve hours 
after it has been swallowed. 

WHAT AEE THE FACTS? 

I have been between two and three years in the midst of 
prevalent Cholera, continuously, winter and summer, the deaths 
being from two to two hundred a day. In all that time I had 
no attack, never missed a meal for the want of appetite to eat, 
ate in moderation whatever I liked and could get, and lived in 
a plain, regular, quiet way. During this time I had repeated 
occasions to travel one or two thousand miles, or more, in 
steamboats on the Mississippi, w r ith the thermometer among 
the eighties in the shade and over a hundred on the deck, with 
from one to three hundred passengers on board, many of whom 
were German emigrants, huddled up around the boilers of a 
Western steamer — boatmen, Dutchmen and negroes, men, wo- 
men and children, pigs and puppies, hogs and horses, living in 
illustrated equality. These persons came aboard from a 
hot and dusty levee, crammed with decayed apples, rotting 
oranges, bad oysters, and worse whisky ; and almost invariably 
the report of the first morning out would be Cholera among the 
deck passengers, and the next thing, Is there a physician on 
board ? Sometimes I was the only one ; at others there were 
several, and we would divide. Practice of this kind is always 
gratuitous, and is attended with much personal labor, discom- 
fort and exposure. On the last occasion of this kind I treated 



What is Cholera? 1Y5 

eighteen cases, all of whom were getting well, apparently, 
when landed along the river at their various homes, my destin- 
ation being usually as far as the boat would go. There were 
only two deaths — one during the first night, before it was 
known that the cholera was aboard, the other occurred just as 
the boat was landing at the young man's home ; how anxious 
he was to reach that home alive, no pen can ever portray. I 
did nothing for him. Before I knew he was sick, he was in the 
hands of a stranger who came aboard, and who had a remedy 
which was never known to fail. During the voyage, my 
patients slept around the steamboilers in midsummer, or on 
the outer guards, exposed to the rain which several times beat 
in upon them and their bedding ; being every night just at the 
water's edge, and no protection against its dampness, nor 
against the sun in the heat of the day. And yet with these 
unfavorable attendants, not one of the eighteen died on board 
the %i Belle Key," in her six days' journey. In all these cases 
the treatment was uniform : quiet, ice, and calomel pills, 
which last I was accustomed to carry with me. Some of them 
had been made five years, but lost none of their efficacy. 
Whether it was the ice, or the quiet, or the pills, or faithful 
nature which kept these persons from dying, I do not pretend 
to say ; I merely state the doings and the result. 

My own views as to the cure of Cholera, as far as I have 
seen, are, that when calomel fails to cure it, every thing else 
will fail, and that it will cure every curable case. 

PREMONITORY SYMPTOMS OF CHOLERA. 

The cure of this scourge depends upon the earliness with 
which the means are used. It can be said with less limitation 
than of all other diseases together, that Cholera more certainly 
kills, if let alone, and is certainly cured, if early attended to. 
What, then, is the earliest and almost universal symptom of 
approaching Cholera ? I have never seen it named in print 
as such. During the two years above referred to, I could tell 
in my own office, without reading a paper, or seeing or speak- 
ing to a single person, the comparative prevalence of the dis- 
ease from day to day, by the sensation which I will name, and 
I hope to the benefit of thousands, and perhaps not a single 
reader will fail to respond to the statement from his own ex- 



176 HaWs Journal of Health. 

perience. The bowels may be acting but once, or less than 
once, in twenty-four hours, the appetite may be good, and the 
sleep may be sound ; but there is an unpleasant sensation in 
the belly — I do not, for the 'sake of delicacy, say " stomach" 
for it is a perversion of terms — it is not in the stomach, nor do 
I call it the abdomen. Many persons don't know what abdo- 
men means. Thousands have such good health that they have 
no " realizing sense" of being the owners of such " apjparati" 
or "usses," as the reader may fancy, and it is a great pleasure to 
me to write in such a manner that I know my reader will 
understand me perfectly, without having the head-ache. "Who 
wants to hunt up dictionary words when the thermometer is a 
hundred at the coolest spot in his office ? It is bad enough to 
have to write what you know, at such a Fahrenheitical eleva- 
tion as I do now, but it is not endurable to be compelled to 
find the meaning of another by hunting over old lexicons, and, 
after all, running the risk of discovering that the word or 
phrase was, in its application, as innocent of sense as the nog- 
gin was of brains which used the expression. 

Speaking then of that sensation of uneasiness, without acute 
pain, in the region named, it comes on more decidedly after an 
evacuation of the bowels. In health, this act is followed by 
a sense of relief or comfortableness, but when the cholera 
influence is in the atmosphere, even a regular passage is fol- 
lowed by something of this sort, but more and more decided 
after each action over one in twenty-four hours. The feeling 
is not all ; there is a sense of tiredness or weariness which 
inclines you to take a seat ; to sit down and maybe, to bend over 
a little, or to curl up, if on a bed. This sensation is coming 
cholera, and if heeded when first noticed, would save annually 
thousands. The patient should remain on the bed until he felt 
as if he wanted to get up, and as if it would be pleasurable 
to walk about. While observing this quiet and while swallow- 
ing lumps of ice, nothing should be eaten until there is a 
decided appetite, and what is eaten should be farina, or arrow- 
root, or tapioca, or corn-starch, or what is better than all, a 
mush made of rice-flour, or if preferred, common rice parched 
as coffee, and then boiled, as rice is usually for the table, about 
twelve minutes, then strain the liquid from the rice ; return 
the rice to the stew pan and let it steam about a quarter of an 



What is Cholera ? 177 

hour, a short distance from the fire ; it will then be done, the 
grains will be separate ; it may then be eaten with a little 
butter, at intervals of five hours. 

There can be no doubt that thousands upon thousands have 
died of cholera who might now be living had they done nothing 
but observed strict bodily quietness under the promptings of 
nature, the greatest and the best physician. 

WHAT IS " A LOOSENESS ?" 

An indefinite description or direction in reference to health 
is worse than none at all. Physicians very generally, and 
very greatly err in this respect, and much of their " want of 
success" is attributable to this very omission. A patient is 
told he " mustn't allow himself to become costive," mustn't 
eat too much, must take light suppers, mustn't over exercise. 
These things do much mischief. The proper way to give a 
medical direction is to use the most common words in their 
ordinary sense, and in a manner not only to make them easily 
understood, but impossible to be misunderstood, and to take 
it for granted that the person prescribed for knows nothing. 
How many readers of mine have an easy and complete idea of 
the word " expectorate" in medicine, or regeneration in religion? 
and yet the terms expectoration and regeneration are used as 
glibly by preacher and physician as if their meaning were 
self-evident. Why shoot above people's heads and talk about 
justification and sanctification and glorification, and a great 
many other kinds of " ations," when the terms do not convey 
to one ear in a dozen any clear, well-defined, precise idea ? 
And so emphatically with the words looseness and costiveness 
when applied to the bowels. They are relative terms, and a 
practical idea of what they are is only to be conveyed by 
telling what they are, and what they are not. One man will 
say he is very costive, that he has not had an action from the 
bowels in three or four days or more ; but a failure of the 
bowels to act in 24 or 48 or 72 hours is not of itself costive- 
ness, for the person may have had four or five passages in a 
single day ; then nature requires time to make up, so as to 
average one a day. Costiveness applies to the hardness and 
dryness of the alvine evacuations, and not to relative frequency. 

A more indefinite idea prevails in reference to the more 



178 HalVs Journal of Health. 

important (in cholera times at least) terms looseness, loose 
bowels, and the like. The expression must be measured by 
color and consistency of the discharges in reference to cholera. 
We have heard and read a great deal about rice water dis- 
charges. Reader of mine, physicians, nurses, and cooks ex- 
cepted, lay this down a moment, and say if you ever saw rice 
water in your life. Then again how is the reader to know 
whether the cholera rice water is applied to rice water as to 
color, or consistence, or taste, or smell. The term " looseness" 
as applied to Asiatic cholera as a premonitory symptom, is 
simply this : if in cholera times a man passes from his bowels 
even but a single time, a dirty, lightish-colored fluid, of con- 
sistence and appearance, a few feet distant, of a mixture of half 
and half milk and water, that is a premonition of cholera 
begun, and he will be dead in perhaps twenty-four hours at 
farthest, and as the passages become less frequent and of a 
darker or greener or thicker nature, there is hope of life. It 
does not require two such passages to make a looseness ; one 
such is a looseness, and a very dangerous one. Nor does it 
require a gallon in quantity ; a single tablespoonful, if it 
weakens, is the alarm-bell of death in cholera times. 

But do not suppose that if looseness of bowels is a premoni- 
tory symptom of cholera, costiveness, that is, an action of the 
bowels once in every two or three days, is a preventive, or an 
evidence that you are in no danger ; for constipation is often 
the forerunner of looseness. Some of the most fatal cholera 
cases I have seen were characterized by constipation previous 
to the looseness — the patient having concluded that as there 
was nothing like looseness, but the very reverse, he was in no 
danger, and consequently had no need of caiefulness in eating 
or drinking, or anything else. Unusual constipation, that is, 
if the bowels during the prevalence of cholera act less fre- 
quently than usual, or if they even act with the same fre- 
quency, but the discharges are very hard or bally, then a 
physician should be at once consulted. That is the time when 
safe and simple remedies will accomplish more than the most 
heroic means, a few days or even a few hours later. 

THEORY OF CHOLERA. 

It is in its nature common diarrhoea intensified, just as yellow 
fever is an intensification of common bilious fever — a concen- 



What is Cholera f 179 

trated form of it. But what causes this loose condition of the 
bowels, which is not indeed a premonitory symptom of cholera 
but which is cholera itself? 

That which precedes the loose bowels of diarrhoea and 
cholera is liver inaction ; the liver is torpid, that is, it does not 
abstract the bile from the blood, or if it does, this bile instead 
of being discharged drop by drop from the gall bladder into 
the top or beginning of the intestines, where the food passes 
out of the stomach into the bowels proper, is retained and more 
or less reabsorbed and thrown into the general circulation, ren- 
dering it every hour thicker and thicker, and more and more 
impure and black, until at length it almost ceases to flow 
through the veins, just as water will very easily pass along a 
hose pipe or hollow tube, while mush or stirabout would do so 
with great difficulty ; and not passing out of the veins, but still 
coming in, the veins are at length so much distended that the 
thinner portions ooze through the blood vessels. That which 
oozes through the bloodvessels on the inner side of the stomach 
and bowels, is but little more than water, and constitutes the 
rice water discharges, so much spoken of in this connection ; 
that which oozes through the blood vessels on the surface con- 
stitutes the sweat which bedews the whole body shortly before 
death, and it is this clogging up of the thick black blood in the 
small veins which gives the dark blue appearance of the skin 
in the collapse stage. 

What is the reason that the liver is torpid — does not work — • 
does not withdraw the bile from the blood ? 

It is because the blood has become impure, and being thus 
when it enters the liver it fails to produce the natural stimulus^ 
and thus does not wake it up to its healthful action, just as the 
habitual drinker of the best brandy fails to be put " in usua) 
trim" by a " villainous article." 

But how does the blood become impure ? It becomes impure 
by there being absorbed into the circulation what some call 
malaria, and others call miasm. But by whatever name it may 
be called, this death-dealing substance is a gas arising from the 
combination of three substances, heat, moisture, and vegeta- 
tion. Without these three things in combination there can be 
no " cholera atmosphere," there can be no epidemic cholera in 
these ages of the world. "Vegetable matter decomposes at a 



180 HalVs Journal of Health. 

heat of between seventy and eighty degrees, and that amount 
of heat in combination with moisture and some vegetable sub- 
stance must always precede epidemic cholera. 

The decomposition in burial grounds, in potters' fields, or of 
animal matter in any stage or form, does not excite or cause 
cholera ; if anything, it prevents it. I have no disposition to 
argue upon these points. I merely give them as my views, 
which, I think, time and just observation will steadily cor- 
roborate. There are many interesting questions which might 
be discussed in this connection, but the article is already longer 
than was designed. The reader may think that he could state 
some strong facts in contravention of those given, but I think 
it quite likely that on investigation these facts of his will be 
corroborants. For example : how is it that cholera has raged 
in latitudes where snow is on the ground five or ten feet deep? 
The people in such countries are generally poor ; myriads of 
them live in snow houses, which are large spaces dug in the 
snow, with no outlet but one for the smoke, and in this house 
they live with their domestic animals, and all the family offal 
for months together, so that in the spring of the year there is 
a crust of many inches of made flooring, while the interior 
heat from their own bodies and from the fire for cooking pur- 
poses is often eighty or ninety degrees. 

THE THEORY OF CUBE. 

I have said that a torpid liver is an immediate cause of 
cholera, that it does not work actively enough to separate the 
bile, the impure particles, from the blood. Whatever then 
wakes up the liver, removes this torpidity, or in plainer lan- 
guage, whatever stimulates the liver to greater activity, that is 
curative of cholera. Calomel is a medicine which acts upon, 
which stimulates the liver to action with a promptness and cer- 
tainty infinitely beyond all the other remedies yet known to 
men, and the use of any other medicine as a substitute in any 
plain case of cholera, is in my opinion a trifling with human 
life ; not that other remedies are not successful, but that this 
is more certain to act upon the liver than all others ; and what 
sensible man wants to try a lesser certainty in so imminent a 
danger. 

My whole view as to cholera and calomel is simply this, that 



What is Cholera? 181 

while cholera is arrested and cured by a variety of other 
asrents, calomel will cure in all these and thousands of others 
where other remedies have no more effect than a thimbleful 
of ashes ; that calomel will cure any case of cholera which any 
other remedy cures, and that it will cure millions of other 
cases which no other remedy can reach ; that when calomel 
fails to cure all other things will inevitably fail. 

HOW DO WE KNOW ALL THIS S 

The natural color of healthy and properly secreted bile is 
yellowish, hence that is the color of an ordinarily healthful 
discharge from the bowels.; but as the liver becomes torpid, 
the bile becomes greenish, and still farther on, black. If you 
give calomel under such circumstances, black, green, or yellow 
discharges result, according to the degree of torpidity. When 
the liver gives out no bile at all, the passages are watery and 
light colored. The action of a calomel pill in cholera is to 
arrest the discharges from the bowels, and this it does usually 
within two hours, and in fi.ve, eight, or ten, or twelve hours 
more it starts the bowels to act again, but the substance dis- 
charged is no longer colorless and thin, but darker and thicker 
and less debilitating, and the patient is safe in proportion as 
these passages are green or dark-colored. I have seen them 
sometimes like clots of tar. 

PREVENTIVES OF CHOLERA. 

There are none, there never can be, except so far as it may 
be done by quietude of body and mind, by personal cleanli- 
ness, by regular and temperate habits of life, and the use of 
plain accustomed nourishing food. 

Anything taken medicinally as a preventive of cholera will 
inevitably, and under all circumstances, increase the liability 
to an attack. 

WHY? 

Nothing can prevent cholera in a cholera atmosphere, beyond 
the natural agents of nutrition, except in proportion to its 
stimulating properties. The liver takes its share of the general 
stimulus and works with more vigor. Where the system is 
under the effect of the stimulus, it is safer, but it is a first 
truth that the stimulant sooner or later expends its force, as a 



182 HaWs Journal of Health. 

drink of brandy, for example. That moment the system be* 
gins to fail, and falls as far below its natural condition as it 
was just before above it, and while in that condition is just as 
much more susceptible of cholera as it was less liable under 
the action of the stimulant, until by degrees it rises up to its 
natural equilibrium, its natural condition. You can, it is true, 
repeat the stimulus, but it must be done with the utmost regu- 
larity, and just at the time the effectsof the previous one 
begins to subside. This it will at once be seen, requires a 
nicety of observation, and correctness of judgment which not 
one in a multitude can bestow, saying nothing of another 
nicety of judgment, that of gradually increasing the amount 
of the stimulant, so that the effect shall be kept up to the regular 
notch ; for a given amount of one stimulant will inevitably 
fail, after a few repetitions, to produce the same amount of 
stimulation, and the moment that amount fails to be raised, 
that moment the person is more susceptible of cholera than if 
he had taken nothing at all. 

He who takes any medicinal agent, internal or external, for 
the prevention of Cholera, commits an act of the most consum- 
mate folly ; and I should consider myself an ignoramus or a 
knave were I to concoct a professed anti-cholera mixture. 

THE SUMMING UP. 

When Cholera is present in any community, each person 
should consider himself as attacked with Cholera. 

1st. If the bowels act less frequently than usual. 

2d. If the bowels act oftener than twice in twenty-four 
hours. 

3d. If the discharge from the bowels is of a dirty white in 
color, and watery in its consistence. 

4th. If he have any indefinable sensation about the belly, 
which not only unpleasantly reminds him that he has such an 
article, but also inclines him to sit down, and makes sitting 
down a much more pleasant operation than usual. 

Some persons may think that this fourth item is putting " too 
fine a point" on the matter, and that it is being over careful ; 
but I know that these very feelings do, in a vast majority ot 
fatal cases of Cholera, precede the actual "looseness" so uni- 
versally and so wrongfully regarded as the premonitory symp- 



What is Cholera? 183 

torn of cholera ; " looseness," is not a premonitory symptom of 

Cholera. 

I^ 3 LOOSENESS IS CHOLERA BEGUN! ! 

Whenever Cholera is prevalent in any community, it is as 
much actual Cholera, under such circumstances, as the first 
little flame on the roof of a house constitutes " a house on 
fire." 

When Cholera is present as an epidemic — as a " falling upon 
the people," which is the literal meaning of the word epidemic, 
in a liberal translation — a person may have one regular action 
every twenty-four hours ; it may not be ':ard and dry, it may 
not be in lumps or balls, and it may r consistent enough to 
maintain its shape and form, and this s neither too costive noi 
too loose, and is just what it ought t be in health ; but, at the 
same time, if a person in a cholera atmosphere has such a pas- 
sage from the bowels, and it is followed not merely by an 
absence of that comfortableness and sense of relief with which 
all are familiar in health, but by a positive sensation, not 
agreeable, not painful, but unpleasant, inclining to stilness, and 
there is a feeling as if a slight stooping or bending forward of 
the body would be agreeable, — these are the premonitories of 
Asiatic Cholera ; and it is wonderful that they have never, as 
far as I know, been published in book or newspaper for popu- 
lar information. At such a stage no physician is needed, no 
physic is required, only quietude on the back, ice to be eaten 
if there is any thirst, and no food but toasted bread, and tea of 
some kind, green, black, sage, sassafras, or any other of the 
common herbs. Keep up attention to these things until you 
can walk without any uncomfortableness whatever, and even 
feel as if it were doing you good, and until you are not sensi- 
ble of anything unpleasant about the belly. 

If you get tired of tea and toast, or if it is not agreeable 
to you, use in their place boiled rice, or sago, or tapioca, or 
arrow-root, or corn starch, or mush made of rice flour. With 
all these articles a little boiled milk may be used, or they may 
be eaten with a little butter, or syrup of some kind, for a 
change. 

If, under the four circumstances named on page 172, there 
is not an improvement in the symptoms within a very few 
hours, by the three things there named, to wit : 



184: HalVs Journal of Health. 

1st. Quietude on your back, on a bed. 

2d. Eating ice, if thirsty.. 

3d. A diet of tea and toast, or boiled rice, or some of the 
starches : 

Then do not trifle with a holy, human life by taking any 
medicine on your own responsibility, nor by the advice of any 
unprofessional man ; but, by all means, send for a physician. 
But if you have violent vomiting, or have a single lightish- 
colored, watery passage, or even a thinnish passage every hour 
or two, and no physician can be had in several hours, do not 
wait for him, but swallow a ten-grain calomel pill, and repeat 
it every second hour until the symptoms abate or the physician 
arrives ; or, if at the end of two hours after the first pill has 
been taken, the symptoms have become aggravated, take two 
calomel pills of ten grains each and then patiently wait. If 
the passages stop, if the vomiting ceases, you are safe ; and if, 
in addition to the cessation of vomiting, or looseness, or both, 
the passages become green or dark, and more consistent within 
eight, or ten, or twelve hours after the first pill, and, in addi- 
tion, urination returns, you will get well without anything else 
in addition beyond judicious nursing. 

The most certain indication of recovery from an attack of 
Asiatic Cholera is the return of free urination ; for during the 
attack it ceases altogether, — a most important fact, but not 
known, perhaps, to one person in ten thousand, and is worth 
more than all other symptoms together. 

CAUSES OF CHOLERA. 

A very great deal has been uselessly written for public 
perusal about the causes of Cholera. One person will tell you 
that a glass of soda gave him cholera, or a mess of huckleber- 
ries, or cucumbers, or green corn, or cabbages, which is just 
about as true as the almost universal error, that a bad cold 
causes consumption. A bad cold never did nor ever can 
originate consumption, any more than the things above named 
originate cholera. A bad cold excites consumption in a per- 
son whose lungs are already tuberculated, not otherwise, cer- 
tainly; and so green corn, or cucumbers, or cabbages, or any 
other food, whatever it may be, which is not well digested when 
it passes into the stomach, will excite cholera, when a persOD 



What is Cholera f 185 

is living in a cholera atmosphere, and the atmosphere is made 
" choleric " by its holding in suspension some emanation which 
is the product of vegetable decomposition. 

LIMESTONE WATER. 

Much has been written about this agent as a cause of Cho- 
lera. Those who know least are most positive. It may be 
true to some extent, and, under some circumstances, it may be 
an excitant of Cholera ; but I cannot think it is " per se" — 
that it is remarkably or necessarily so. It is known that the 
whole South-west has suffered from Cholera, New Orleans 
especially ; yet there is scarcely a decent dwelling there which 
has not a cistern attached to it, above ground, and wholly sup- 
plied by rain water ; and this is the usual drink, and it is the 
same case with multitudes of the better class of dwellings in 
the Southern country. 

As to escaping prevalent Cholera, the great general rules are : 

1st. Make no violent changes in your mode of life, whether 
in eating, or drinking, or sleeping, or exercise. 

2d. Endeavor to attain composure of mind, quietude of 
body, regularity of all bodily habits, temperance in the use of 
plain, substantial, nourishing food ; and let your drinks be a 
moderate amount of tea, and coffee, and cold water. If accus- 
tomed to use wine or brandy, or any other beverage or alco- 
holic stimulant, make no change, for change is death. If any 
change at all, it should be a regular, steady, systematic in- 
crease. But as soon as the Cholera has disappeared, drink 
no more. 

FRUITS, m CHOLERA TIMES, 

Are beneficial, if properly used. They should be ripe, raw, 
fresh, perfect, — should be eaten alone without cream or sugar, 
and without fluids of any kind for an hour after , and they 
should not be eaten later in the day than the usual dinner hour 
of two P. M. 

In Cholera times, nothing should be taken after dinner, 
except a piece of cold bread and butter, and a cup of tea of 
some kind. This, indeed, ought to be the rule for all who wish 
to live long and healthfully. 

The indefinite unpleasantness in the bowels, which I have 
bo much insisted upon as the real premonitory symptom of 



186 Hall's Journal of Health. 

Asiatic Cholera begun, whether there be looseness or constipa- 
tion, most probably precedes every acknowledged attack of 
Cholera, from hours up to days. There are no means for 
proving this, certainly ; for the mass of people are too unob- 
serving. But it most certainly is a safe rule in cholera times, 
to regard it as a premonitory, and to act accordingly. 

Whatever I have said of Cholera in the preceding pages, I 
wish to be understood as applicable to what has come under 
my own observation during the general prevalence of Cholera 
in a community. 

In different States and countries there are circumstances 
which modify the disease, its symptoms, and everything con- 
nected with it, such as locality, variety of exciting causes, 
their different degrees of virulence or concentratedness, the 
different habits and modes of life. These things constitute the 
reason of the various modes of treatment, and the great error 
has been the publishing of a successful remedy in one locality, 
and relying upon it in another. But the treatment by quietude, 
ice, and calomel, is equally applicable on every spot of the 
earth's surface, wherever a case of Epidemic Cholera occurs, 
6ince the essential cause of Cholera is everywhere the same, 
to wit, the miasm of vegetable decomposition, the effects of 
that cause are the same, to wit, a failure on the part of the 
liver to work with sufficient vigor to withdraw the bile from 
the blood and pass it out of the system ; and the mode of re- 
moving that effect is the same, to wit, the stimulation of the 
liver to increased action. And although, in milder forms, a 
variety of agencies may stimulate the liver to work, and thus 
restore health, yet inasmuch as calomel is infinitely more relia- 
ble than all other liver stimulants yet known, it is recommended 
as having precedence of all others, on the ground previously 
named, that when danger is imminent and a few hours makes 
the difference between life and death, it is unwise to trust to a 
less certain agent when the more certain one is equally at 
hand and is the easiest medicine known to be taken, as it has 
no appreciable taste, its bulk is exceedingly small, and by 
reason of its weight it sinks to the bottom of the stomach and 
cannot be rejected except in rare instances. 

Some of my views are peculiar, perhaps. They were formed 
from observations made in 1832, '3 and '4, my first experiences 



What is Cholera? 187 

being on board a crowded steamboat which left Louisville, 
Kentucky, in October, 1832. In twenty-four hours the cholera 
broke out. It had just reached the west from Canada. No 
one knew anything about its nature, symptoms, or treatment, 
practically, and the panic was terrible. I had retired early. 
A Virginia gentleman was lying on the floor suffering from an 
attack. At midnight I awoke and found the cabin deserted, 
not a living creature in it, nor on the boat either, as well as I 
now remember, and every berth but mine was entirely divested 
of its bedding. The man had died, and they were airing the 
boat, while a few were engaged in depositing him at the foot 
of a tree in a coarse wooden box, on the banks of the Ohio. 
The boat was bound for St. Louis, but few of her passengers 
to that port, or officers, lived to reach their destination. I was 
young then, had perfect health, and knew no fear. Ever since 
that terrible " trip," and the experiences of the following years, 
everything that I have seen or read on the subject of cholera 
has seemed to me to confirm the views advanced in the pre- 
ceding pages, and I trust that general readers, as well as pro- 
fessional men, who may chance to see this article, will hereafter 
direct their attention to all facts bearing upon cholera, and 
notice how far such observed facts will bear them out in con- 
cluding, 1st, that epidemic Asiatic cholera cannot exist aside 
from moisture, heat, and vegetable matter ; 2d, that quietude, 
ice, and calomel will cure where anything else will, and will 
succeed in multitudes of cases where all things else have sig- 
nally failed. 

CALOMEL PREJUDICES. 

If, then, calomel is such an admirable agent in cholera, why 
is it not universally used ? I might as well ask, if honesty is 
the best policy, why are not the majority of men honest from 
principle ? It is because men are ignorant or misinformed. 
Many persons do not know the power of calomel in curing 
cholera, while others are afraid of it because it sometimes sali- 
vates. Suppose it does — better to run the risk of salivation 
than to die. And even if salivated, a man is not necessarily 
permanently injured by salivation. I have been badly sali- 
vated several, times very many years ago, but I believe I have 
as good health as most men. I do not recollect to have lost 



188 HalVs Journal of Health, 

three meals from sickness in fifteen years past, except from sea 
sickness, and no doubt there are tens of thousands of persons 
who have been salivated can speak similarly. But the objec- 
tion is perfectly childish when it is remembered that perhaps 
a thousand persons in succession may take calomel and not two 
in the thousand be salivated. I might say not two in ten 
thousand, and that in a vast majority of those who are not 
designedly salivated, this salivation is the result of injudicious 
administration ; thus, 

Salivation is caused by keeping the system too long under 
the influence of calomel, in two ways : 

1st, By giving small doses at short intervals. 

2d, By giving an amount so small that it fails to work itself 
off in ten or twelve hours. 

3d, By giving a larger amount, but mixing opium in some 
form or other with it ; for in all cases the more opium or other 
anodyne you give with a dose of calomel, the longer it will be 
in producing its legitimate action. 

The best method of administering calomel is to give enough 
at one time to make it act of itself within twelve hours, and 
if it does not act within that time, take an injection of half a 
pint of tepid water, or of a tablespoonful of salts in a half 
pint of warm w T ater every hour until the bowels do act. Any 
action of the bowels at all after six hours since taking the cal- 
omel may be set down as an action from calomel, and nothing 
need be done to " work it off." 

If salivation is not designed, it is not best to give a dose of 
calomel oftener than once a w r eek. 

By observing the two rules just stated, I do not believe that 
any general practitioner will have one case of undesired sali- 
vation in ten years practice. 

It is important for the reader to remember that there are 
sporadic cases, that is., scattering cases of cholera which may 
not be preceded by a constipation, or looseness of bowels, or 
uneasiness sufficiently decided to have attracted the observation 
of the patient ; for in many cases the patient declares that 
he "felt" as well as he ever did in his life, or acquaintances 
remark that he " appeared " to be in perfect health, and yet 
to-day he is dead of cholera. Yet, I very much doubt if a 
case of cholera ever occurred without the premonitions above 



What is Cholera? 189 

named in a greater or less degree. Still, for all practical pur- 
poses, and to be on the safe side, let no one who has looseness 
to-day in cholera times, conclude that it cannot be cholera, 
because he " felt" so and so the day before, or because no pre- 
monitions were observed ; rather let him conclude they were 
slight or unobserved, and act as he should do if he were per- 
fectly assured that he had at that moment in his own person, 
undisputed epidemic Asiatic cholera. The truth is, it is as im- 
possible for a man in perfect health to be stricken down in a 
moment with a dangerous disease, as it is for a man who has 
been honest from principle for a lifetime, to become in a day 
a forger or a swindler. 

As far as my observation has extended, I believe that the 
most frequent of all exciting causes of cholera is going to bed 
too soon after a hearty meal, whether it be a late dinner or 
merely a supper of fruits and cream or milk, with sugar. I 
think that eating freely of fruits or berries, ripe, raw, and 
perfect, with any fluid after them, and then going to bed in an 
hour or two, will excite cholera in cholera times. I am inclined 
to think that huckleberries with cream or milk, except in very 
small quantity, make a dangerous dish in cholera times. 

It may subserve a good purpose to remark that I have writ- 
ten on this subject not to support a theory, but to draw atten- 
tion to the suggestions, and least of all to obtain a cholera 
practice. I never treated a cholera case except gratuitously. 
I do not visit persons out of my office, except in rare cases. I 
prescribe only for those who come to see me and who write to 
me, and my practice is closely confined to ailments of the 
throat and lungs, and has been for ten or fifteen years. 

I will close the subject with answering an inquiry which no 
doubt has occurred to the reader as a conclusive refutation of 
all that I have said as to the fundamental cause of cholera, to 
wit: 

If cholera is the result of heat, moisture, and vegetable 
matter in combination, why has it not prevailed from time 
immemorial ? Because the climates of the world, and of the 
various countries of* the earth, the constitutions, and habits of 
life, and modes of living are constantly changing ; hence new 
diseases are making their appearance from time to time, while 
others have vanished from the world. And when a single ele- 



190 HalVs Journal of Health. 

ment of many is changed, an entire new combination may be the 
result. But whatever may be that new or changed element, 
it can no more, as far as our present knowledge extends, excite 
epidemic cholera without the aid of vegetable decomposition, 
than powder can be ignited without the aid of fire. 

CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 
While Cholera prevails, no marked change should be made as to the general habits 
of a regular temperate life — as long as the person feels entirely well — but the mo- 
ment the great premonitory symptom is observed even in a slight degree, to wit, an 
indefinable uncomfortableness in the belly, inclining to rest, then an instantaneous 
change should be made from physical activity to bodily rest — from mental activity 
to mental relaxation — from the habitual use of wines, or malt, or other alcoholic 
drinks to total abstinence — from everything of the kind ; using ice or ice-water as a 
substitute, or cold spring water, a few swallows only in any twenty minutes ; but if 
ice is to be had, and there is thirst, it may be eaten continuously from morning unti' 
night. 

Whatever may have been the diet before, it should be changed at once to tea 
and toast, or cold bread and butter, with plain meat, salted or fresh, whichever is 
relished most — 1 mean that these changes should be made on the first appearance 
of belly-uncomfortableness, and if in six or eight hours you are not decidedly better, 
send for a physician. If you are better, continue your own treatment until the feeling 
in the belly has entirely disappeared and you have a desire to walk about, and ex- 
perience a decided relief in doing so. 

If you have over two (or three at most) passages within twenty-four hours, do 
not make an experiment on your life by taking even a calomel pill, simple as it is, 
unless it be wholly impracticable to obtain a physician within three or four hours. 
DIET IN CHOLERA TIMES. 

If you have no special liking for one thing more than another, and have not even 
the premonitory symptom, to wit, the belly-uneasiness, then the following diet will 
render you more secure : 

Breakfast.— A single cup of weak coffee or tea, with toasted bread, or cold bread 
and butter, and a small piece of salt meat, ham, beef, fish, or the like, and nothing 
else. Dinner — Cold bread, roasted or broiled fresh meat of some kind, potatoes, 
rice, hominy, samp, or thickened gruel. For Dessert— Rice, or bread pudding, or 
sago, arrow root, tapioca, farina, corn starch, prepared in the usual manner, and no- 
thing elsofuid or solid. Tea, or Supper— A single cup of weak tea of some kind, 
or coffee, with cold bread and butter — nothing else. 

Eat nothing between meals; go to bed at a regular early hour, not later than ten 
o'clock .; attend to your business with great moderation, avoiding hurry, bustle, wor- 
riment of -mind ; wear thin woollen flannel next the body during the day, air it well 
at night, sleeping in a common cotton night garment; remain in bed of mornings, 
after you have waked up, until you feel rested in all your limbs; but do not by any 
means take a second nap. Do not sleep a moment in the day time, and let all your 
enjoyments and recreations be in great moderation. 

Fruits ihave not been named, because it is so difficult to get them fresh, ripe, per- 
fect— ttiany looking so, are wormy. Except potatoes, no vegetables are named, 
because ti>ey more readily sour on the stomach, require more power of digestion, 
while they do not afford as much nutriment and strength to the body in proportion. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

VOL. IL] SEPTEMBER, 1855. [NO. IX. 

OBSERVATIONS ON CHOLERA. 

In the August number, I have insisted mainly on 

1st. An uncomfortableness about the belly as the very earliest 
premonition of approaching Cholera, in cholera times. 

2d. That at this stage, an almost infallible and immediate 
cure is effected by prompt and perfect quietude on the back, 
on a bed, satisfying the thirst, if any, by swallowing pellets of 
ice, and eating, only if decidedly hungry, farinaceous food, tea 
and toast, or thickened gruel ; and that this course should be 
continued until the feeling in the abdomen has entirely disap- 
peared, and until there is a desire to walk about, and a sensa- 
tion of pleasure or relief in doing so. 

3d. That if in cholera times, there has been no passage from 
the bowels in two or three days, or if there be three passages 
from the bowels in any twenty-four hours, or a single passage 
of a watery and light-colored substance, or an unaccountable 
feeling of weakness, amounting almost to prostration, without 
any noticed looseness, or constipation, or nausea, or abdominal 
uncomfortableness, in either of these four conditions, most 
especially the last, a resident physician, in whom high confi- 
dence is reposed, should be at once consulted. 

4th. That if the symptoms are urgent, such as two or three 
lightish-colored, painless, watery passages, in the course of five 
or six hours, or vomiting or cramps, and a physician cannot be 
had in the course of three or four hours, then, in addition to the 
quietude on the back, a flannel bandage firmly fastened around 
the abdomen, and eating ice, if there is thirst, as a precau- 
tion, and to be on the safe side, and to save time which may 
be infinitely valuable to the patient, a calomel pill of ten 
grains should at once be swallowed ; and if the vomiting or 



194 HalVs Journal of Health. 

purging do not cease within two hours, and a physician does 
not arrive, then swallow two of the calomel pills. 

If the patient is afraid of being salivated, then let him take 
twice as much super carbonate of Soda as he has taken calomel, 
in pills, or dissolved in a tablespoon or two of cold or warm 
water. It is not necessary that the calomel should be in the 
form of a pill ; if there is no vomiting or decided nausea, the 
next best method of taking it is to put it on the end of a spoon- 
handle or case-knife, put it in the mouth, and, suddenly turn- 
ing it over, spread or plaster the calomel on the back part of 
the tongue, and wash it down with ice-water. Then chew af- 
terwards any tough substance, such as a piece of dried beef, or 
tough bread crust, so as to clean the teeth and mouth from 
any particles of calomel which may have obtained a lodgment 
— and, even after that, rinse the mouth out well, otherwise the 
teeth may be injured. The prejudices against calomel have 
arisen from its indiscriminate and careless use. In precisely 
the same manner have prejudices quite as strong arisen against 
the use of tea and coffee, and roast beef, and fruits, until our 
whole dietetic table is reduced to grapes and cold water. 

Intelligent men have written against the use of calomel in 
jholera ; but in every case I have lately seen reported, as proof 
of the inefficacy of calomel, one of two things invariably at- 
tended that case — either other things were done or given with 
the calomel, such as opium, or salts, or ipecac, or jalap, or 
rhubarb, — or the patient died in spite of all subsequent treat- 
ment, bringing us back to the admitted point, that where calo- 
mel fails all other things will fail. All that I have said in 
reference to the good effects of calomel in cholera, is to be 
considered as applicable to cases where nothing else has been 
given but pure calomel — where nothing else has been done but 
lying on the back on a bed, and eating ice, if thirsty. When 
calomel does not arrest the watery passages, it is because 
enough is not given ; or it is a fatal case. Since writing the 
Cholera article, an intelligent gentleman connected with one 
of our oldest and most respectable publishing houses in Broad- 
way, has informed me that a medical gentleman in the eastern 
part of the city has made a large amount of money at five dol- 
lars a case, and that, from his success, his whole time is fully 
occupied. His main treatment is from twenty to forty grains 



Observations on Cholera, 195 

of calomel at the first dose, and bathing the feet in hot water 
saturated with the salt of a fish barrel. 

I have said nothing about the subsequent or convalescing 
treatment of cholera, diet, &c, as it is a disease so critically 
dangerous that it is madness not to secure the services of a re- 
gular practising physician, even when the treatment advised 
has been followed with the happiest results. 

I wish it to be distinctly understood, that in the calomel 
treatment, everything else taken or done beside the ice and 
quiet, is a positive injury, unless under the direction of a phy- 
sician ; for any prescription however familiar — and these are 
the things which we denominate " simple, and can do no harm, 
even if they do no good" — even a mustard plaster over the sto- 
mach or abdomen may excite an irritation in the system diffi- 
cult to control ; and sometimes, as I have seen, it produces un- 
utterable torture : a patient once begged with dying earnestness 
to have it removed, if it were " but for five minutes." 

Another "simple" is paregoric, a household medicine, the 
common destroyer of the health and lives of young children in 
the hands of ignorant mothers and lazy, unprincipled nurses. 
Ten, twenty, fifty drops of paregoric have been so often given 
under various circumstances, that it, too, is so familiar as to 
have become one of the simples, and it does faithfully act to- 
wards arresting the passages, and life too, by convulsions, apo- 
plexies or fatal congestions. A grain of opium, twenty drops 
of laudanum, or a teaspoon of paregoric, — either one is capable 
of causing convulsions immediately, when they act so as to 
arrest the looseness, suddenly. 

It is the use of opiates in loose bowels which explains the 
fact that among the eleven hundred and thirty-nine deaths in 
New York city, for the last reported week in July of this year, 
five hundred and thirty-three were from bowel affections, and 
one hundred and seventy-nine, besides, from congestions of 
various kinds, — opiates acting uniformly in one of two ways, 
soothing the disease for the moment, to break out with greater 
aggravation in a short time ; or, on the other hand, to act in a 
more summary manner, causing congestions and more sudden 
death. 

The startling fact forces itself on our attention, that now, in 
August, 1854, every other death in New York is from disorder 



196 HaWs Journal of Health. 

of the bowels, bringing us back to the point, that the very 
slightest bowel affection in cholera times, demands instanta- 
neous attention. One week later : total deaths, 1148 ; con- 
gestions, 133 ; disease of the bowels, 645 — more than one-half. 

In the week ending July 22d, there were nine hundred and 
fifteen deaths, four hundred and twelve of which were from 
diseases of the bowels, and ninety-seven more of convulsions 
and congestions. One of our most estimable citizens recently 
died with a short sickness, reported of cholera, but his three 
attending physicians certified through the papers that "he died 
of congestive fever." If this distinguished gentleman had loose 
bowels at first, as the papers stated, and took anodynes in any 
form to arrest the looseness, then it was death from cholera, 
badly treated ; and the statement that he died of "congestive 
fever " is not full, and misleads. Let my readers remember 
whenever they see a death recorded from convulsions, apoplexy, 
or congestion in any form, in cholera times, that such a death, 
in nine cases out of ten, has followed some anodyne or high sti- 
mulant taken into the stomach. I have no objection to the use 
of an injection of two or three teaspoonfuls of laudanum in 
as many tablespoons of water, or introducing into the rectum a 
plug of opium half the size of a common hazlenut or filbert, 
to quiet the straining or constant desire to stool, or to compose 
the bowels, at the time the calomel pills are taken, or any time 
before the physician arrives ; it saves time, gives repose, and 
has none of the ill effects of such things introduced into the 
stomach. 

It is a great mistake that calomel is slow to operate, and 
that mistake consists in not knowing what its first operation is, 
which is to arrest the action of the bowels within two hours. 
and if enough is given it will do so, in any curable case, with the 
certainty almost of a specific. Some physicians hesitate, be- 
cause they fear it will excite irritation — that is, aggravate the 
condition of things already present ; they thus think, because 
they have seen calomel given and the symptoms soon after be- 
come worse. So have I : — first, because it is the nature of 
Cholera to get worse constantly — get worse every hour ; and 
second, because so little was given, that it was simply power- 
less — all the injury it could effect was negative. While I am 
writing this, the former health officer of the port of New York 



Observations on Cholera. 197 

during the first cholera, state's that they tried every thing, and 
his conclusions were, that " calomel cured as often as anything 
else, and if any thing was to be done it was by calomel." 

While the more immediate effect of calomel in cholera, is to 
arrest the looseness more or less within two hours, then its 
stimulating energies begin, and at the end of six, eight, or ten 
hours, colored, consistent dejections appear, and then, simply 
with good nursing, the patient is safe, with ordinary attention. 

As it is malaria, from the combination of heat, moisture and 
vegetable matter uniting with some unusual constituent of the 
atmosphere, which, generates cholera ; and, as this malaria is 
heaviest nearest the earth, persons are safer from cholera who 
live, or at least sleep in the upper stories of houses, as explained 
in my publication on Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases, eighth 
edition, page 317, strongly corroborated by the fact recently 
published, that in London, in 1848-9, epidemic cholera was 
fatal in the inverse proportion to the elevation of the houses 
above the general level — that is, from houses erected on a 
piece of ground forty feet higher than the general level, 
sixteen died of cholera out of every hundred thousand ; from 
forty to sixty feet, eleven in every hundred thousand ; from 
sixty to eighty, four in every hundred thousand ; from eighty 
to one hundred, only three deaths in a hundred thousand ; 
while in houses not over twenty feet above the general eleva- 
tion, thirty-one persons died of cholera in every hundred 
thousand ; and, without giving a special reason for it here, 1 
only remark that temperate persons may have almost an entire 
immunity from cholera during an epidemic, by sleeping thirty 
feet or more above the ground, by eating breakfast before 
going out of doors in the morning ; and, thirdly, by having a 
good fire kindled at sundown, and not going out of doors after- 
wards, as explained at page above quoted. 

Although the whole August number was taken up with the 
subject of Cholera, and a great part of this number, yet I feel 
it important to say something towards counteracting a general 
and most dangerous error, disseminated and constantly repeated 
by newspaper editors, — very particularly so by some of the 
ISTew York Daily press, and that, too, in face of the fact, that 
some of these papers have medical editors in their department. 
This fatal error is, that Cholera is a very mysterious disease, 



19S Hall's Journal of Health. 

and, in the main, falls upon its victim with the suddenness and 
fatality of a thunderbolt. The inevitable and practical result 
is, that a species of terror attends an attack of Cholera, in a 
vast number of instances, having a more injurious effect than 
the disease itself. A case in hand is given in the Buffalo Be- 
public of the 27th July : 

" A strong, healthy laboring man was seized with Cholera. 
The moment he became aware that the disease was upon him, 
he grew excited, calling for all the medical aid that could be 
got around him. They came, administered remedies, and con- 
sulted together, and were earnest in their endeavors to do every 
thing in their power to save him. The man was still frantic 
with fear, and called upon them individually to save him. 
4 Save my life,' said he, ' and I will give you one thousand dol- 
lars.' His physicians tried to calm his feelings and subdue his 
fears, assuring him that it was absolutely necessary that he 
should be calm and tranquil in order to give effect to the me- 
dicine and check the disease. Fear, however, had taken such 
firm hold of him that he could not refrain from continued cries 
for help until prostrated and unable to speak, when death put 
an end to his sufferings and fears." 

Let it be remembered by all, that there is no positive evi- 
dence that any man ever dies within twenty-four hours after 
the first onset of the disease. I make the statement with great 
deliberation, and certainly not without many searching inqui- 
ries and close observations. I have never yet, in a single in- 
stance, failed to find, that even days before, something was 
amiss, but so slight as not to fix attention, and almost to be un- 
remembered in a dozen hours afterwards. I earnestly trust 
that educated physicians — men of age and character in the 
community — will make observations in this direction, and come 
out openly, under their own proper signatures, and let the peo- 
ple know something tangible, something practical on this 
death-dealing subject. How is it that in twenty years medical 
men have not arrived at some few general principles, practical 
in their nature — some few principles so intuitively truthful as 
to command the unanimous assent of the commonest observers. 
Such principles do exist, and they ought to be searched out 
and published by authority. For example, in the first stages 
of cholera in actual existence, there is a wanting to rest; nature. 



Observations on Cholera. 199 

reason, common sense, instinct — all teach that rest of the most 
perfect kind should be observed ; and yet what physician does 
not know how fruitlessly men fight against this inclination and 
perish in the contest. All classes or sects of physicians claim 
the successful treatment of cholera, and no doubt all are more 
or less successful — those who bleed and those who do not ; 
those who give calomel and those who deprecate its employ- 
ment as useless, if not fatal ; those who give nothing but inter- 
nal remedies ; those who do nothing but make external appli- 
cations ; those who starve and those who feed ; those who 
drown with water and those who deny a drop. It seems to me 
quite apparent that the reason all modes of treatment are 
more or less effectual, does not lie in the fact that cholera is 
not a dangerous or a critical disease, but that there must be 
some general principles of treatment which run through all 
the modes practised. If these general principles could be 
culled out, and, in addition, some really first symptom of cho- 
lera were fixed on, far earlier than the painless looseness, then 
not a creature need die where millions now do ! 

Header of mine, in the shades of the forties, you have found 
more than once or twice, that in times of real difficulty, if you 
could not help yourself, you had to go unhelped. This is as it 
should be — it makes men self-reliant ; he who is always helped 
remains a baby always, and his name and memory rot in 
" ninety days after" his body. This being so, let us help our- 
selves, in the present dearth of help amid such myriads of doc- 
tors and certain infallible cures for cholera, and endeavor to find 
some two or three or more things which all " pathies " attend 
to in the treatment of the fearful scourge. 

1st. It is becoming a matter of universal assent, that in cho- 
lera times, a painless, weakening, inodorous, watery, light- 
colored looseness of the bowels is actual cholera. Few die 
who instantly call in competent medical aid. 

2d. All admit the imperative, the absolute necessity of per- 
fect quietude from the instant the first symptom is noticed. 

3d. So few deny, over their own proper names, that swal- 
lowing ice is beneficial, or, if not attainable, ice-cold water, in 
one or two swallows only at a time, repeated every few minutes 
when there is thirst, we may safely take this as a third general 
principle. 



200 HalVs Journal of Health. 

4th. No one denies that the looseness should be arrested 
without delay. 

5th. That it is madness not to secure the services of a -regu- 
lar practising physician at the earliest moment. 

6th. If at all possible, make a positive arrangement that the 
medical attendant shall see you once an hour, until the crisis 
is past. 

Now, if instead of the first general principle above named, 
mine is substituted — that, in cholera times, the first symp- 
tom of the onset of cholera is simply a weakening uncomfort- 
ableness about the belly — then cholera will become one of the 
least fatal of all known diseases. 

If newspaper editors were to cause these items to be univer- 
sally known and believed — as the press only can do — then 
would I be willing that every cholera prescription ever pub- 
lished, except in standard medical works, should be blotted 
from the memory of man ; and certain I am that human life 
thereby would be an infinite gainer. 

I have now occupied some thirty pages of my Journal in 
giving my views on Cholera ; but no subscriber will think I 
have given too much importance to the subject, should he be 
attacked himself, or have a dear child just on the verge of col- 
lapse, as the Editor had, while penning the August article on 
the subject, waiting until the last safe moment, in his unwil- 
lingness to give medicine, yet having an unfaltering confidence 
in the value of pure calomel, judiciously given, and well 
watched. 

To sum up, then, all I have said, in a few words, 

If you have, in cholera times, any reason to believe that it 
is attacking you, the first prescription is — and it is of immea 
surable importance — send for your physician ; or, rather, if 
you happen to be from home, at your office or counting-house, 
get a carriage, and call on him on your way home. 

2d. As soon as you enter your house, do not wait to undress, 
but lie down on the first bed you come to, undressing at your 
leisure, and let nothing pass your mouth but ice, or, if not 
attainable, cold water, — one or two swallows at a time, and 
not oftener than as many minutes apart ; but if you have ice, 
you can eat it as voraciously as you desire, — but take neither 
ice nor water unless you are thirsty. 



Observations on Cholera. 201 

3d. This third item is conditional. If the symptoms are 
urgent, or you find yourself becoming nervous, and a physician 
cannot possibly be had within two hours, — then swallow ten or 
twenty grains of calomel, in pill, if there is sickness at stomach ; 
if not, it w T ill do you more good to take it on the end of a 
spoon-handle or case-knife, and plaster it over the back part 
of the tongue, washing it down with cold or iced water, taking 
at the same time, if so disposed, at least as much super-carbon- 
ate of Soda, as an apparent preventive, in some instances, of 
salivation, and wait until your physician comes. 

It requires a philosopher to march up to the cannon's mouth 
while the match is just descending on the touch-hole, in spite 
of the gunner's assurance that he will not fire it off; and not 
less a quantum of firmness does it require to resist the inces- 
sant importunities of those we love, to be doing something; if 
you have any disposition to gratify them, without injuring 
yourself, and yet do some additional good, introduce into 
the rectum a long piece of opium, which, in the shape of a 
ball, was half as large as a common-sized filbert, or, as called 
by others, hazlenut. 

" Do let me alone," is the very frequent petition of a cholera 
patient, unless he is a stranger and has no money ; in that case, 
there is no kind of necessity for a repetition of the prayer. 

Since the first four pages of this September article on Cho- 
lera were put in type, I have purchased the August number 
of the New York Medical Gazette, the regular exchange not 
having come to hand ; and having read it since its first publi- 
cation, I did not wish to be without it — and such, I hope, will 
be the feeling of the subscribers to the Journal of Health for 
years to come — for somehow or other, any man who takes and 
pays regularly for a periodical, gets to like it and the editor 
too ; or, at the very least, to feel out of sorts if he does not get 
it at the appointed time. The Gazette says of our August No., 
as an offset to its commendation, that it regards, 

1st, The definition of Cholera as defective. 

2d, The theory radically inadequate. 

3d, The treatment imperfect. 

This criticism is correct in the main ; for as to the definition, 
designing it for popular use, we wanted to present one main, 
easily understood, and easily remembered idea. I did pre- 



202 IlalVs Journal of Health. 

cisely as I have a thousand times wished our ministers would 
do, that is, to give in each sermon one clear and grand idea, im- 
pressed in such a manner, that on his way home, the hearer is 
not inclined to talk or think of anything else. Time nor the 
daily battle with the world will ever burn that idea out. If 
clergymen would do this, they would not run out of ideas in 
every five or six years, and resign on account of ill health. I 
name this as an incidental preventive of Cholera ; for it is 
enough to cause more than cholera to be in the chase of new 
ideas in mid-summer, for weeks at a time, and yet not a single 
one be caught — not in a whole year. Whose health wouldn't 
give out under such circumstances ? The one-idea sermon has 
two great advantages — it would be necessarily short, and being 
to the point, too, there would not be a sleepy or " forgetful 
hearer of the word" in all the congregation. So in my defini- 
tion of Cholera, I wanted the unprofessional reader to see, and 
feel, and remember the one main, practical idea, that Cholera 
was excessive motion of the bowels, and that its cure, except 
in advanced stages, was perfect quietude. 

2d. " Theory inadequate." I often think myself that theory 
is a fool, and theorizers foolees. But whatever may be the 
respective merits of my theory, and that of the Gazette, both 
lead to the same practice ; for in answer to the question, 
"What shall we do in Cholera?" proposed by many city 
friends, subscribers, and former pupils, the Gazette advises four 
things : 1st, a physician ; 2d, laudanum ; 3d, ice ; 4th, " all 
previous treatment heing palliative" calomel in quantity pro- 
portioned to the violence of the attack, taken by being plas- 
tered on the tongue and washed down with ice-water. JSTow, 
if the Editor of the Medical Gazette had not have been old 
enough to be our greaty-great-grandfather, and forgotten, per- 
haps, more than we ever knew about general medicine, we 
might have concluded that the advice he gave in his August 
number, issued August 1st, was taken from the August num- 
ber of the Journal mailed to exchanges, 20th July. 

3d. " Treatment imperfect." And so it was purposely de- 
signed. I wished the patient to know no more than what it 
was necessary to do while his physician was coming ; and al- 
though, as the Gazette admits, " in very many cases there 
could be no better practice," and nothing more would be 



Observations on Cholera. 203 

needed, there are some cases which require more ener- 
getic means than ten or fifteen grains of calomel. My ob- 
ject was not to cause the patient to feel that he was fully 
armed at all points ; for then he would not send for a physi 
cian at all ; and one of the main objects of the article would 
have been wholly frustrated, that is, the early call of the family 
physician, which the editor himself insists upon, is the very 
first and most important thing to be done in every instance. I 
think one of the best points in the August number is the scan- 
tiness of the advice in reference to the actual medical treat- 
ment. It is not my intention that this Journal shall ever con- 
tain an article that, by any torture, can be made to take the 
administration of medicine out of the hands of the regularly 
educated and honorable allopathic practitioner, except in cases 
where the delay of an hour or two would be death. I do not 
say that I will even do this, except in very rare cases, which, 
indeed, I might do in justice to those of my subscribers who 
reside in the country, and may not be, as many are, within ten 
miles of a physician. 

I should have been glad, and the public would have been 
instructed, if the Editor of the New York Medical Gazette had 
given his opinion as to the truth of the main idea of my Cho- 
lera article, to wit : that, in cholera times, any " weakening, 
abdominal uncomfortableness " should be regarded as the fore- 
runner of actual cholera, and that, at that point, quietude is a 
prompt, perfect, and permanent cure. Dr. Pees is a veteran 
in the Medical Profession, an author of celebrity, and of large 
and long opportunities of observation, — and these, combined 
with a classical education, entitle his opinions (as they really 
receive) to the respectful consideration of educated practition- 
ers, and he, and Dr. Mott, and Horace Green, and Mussy, and 
Warren, and Jackson of Philadelphia, are the very men who 
ought to have come forward long ago and popularized the 
nature, first symptoms, and the un-medical treatment, while 
waiting for the physician's arrival. The public has honored 
and enriched these men, and had a right to look to them when 
the scourge came ; but, as far as I know, they have kept in the 
shade, while younger men have been afraid ; and thus, with- 
out a light or a guide, the people have died grasping at straws, 
which anonymous scribblers and ignorant or unprincipled 



204 Hall's Journal of Health, 

vendors of cholera preventives and cholera specifics have 
thrown in their way. 

Another last word as to the value of calomel, alone, in cho^ 
lera. Taking allopathic practice as our guide, may we not cull 
out a seventh first principle in the management of Cholera, as 
follows: Yery few, indeed, of regular practitioners ever 
attempt the treatment of a single case of cholera without the 
use of calomel, or of mercury in some other form ; some com- 
bine opium, others use calomel alone — both are unquestion- 
ably successful. Cannot the unprejudiced general reader see, 
then, that after all, calomel is the efficient agent, — and, inas- 
much as opium undeniably produces fatal effects, sometimes 
in the form of convulsions, congestions and water on the brain, 
while by detaining the calomel in the system too long, it causes 
salivation, mercurial fever, loosening the teeth, eating away 
the gums, and sometimes large holes in the cheeks of children, 
which nothing but death can arrest, — I ask the simple ques- 
tion, is it not imprudent, to say the least of it, to advise any 
one not a physician to take opium in any form, or opium in 
combination with calomel, for cholera, or anything else, unless 
the physician is by to superintend its administration ? What I 
glory in, as a medical practitioner, is to be on the safe side — 
my motto, from earliest practice, has been, rather let a patient 
die without medicine, than with too much. 

I know of no paper published on the subject of Cholera, 
which has been so largely and so generally copied from, as 
that of our August Number. Physicians from different parts 
of the country have applied for it. The secular newspapers 
have, as far as I have seen, given it a unanimous and friendly 
commendation ; while the Medical press has also regarded it 
with favor, one of them declaring, that as a general rule, 
" there could be no better practice," and that " it is greatly to 
be preferred to any newspaper article" that has come under its 
notice. To my medical brethren I desire to say, that they will 
be disappointed in it. It was not designed to instruct them, 
but to present to. the people for practical observance, some 
general, main principles, intuitively seen, readily understood, 
and easy to be remembered. Medical men entertain different 
views as to the theory of the disease, — but that is pretty much 
like the " how " of the origin of a fire ; the fire is there, and 



Observations on Cholera. 205 

all agree that water must be applied to put it out. So all 
classes of physicians admit that the " looseness " must be 
speedily arrested ; and the main reliance of legitimate medi- 
cine is calomel and its combinations. Where I stand out from 
them, is in the manner of using the calomel. Now, there is 
something so curious in this, that I wish to draw editorial at- 
tention to the subject ; for it must be admitted, that a new 
profession has arisen among men, and that the Press vies with 
the Pulpit in the regulation of the world ; reforms cannot pro- 
gress without its aid — prejudices cannot be annihilated, and 
newer and more truthful views substituted, without its co- 
operation. Christian men, especially, ought to understand 
that a united tripod will sweep before it the Faculty, the Pul- 
pit, and the Bar, as the whirlwind sweeps the chaff of the 
threshing-floor ; and the time has already come when young 
men should be educated for the sanctum with as much direct- 
ness as they are educated for law, physic, or divinity. It used 
to be said, with resistless truth, " like people, like priest ;" and 
not less so is it to-day, as the papers, so are the people. For 
example, look at German newspapers — look at German prin- 
ciples in the United States, — infidel in sentiment, they openly 
propose in practice the abolition of the Sabbath, the marriage 
tie, and, in effect, all commercial municipal law. But what 
has this to do with Cholera ? Much, every way. I want the 
Press to understand its position, its power, and its duty, — and, 
feeling its high responsibility, lend me a hand in ameliorating 
human suffering, by widely diffusing correct and consistent 
views as to the nature of a disease, which, since its malignant 
appearance at Jeddore, in eighteen hundred and seventeen, is 
estimated to have destroyed about eighteen millions of the 
human family. Let the press, then, join in diffusing knowledge 
among men, as to four great points : The Nature, The Causes, 
The Prevention, The Early Treatment of Epidemic Cholera. 

Its Nature, a weakening condition of the bowels. 

Its Causes, dirt and intemperance, in eating, quite as much 
as in drinking. 

Its Prevention, cleanliness, temperance, and a quiet mind. 

Its Early Treatment, quietude, and the prompt call of a 
physician. 

1 believe that on these four points there is a perfect unani- 



206 RalVs Journal of Health. 

mity among all classes of physicians, everywhere; but the 
people, the masses, somehow or other, do not feel its truth, 
and that is because they have not been informed with a pre- 
cision and consistency sufficient to arrest the attention and 
secure the assent of the understanding. 

Another reason for the digression made awhile ago, is, I 
wished the attention of editors drawn to the fact, that while a 
proper self-respect and common policy should prompt them to 
leave purely medical questions to be discussed by medical 
men, yet there are some points, of a practical character, upon 
which they may very properly exercise a dignified and judi- 
cious observation, and one of these points is the administration 
of calomel in cholera. 

If I were attacked with undisputed cholera, I would do four 
things : 

1st, Lie down ; 2d, eat ice, if thirsty ; 3d, bind a piece of 
woollen flannel tightly around the abdomen ; 4th, take calomel. 

This fourth item requires a more extended mention. I would 
take an amount supposed to be sufficient. If it did not arrest 
the passages within two hours, I would double that amount, 
and continue to double each- last dose at the end of each second 
hour, until the disease was arrested. 

Now it is the reason for this, to which I wish to direct edi- 
torial attention, as entirely competent to decide whether the 
practice is wise or not. 

Since calomel, or calomel with opium are given as a stand- 
ard prescription in allopathic practice, and both with success, 
it seems plain that calomel is the efficient agent. 

Dr. Jackson, who, for a long period, was in the service of 
the Hon. East India Company, says, that pure calomel was " a 
leading, indispensable remedy in the treatment of malignant 
cholera, none other being thought of in India" where the cho- 
lera has raged with all its terrible malignity for more than 
thirty-five years. 

Why, then, do some physicians m this country combine with 
the calomel some form of opium % To " anchor it," they ex- 
press themselves ; to hold it in the system ; to keep it from 
passing off without accomplishing anything. The argument is 
tins : a small force held on, against a larger force at once ap- 
plied. Fire makes water boil — a greater fire makes it boiler. 



Observations on Cholera. 207 

The East India practice, where cholera is seen in a more furi- 
ously malignant form than can be witnessed here, is to increase 
the force of the agent — that is, give larger doses ; and if near 
forty years' experience, in the most violent forms of the dis- 
ease, has led to the general adoption of the practice, in the 
most enlightend part of India, — that is, under the more imme- 
diate eye of the East India Company, — the fair presumption 
is, that being " the " practice in severer forms, it is the better 
practice in milder cases. 

But why do not physicians here increase the force — that is, 
the quantity of calomel ? They are afraid. I do not mean to 
say of my brethren, that they are afraid of popular prejudice, 
or of pecuniary loss by abatement of practice, — because the 
true physician knows no mortal fear ; it is the fear of humanity, 
that he may injure his fellow-citizen, his neighbor, his friend, 
who has placed his life in his hands — higher confidence than 
this, can no man place on earth. But what is he afraid of? 
The baseless fabric of a vision. 

The ground of this fear is, that by a few grains of calomel, 
comparatively speaking, consequences severely injurious have 
sometimes taken place — effects which last for life ; reasoning, 
that if a small amount of gunpowder occasions disastrous results 
when fire is applied, a greater amount of powder would be 
attended with proportional injury. Reasoning by comparison 
is always dangerous. A gentleman, reading the August No., 
concluded he would carry a few ten-grain calomel pills in his 
pocket, and applied to a German apothecary to put up half-a- 
dozen for him. " What are you going to do with ten-grain 
calomel pills ?" in evident astonishment. " I will swallow 
them, if necessary." " Are you going to kill yourself?" And 
when it is remembered that German apothecaries are scien- 
tific men, educated expressly for the purpose, the reader may 
see the extent of the general prejudice when it pervades the 
intelligent classes. 

Will any physician in New York, or out of it, who opposes 
ten, twenty, fifty-grain pure calomel doses, inform me by mail, 
at my expense, if he ever knew a man to take a hundred grains 
of calomel at a time ; if not, then all that he imagines as to 
large doses of calomel being injurious, is purely hypothetical. 

Calomel in a man is, in some respects, like sugar in a cup of 



208 HalVs Journal of Health. 

coffee : you can sweeten the coffee to a certain point — beyond 
that you cannot go ; the coffee takes up no more, and the sugar 
falls to the bottom, and no use is made of it. In a state of 
disease, the human system will take up a certain required 
amount of a single dose of calomel, and will take up no more ; the 
remainder is hurtless and useless, and passes from the system 
mainly unchanged. This was the principle adopted by John 
Estin Cook, our honored preceptor, who had, in our opinion* 
one of the greatest purely medical minds of this or any other 
age or nation : but he was considered, on the subject of calo- 
mel, as mad as a March hare, or as the Apostle Paul, and for 
the same reasons, that is Paul, not the hare : 

1st. He was fifty years ahead of his time. 

2d. He, like most minds of mark, was not understood. The 
fog of prejudice was so thick, that his express declarations 
would be interpreted to the very reverse of his intentions. The 
impression became so general, that he " gave so much calomel" 
he was scarcely able to make a living by the practice of his pro- 
fession. The same is said of the immortal Harvey. The actual 
facts were, that in any given case, he would, in the course 
of his treatment of it, give less calomel than other physicians. 
" Young gentlemen," he would say, with his manuscript lec- 
ture in one hand, and his spectacles astride the fore-finger of 
the other, sawing the air with great earnestness, " the differ- 
ence between us is this : I give a man a single dose of calomel 
— you call it a large one — and I cure him up in a day or two ; 
you give a little at a time, often repeated, and at the end of 
many days he is convalescing, — you, in the mean time, having 
given in the aggregate five times as much as I would." 

In general practice, he did not often give more than five or 
6ix grains at a time ; but in urgent cases, where danger was 
imminent, he was a perfect Napoleon — he feared nothing 
when his patient's safety was involved — and I have known 
him to give from one hundred to three hundred grains of pure 
calomel at a single time, with the most triumphant success, in 
the restoration of the patient to perfect health, without saliva- 
tion or any appreciable subsequent ill result. It is known, too, 
that Southern physicians, thrown as they often are by frequent 
and great exposures, into desperate situations, have been known 
to grope their way at midnight to the calomel jar in their 



Observations on Cholera. 209 

offices, and catch it up in their fingers, as men do flour from a 
barrel, and swallow it down, and be visiting their patients 
within the next twenty-four hours. If the reader will turn to 
one of the old dispensatories, he will find that five grains of the 
sub-nitrate of Bismuth was considered a dose which might be! 
increased gradually to twelve or fifteen grains at a time ; and 
it was considered dangerous, because poisonous, to go much 
beyond that. I use it in certain forms of loose bowels, in 
doses of a teaspoonful, or a hundred grains, three times a day, 
and that with admirable advantage, apparently without any 
medicinal effect whatever, seeming to do good by acting as a 
mechanical coating over the tender surface of the intestines. 
And yet for generations it had been dribbled out in doses of 
five and ten grains, — the tyrant Authority wielding, as it al- 
ways does, the sceptre of a despot. Here is a case parallel 
with that of calomel. Men have drawn back with consterna- 
tion at large doses, without ever having had the courage to 
take or give a large dose, and see for themselves what its 
effects would be, basing their practice on mere conjecture 
from the effects of small doses, or in combination with other 
remedies. 

In an able historical article in the New York Herald of the 
2d August, the writer says that he " was, at one time, in 1834, 
attacked in a most violent manner with Asiatic Cholera, when 
he took about six or seven even teaspoonsful of calomel before 
one remained on his stomach. Reaction then commenced, and 
he was next day enabled to walk out. The only external re- 
medy used was the temporary application of a mustard plaster 
over the stomach. The only inconvenience he felt was a slight 
ptyalism, from his susceptibility to the influence of mercury. 
But this was nothing to dying. He then tried the same treat- 
ment in Other violent cases with the most uniform and perfect 
success. In 1840 he experienced another attack of cholera in 
Liverpool, and again cured himself by similar treatment. He 
became acquainted with Dr. Jackson, who had enjoyed great 
experience in the treatment of the disease during a long period 
in the Hon. East India Company's service. He informed us 
that the calomel practice, in the form and manner we have 
described it, formed the most successful practice of any 
other." 



210 Halls Journal of Health. 

While such are my sentiments as to giving calomel, largely, 
in desperate cases, I do not advocate its free use in general 
practice, where I have seldom given over four grains at a time, 
and not oftener than once a week ; and with certain nauseants 
not necessary to be named in a popular Journal, I find that it 
does not fail once in a thousand times to act within the twelve 
hours, and hence nothing is given afterwards to carry it off, as 
it takes care of itself. It is the weak-minded admirer of a great 
theorist who runs the principle into the ground, making the 
step from the sublime to the ridiculous so short, that the preju- 
diced and the hide-bound " have it all their own way." 

Gentlemen of the Press, having taken a common-sense view 
of the statements I have made, do you feel prepared to abide 
by the pure calomel treatment, administered with a bold hand, 
in case you are seriously attacked yourselves ? Then let me 
arm you with a succinct statement of the advantages of it. 

1st. Calomel is tasteless, and therefore can be easily taken 
by small babies and grown ones. 

2d. It will remain on the stomach when even water is ejected 
with a powerful force the moment it is swallowed. Can't you 
see the utter inutility of every other remedy, of even a specific 
that would cure every case in ten minutes after it was swal- 
lowed, when you can't keep it in the stomach a half minute ? 

3d. Calomel costs almost nothing, is to be had at every drug 
store, and is furnished without charge at the dispensaries. 
What is the use of talking about the advantages of pure brandy 
to the multitudinous poor, who seldom have a shilling ahead ? 
Then again, where is that brandy ? Besides, every physician 
knows it will kill any man who relies upon it in any case of 
actual Cholera. 

4th. A double or tenfold dose of calomel can't kill you. 
Death, simply by an overdose of calomel, is impracticable. 
But if you take an overdose of opium, in any of its forms, 
alone or with calomel, or with any other medicine, a very 
speedy death is certain ; while in a quantity not considered a 
very large dose, it very frequently, when given for loose bowels 
in children, gives water on the brain, — and, in adults, causes 
convulsions, congestion, typhoid fevers, and death — death, too, 
in one of its worst forms, — allowing you to linger for hours 
and days in an unconscious stupor, and in that state to pass 



Observations on Cholera. 211 

from all we love. Let not such a death be mine ; let my eyes 
be open, and my intellect as clear as the dewdrop of the morn- 
ing, when that great hour comes to me. 

Trusting that what I have said will invite the unprofessional 
reader to reflection, to think for himself, and that medical men 
may be stimulated to renew their investigations, with a view 
to more truthful and more practicable ideas on a subject 
which involves the lives of unborn millions, I here introduce 
two or three articles from other sources, not endorsing what is 
said of anodynes, stimulants, or the infinitessimal dilutions, — 
the last being as yet a terra incognita, an unexplored country, 
a domain where I would like to travel, had I the time which 
thousands have so much of, yet do not use, except in studying 
how to kill it often. "What a murder — what a profanation. I 
am inclined to think there is something in Homoeopathy ; for, 
as far as my observations have gone, it acts on the principle of 
the bread-pills of the regulars — they give their bread-pills with 
a serious face and a confident anticipation of good results ; and 
I see no reason why the little white ones should not do as well 
— they certainly go down easier. 

POPULAR TREATMENT OF CHOLERA. 

Suppose our profession should arouse and make a combined 
movement to help the community to an accurate discrimina- 
tion of the disease in its early stage. Why don't our editors 
instruct the public ? The distinction between Asiatic Cholera 
and common domestic diarrhoea is palpable and easy, and every 
man can carry that distinction in his memory. Cannot an un- 
educated man tell certainly if he has an evacuation which is 
copious, watery, colorless, painless, and inodorous? Any man 
of ordinary talents can ascertain, in two minutes, that some- 
thing has happened to him which he never experienced before. 
I said painless. It is this quality of the evacuation which leads 
men to the amazing apathy so common, and permits them to 
let hours, even days elapse before the physician is at his post. 

As this Asiatic destroyer has now become Americanized, 
our people must be able to make an early discrimination, and 
our profession must learn how to prevent the fatal collapse. 
Why will not the editors instruct their readers that they can 
better afford to lose a pint of common red blood than a pint of 



212 HaTtra Journal of Health. 

this colorless blood of cholera ? How hopeless is the state of 
the patient from whom gallons of liquid, colorless nutriment 
have escaped ! 

If the editors, and especially my medical brethren, could 
feel as I do on the subject of incipient cholera, and lend us 
their facts and thoughts through the medical journals, in short, 
condensed paragraphs, my hopes would be answered. 

Having been watching every movement since this disease 
first broke out near Calcutta, in 1817, I have seen no scheme 
so rational as that fixed on by the Army Board of Surgeons of 
Bengal, and, according to reports, more successful when taken 
in the early stage. It consisted of heroic doses of calomel, 
combined with opium sufficient to anchor the calomel and re- 
tain it in the bowels. The formula was a combination of 15 
grains of calomel and 4 grains of opium. Possibly it was five 
grains of opium. Fifteen or twenty grains of calomel every 
four hours, with opium only sufficient to control the bowels, 
must have a powerful and rapid effect in changing the secre- 
tions. But if every business man would keep a powder of the 
above description in his pocket to swallow if occasion required, 
it would scarcely do harm, and would greatly aid the efforts of 
the physician employed. 

M. L. North. 

Saratoga Springs, July 6th, 1854. 



BODENHAMEK ON CHOLERA. 

The following article in relation to the Epidemic Cholera, as 
it appeared in New Orleans in the winter of 1848, is from the 
pen of Dr. Bodenhamer, now of this city. It is copied from the 
Louisville Democrat of June 12th, 1849. Dr. Bodenhamer has 
retired from the general practice of medicine altogether, and 
is now consulting surgeon for fistulous affections and kindred 
ailments, therefore what he says may well be regarded as the 
unbiassed observations of a lover of truth. 

Gentlemen : — As our city may sooner or later be visited by 
the malignant epidemic which is evidently on our borders, 
perinit me to make a few practical remarks relative to its 
causes and its prevention. It is not my intention to enter into 
any protracted scientific details or analysis, but merely submit 



Epidemic Cholera. 213 

such reflections as have occurred to my mind since my return 
from New Orleans, where this dread scourge prevailed in a 
most fatal form for some time previous to my departure. 

The local predisposing causes of malignant cholera are so 
well known, and have of late been so ably discussed here, 
that it is scarcely necessary to repeat them. A marked com- 
bination of these was eminently conspicuous in that unfortu- 
nate and afflicted city, inducing the " epidemic constitution" 
and tending greatly to develop the disease there, both in 
numbers and in intensity. For some time previous to the out- 
break of the malady, and during its early prevalence, the 
mercury ranged at summer heat, varying sometimes within 
the twenty-four hours a few degrees above and below that 
temperature. There was most of the time a drizzling, soaking 
rain, which completely saturated the earth, kept the streets in 
a most miserable condition, and drenched all who were exposed 
in the open air. Indeed there was a diversity of climate, of 
season, and of other causes, during the time, sufficient almost 
for the production of any disease. The streets, the alleys, 
the yards, the levee, the lots, &c, were in a most shock- 
ing filthy condition, filling the atmosphere with a poisonous 
exhalation unsurpassed, perhaps, by the banks of the Ganges ; 
so much so that the effluvia and the emanations of the 
city became a subject of general complaint and of universal 
notoriety. Now, it is an admitted fact, that nothing so pow- 
erfully predisposes to malignant cholera as the combination 
of humidity with impurity of the atmosphere; humid and 
contaminated air being the medium in which the poison chiefly 
lurks and propagates ; hence, in no other city, perhaps, in the 
United States, was the disease ever so fatal in proportion to 
the number attacked, and perhaps no other city in our country 
was ever so notoriously deficient in hygienic precautions and in 
sanitary measures. 

The appalling mortality, however, at the Charity Hospital, 
was obviously owing to the exposed state of the patients pre- 
vious to admission, and to the fact that none but the worst 
cases, from among the poorest and most abandoned or degraded 
of the population, were taken there. They were persons of 
exposed life, of intemperate habits, and who subsisted on 
miserable or raw kinds of food, and who entirely neglected 



214 HalVs Journal of Health. 

the premonitory stage of the disease. There being no other 
institution in that large city in which the indigent could be 
admitted, many of these poor and unfortunate creatures had 
to be conveyed in open vehicles for upwards of a mile, under 
the influence of alarm and exposed to the inclemencies of the 
weather, and to the jolting motions of a cart or dray ; all of 
which are well calculated to increase the diarrhoea and preci- 
pitate the state of collapse : hence many cases were admitted 
some hours after the disease had been fully developed, the 
pulse being imperceptible, or nearly so, the skin cold, damp 
and livid, and the features sunken. 

The deplorable state of things that existed at New Orleans, 
on the advent of the epidemic there, should admonish us to 
guard against, and to avoid as much as possible, the same 
causes. We, as well as our municipal authorities, should 
remember the important fact, that this mortal disease acquires 
magnitude and strength in proportion to our ignorance and 
neglect of its causes and prevention. It is true the constituted 
authorities of our city cannot bar-out cholera by any quarantine 
regulations, however rigidly enforced ; they cannot limit it by 
cordons and by baricades, but they can do very much to 
weaken its force, if not prevent it altogether, by adopting and 
rigidly enforcing good and substantial sanitary measures. 
They can give us uncontaminated air and pure water, by 
giving us clean streets, clean alleys, clean yards, clean 
sewers, &c. They, however, already deserve the highest com- 
mendation for their valuable and praiseworthy efforts towards 
the accomplishment of this all important object ; the beneficial 
results of which, I am well convinced, will be very evident, 
very apparent, whether the epidemic visits us or not. They 
only need, for the completion of their excellent regulations, an 
efficient plan for checking the ravages of the disease amongst 
the poor and unfortunate — for the rich will take care of 
themselves — and that is, the establishment, at the first out- 
break of cholera, of temporory ward hospitals or receiving 
houses, with properly qualified physicians to attend to them. 
These houses should be sufficiently numerous, and at such 
distances as to allow as little time as* possible to be lost by 
those who are attacked. 

As it is now a settled point that cholera is not a contagious 



Epidemic Cholera. 215 

disease in the strict sense of that term, and as its causes and 
its propagation are now rendered so much more definite and 
uniform, having been subjected to the keenest discussion — and 
as its treatment, likewise, is now so much better understood 
by the profession — what good reason can be assigned, then, 
for the great excitement and the great alarm which so usually 
prevail wherever the epidemic appears ? It must be evidently 
owing in part to the rapid and fatal effects of the disease, but 
doubtless much more so to the unmanly fear of contagion, 
which always brings alarm and terror in its train, producing 
a panic or species of " choleraphobia" which is scarcely less 
to be dreaded than cholera itself, being a powerful predisposing 
cause. Let no person then be frightened into cholera by un- 
necessary excitement, fear or alarm, but let each one have a 
firm and an abiding belief that it is entirely in his own power 
to prevent an attack, by attention to diet, to warm clothing, to 
cleanliness of person, to the use of baths and other means of 
ablution, to moderation in exercise, both mental and corporeal, 
to the ventilation of sleeping apartments, to the avoidance of 
undue exposure in wet or damp clothes ; and, in short, to 
everything that conduces to tranquility of mind and to sound- 
ness of body. By observing these strictly, with a hopeful 
disposition and a peaceful and cheerful conscience, a person 
may with propriety consider himself comparatively secure 
from an attack. All should reflect seriously how much easier 
it is to prevent than to cure cholera. The idea, however, of 
preventing an attack by taking any medicine whatever, when 
feeling perfectly well, is too absurd for a moment's considera- 
tion. Nothing is better calculated to invite an attack than 
such a pernicious practice. In what better condition could a 
person be to resist disease than in perfect health ? But during 
choleraphobia many persons are not satisfied with this ; they 
must needs be teazing their stomachs continually with some 
villainous compound or other to make themselves better than 
well. All such should remember the significant epitaph 
inscribed (at his own request) upon the tomb of the Italian 
Count, who, like themselves, experimented with his health 
under the apprehension of disease : 

"I was well ; 
Would be better ; 
Took physic, 
And died." 



216 HaWs Journal of Health. 

The best preventive is to pursue a temperate course in all 
things, shunning all cholera medicines as preventives while in 
health. As soon, however, as any of the symptoms of the dis- 
ease appear, then, and not till then, should any medicine be 
taken. The patient should at once send for his own family 
physician or for some one in whose skill and knowledge he has 
full confidence, for faith and confidence are powerful adjuncts 
in overcoming disease. The advice of such a physician should 
also previously be obtained with regard to the domestic treat- 
ment of this malady in its earliest stage, in case of sudden 
attack and while waiting for him. The premonitory diarrhoea, 
almost invariably a precursor of the disease, may, however, 
often at once be arrested by remaining at home, maintaining 
the recumbent or horizontal posture, living on crackers and tea 
and taking some very mild medicine. Nothing will so soon 
check this diarrhoea, or any other, as confinement to bed, ex- 
ternal warmth, perfect quietude and starvation, with some of 
our common opiates, cordials or astringents. The constant at- 
tendance of a physician is, however, indispensably necessary 
in all the stages of this fearful, rapid, and too often fatal dis- 
ease ; for to counteract it, the treatment must be prompt, the 
medicine must be quick, powerful and permanent in its effect. 
It must be quick, lest the disease shall have progressed beyond 
medical jurisdiction ; it must be powerful, lest it be carried 
before the progress of the disease as a straw in the current of 
the ocean ; and it must be permanent, lest the disease, after a 
short and deceptive remission, return with greater violence 
than at first. 

It is injurious to make any great change in the ordinary 
mode of living, with the exception of fruit and vegetables ; 
and reason and experience dictate the propriety of refraining 
from these altogether, or to be very sparing indeed in their 
use. Yinous, malt or fermented liquors should be avoided, 
but the very best quality of brandy, rum, gin, or " old Bour- 
bon" might, in moderation, be used. It is, however, very far 
from my wish, by this, to recommend intemperance, either 
directly or indirectly ; but I do not hesitate to state that the 
occasional use of such stimuli might be found highly ser- 
viceable during the prevalence of this mortal pestilence. 
I need hardly remark, that the habitually intemperate lose 



Epidemic Cholera, 217 

all the benefits of this remedy. The use of large quantities of 
fluids during the epidemic is also objectionable ; therefore, 
persons should be careful " not to take too much water in their 
brandy." ]STo purgative medicines whatever, (especially the 
saline) unless absolutely necessary, should be used for the pur- 
pose simply of obviating constipation of the bowels. This con- 
dition, if possible, should be obviated simply by diet and by in- 
jections. Persons should also shun as they would the pesti- 
lence itself, all cholera nostrums of which they neither know 
the nature nor the composition ; and should physicians recom- 
mend such articles to their patients without any knowledge, they 
would thereby indirectly admit that, they themselves had no 
confidence in their own prescriptions, and that they were igno- 
rant of the healing art. 

"With many apologies for having occupied so much space, I 
have the honor to be, 

Gentlemen, your obedient servant, 

W. BODENHAMEK, M. D. 



As our Journal is taken in some families who favor Homoeo- 
pathy, we publish for their benefit the following article entire. 
It certainly contains sound advice, and may be safely and pro- 
fitably followed by all, provided every effort is made to ensure 
the earliest attention of a physician : 

HOMOEOPATHIC INSTRUCTIONS FOR FAMILIES WITH REFERENCE TO 

THE CHOLERA. 

At a meeting of the Hahnemann Academy of Medicine, 
held July 16, 1854, the Committee on Cholera reported the fol- 
lowing instructions for the domestic management of this dis- 
ease : 

1. Avoid crowded assemblies and crowded sleeping apart- 
ments, and as much as possible shun the presence of filthy 
persons, for the disease is mostly developed in crowded dwell- 
ings, ships, prisons, camps, &c. 

2. Observe cleanliness of person and enjoin the same upon 
your household. 

3. Dwellings — especially the sleeping apartments — should in 
all cases be thoroughly ventilated. 



218 HalVs Journal of Health. 

4z. Pursue your ordinary course of diet, observing some mo- 
deration as to vegetables and fruits. Night meals are to be 
avoided. Regularity in the hours of eating is very desirable. 
Alcoholic drinks are objectionable, the intemperate being par- 
ticularly liable to this disease. Ice-water and ices should be 
used with extreme moderation. Articles of diet known to dis- 
agree with the regular action of the bowels should be most 
scrupulously avoided. 

5. Avoid mental or bodily excitement or fatigue. Keep the 
person warmly clad. 

6. Cathartics and laxatives must be wholly avoided. No 
means should be taken to remove constipation, except such as 
are prescribed by a physician. The use of laudanum, opium, 
or cholera mixtures of any kind is hazardous. 

7. It is better to take no medicine as preventative of cholera, 
but the slightest derangement of the bowels should be met by 
appropriate treatment. 

8. Should there be oppression or sickness at the stomach, 
shiverings or dizziness, with or without relaxed bowels, Ipecac 
of the second or third trituration or dilution, may be taken 
every two or three hours. 

9. If there be watery looseness of the bowels, with or without 
nausea, pain or cramps, take one drop of Veratrum, first dilu- 
tion, every half hour or hour. 

10. If the diarrhoea should become profuse, with or without 
pain or vomiting, discharges very frequent, being watery or 
resembling rice-water, with or without cramps, coldness, and 
blueness, with rapid sinking, take one or two drops of the spir- 
its of camphor every five or ten minutes until reaction takes 
place. 

From the moment the diarrhoea becomes urgent, the patient 
should go to bed and be well wrapped with blankets. Bottles 
of hot water should be applied to the feet, and medical aid at 
once be summoned. No external use of camphor is advisable 
while other remedies are employed. 

Published by order of the Hahnemann Academy of Medi- 
cine, New York, July 17, 1854. 



The Human Teeth. 219 



THE HUMAN TEETH. 



I have to record here an example of the success of genius, 
added to that indomitable perseverance which genius only can 
command, in reference to the subject which heads this article. 
I do it the more readily, as in one of the first numbers of the 
Journal an intimation was given that an occasional page would 
be devoted to the preservation of the Teeth, as an important 
means not only of preserving the health, but of maintaining 
personal beauty. Has the reader ever seen Queen Victoria, 

and a squirrel ? What would she not have given to have 

had a set of teeth less like the front ones of the lively little 
animal named ? 

Some long years ago, I knew Dr. A to be laboring after 

the ne plus ultra of dentistry ; but week after week, month 
after month, year after year, he labored on in his little work- 
shop, where the white heat of his furnace seemed almost suffi- 
cient to burn his eyes out or blind them with its glare : and, 
whether in December or July, there was the same toil, — the 
same cheerful hopefulness, if not actual confidence of success, 
as his motto seemed to be, that " what ought to be clone, could 
be done," and that he was going to do it. Since I knew him 
to be thus engaged, he has grown bald, and age and wrinkles 
have come, but they have brought with them an enduring tri- 
umph. But, after all, what is it ? He has found a silicious com- 
pound, of an exactly equal linear expansion and contraction, 
under the application of heat, to that of the metal upon which 
it is fused. Now, this is worse than Greek to the unscientific 
reader ; but if he should live to the age of sixty years, or more, 
and does not care to look as old by a score or two, then this 
discovery will be to him a truth whose value in agreeableness 
and satisfaction cannot be accurately computed. The result 
of this discovery and invention, for it is both, is simply this : 
that false teeth can be made, including gums, more beautiful — 
because more regular — than the natural ones, more durable, 
more untarnishable, and more indestructible than they, These 
teeth can be used with comfort in eating ; the acids of the 
mouth cannot corrode them, while the teeth themselves are so 
strongly clasped by the artificial gum, that it is altogether im- 
practicable for a particle of food or the most penetrating liquid 



220 HalVs Journal of Health. 

to get between them ; hence, the mouth and the breath can 
be kept sweeter and cleaner than if the teeth were all natural. 
This close-fitting has never been accomplished before, because 
of the different expansibility of the material of which the 
teeth were made, and that into which the teeth were fitted, — 
as also of the artificial gum which was used to bind them to- 
gether. In fact, a set of artificial teeth, with gum, is made, 
which for beauty, endurance, cleanliness, distinct articulation, 
comfortableness in mastication, expression, length, form and 
shade, has never been equalled in this or any foreign country 
I have ever visited. As a matter of personal convenience, agree- 
ableness, and satisfaction to those who wear them, the discovery 
is literally invaluable ; and if the inventor could only be in- 
duced to lay aside the diffidence which is inseparable from true 
talent, a career of successfulness would open before him which 
would satisfy his largest desire. The whole Dental world, if 
they could see its full truth, will be delighted to know that — 
Dr. John Allen, of Bond-street, New York, has made a dis- 
covery by which Artificial Dentures can be so constructed, that 
in point of strength, cleanliness, life-like appearance, and adap- 
tation, a degree of perfection has been attained never hitherto 
equalled. None of the ingredients employed admit of being 
tarnished or corroded in the mouth, while the fusing substance, 
capable of any desired tint of artificial coloring, renders the 
whole as firm as a solid bone : and, when necessary, can be so 
formed as to restore sunken cheeks to their natural rotundity, 
and can be worn without appreciable discomfort, being kept in 
place wholly by atmospheric pressure. 



CHEERFULNESS. 

Reader, if you would be loved by those around you, be cheerful, — it will be like 
sunshine upon the clouds. Cheerfulness qualifies us the better for society, promotes 
health, enlivens beauty, lengthens life, and increases usefulness. A cheerful face 
may hide a bleeding heart ; but grief ought sometimes to be forgotten in the desire 
to hide our own sorrows and bring sunshine instead of shade to those we meet ; — 
thus we shed a pure ray of joy on our own path, and lighten life's journey to others. 
Be buoyant, then, — look on the bright side of the picture — cheer up yourself and 
those around you too. What a treasure is a house made happy by each member of 
the family contributing a pleasant smile and a cheerful look, — bringing peace and 
quietude and gladness where else contentions reign. The writer has often felt that 
the happiest hours of her life were those spent at the evening fireside, surrounded 
by her little family, engaged with book or work, teaching them cheerfulness, content* 
ment, and piety — thus preparing them for usefulness here, for a dying hour, and the 
Judgment Day ! Mahala. 






HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



OUR LEGITIMATE SCOPE 18 ALMOST BOUNDLESS: FOR "WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABLH 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS, PROMOTES HEALTH ; AND "WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. II.] OCTOBER, 1855. [NO. IX. 

WESTMINSTER REVIEW vs. TEMPERANCE. 

Divesting the subject of all that is extraneous, we wish to 
offer our own views on this important question, in as concise 
and pointed a manner as may be, only remarking, that we are 
not, nor ever have been, theoretically or practically, con- 
nected with any teetotal movement or society whatever, nor 
do we expect ever to be ; yet we, in common with others, feel 
an interest in the prevalence of true views on all subjects ; for' 
only in proportion as truth prevails, can any community be 
prosperous and happy. 

The point in the Review is, Alcohol is not only not poison, 
but food — educing therefrom the general practical fact, that 
the moderate use of spirituous liquors is nutritious and health- 
ful. All that the writer says is predicated on the chemical 
analysis of pure alcohol, of pure brandy, of pure wine, &c. 
But granting for a moment that all he says is scientifically and 
literally true, the broad fact, which no well read man will 
deny, that pure liquors are not used, except by the very few- 
est of the few, because they are not to be purchased or secured 
in any way, unless by men of large fortune or high position — 
nullifies his argument in its actual application to the masses, 
for whose good the temperance movement was instituted. 
We give a single fact out of many, merely as an illustration. 

" The Inspector, under the Prohibitory Law, at Buffalo, New 
York, Dr. H. Cox, has inspected 76 qualities of various liquors 
since he has been in office. He finds some pure liquor, a great 
deal of low per centage, and the balance pernicious and drug- 
ged concoctions. In domestic brandy and port wine he has 
found the following ingredients, in large quantities, viz, : 



224: HalVs Journal of Health. 

Prussic acid, sulphuric acid, cider, alum, beet-root juice, (col- 
oring,) nitric acid, logwood, lead, and copper ! He inspected 
a cask of liquor represented as domestic brandy, which was 
very strongly tinctured with sulphuric and nitric acid." 

What may be predicated on a pure article, cannot be safely 
predicated on one which is impure. What may be said of 
pure air cannot be said of impure air ; the man who does it 
practically, dies ! The Review says " Alcohol is not a poison" 
The ancient Greeks used the same word to express poison and 
medicine. Physiologically speaking, poisons are substances 
which derange the vital functions, and produce death by an 
action not mechanical, of which the most familiar illustrations 
are Prussic Acid, Laudanum, Strychnine, Nitric Acid, &c. 
&c. That the common drunkard dies from a derangement of 
the vital functions, caused by drinking spirituous liquors, the 
Review will perhaps not deny. If, therefore, when immode- 
rately used, it produces undeniable poisonous effects on the 
animal economy, the question for all practical purposes is 
lost 

The idea, evidently in the mind's eye of the writer is, The 
steady, uniform, and moderate use of spirituous liquors is nu- 
tritious and healthful f but in the concluding sentence of his 
elaborate article, he exhibits his consciousness of the fact that 
he has all the time been " beating the air," that he has been 
advocating a theory utterly impracticable in its bearings on 
the multitude, saying "It is a very dangerous, tricksy spirit, 
needing the power of a Prospero to make it beautifully obe- 
dient ; needing sagacity and self-command to make it a bless- 
ing." How few have this power, this sagacity, this self-com- 
mand, let the tens of thousands liquor-lost every year, make 
reply. But the Reviewer is not willing to be judged by the 
evident actual tendency of his article ; even he has not the 
boldness to act as the champion for the habitual use of liquor. 
Says he " the point at issue is not habitual over excitement, 
but occasional excitement ; we are not considering the case of 
a man who vitiates his organization by taking stimulus twenty 
times a day, but of a man who takes it once or twice a day." 
After all, then, the whole force of the argument is expended 
on the difference, physiologically speaking, between " poison- 
ing" and "vitiating the organization;" he admits that taking 



Westminster Review vs. Temperance. 225 

liquor twenty times a day " vitiates the organization," what 
then is the difference in this connection between " vitiating" 
and " poisoning ?" In law, " to vitiate" an obligation or wri- 
ting means its legal destruction. In ethics, to vitiate a man's 
morals is destructive of that morality, for then he is moral no 
longer. In physiology, to vitiate the blood, to poison the blood, 
are in a free meaning, synonyms. To vitiate, physiologically 
speaking, is to render incapable of natural action ; poisoning 
does the same thing ; vitiation here will as certainly cause 
death, if kept in action, as will poison ; therefore for all prac- 
tical purposes, the whole force of the article in the Review 
narrows itself down to a quibble, the difference between twee- 
dle-dum and tweedle-dee. It is a battle of mere words, a mere 
flourish of trumpets. It is not for the splitting of a hair that 
so many of the greatest minds in the nation have waged the 
temperance war ; they do not fight for a name or a phrase ; 
their object is to prevent the destructive effects which follow 
the use of spirituous liquors, and which the Reviewer acknow- 
ledges and calls " vitiating the organization ;" which, if words 
have any meaning at all, is nothing more than rendering inca- 
pable of performing the natural functions, and of which, if 
continued, a man must of necessity die. It kills the man. 
Poison can do no more. It kills the man, and that is what 
temperance men mean when they use the word " Poison." 

While, in effect, and to all intents and purposes, the Reviewer 
admits what the friends of Temperance contend for, we are 
bold to say that " the occasional excitement of a man who 
takes liquor once or twice a-day," and for which the Reviewer 
contends as being beneficial, is a physiological untruth. It is 
not merely the man who obviously takes liquor " twenty times 
in a day," nor the habitual drunkard, who is destroyed by it, 
whose organization is vitiated thereby, but their organizations 
are inevitably and under all circumstances vitiated, who drink 
spirituous liquors " once or twice a day." 

Any man who drinks liquor regularly every day once, or 
twice, in the sense meant by the Reviewer, although he may 
never have been known to be actually drunk, or to have taken 
it oftener " than once or twice a-day," (which by the way we 
may well set down as an impossible supposition, and thus a 
most unfair weapon in argument, yet ruthlessly wielded by 



226 Hall's Journal of Health. 

the Reviewer,) must have his organization vitiated to the 
extent of such use ; for what is said of a whole may be said 
of a part, so large as ten per cent. ; if drinking " twenty 
times a-day" " vitiates" acknowledgely, drinking " once or 
twice a-day" must " vitiate" some. 

But of those people who were " never known to be drunk," 
except to themselves, who " take their dram once or twice 
a-day," as the saying goes, what will educated physicians of 
eminence and character of any nation say? We will make no 
sweeping assertion, will employ no extravagant hyperbole — 
we will only state that it is of common occurrence, in the prac- 
tice of such, to see men and women dying from Livers engorged 
or ulcerated, from stomachs whose coats are thickened and 
otherwise rendered morbid, and from intestines, powerless to 
draw nutriment from the food eaten, ending in inanition or 
chronic diarrhoea, as the unquestioned result of a daily stimu- 
lant. Any city practitioner of ability and observation knows 
full well, that of the many who are reported to die of " disease 
of the hearty no small moiety perish thus suddenly, from the 
fact that the accustomed stimulus had lost its power, whether 
that stimulus had been brandy, opium, or tobacco. But let it 
be borne in mind that the majority of those who are thus 
benevolently chronicled to have " died of disease of the heart" 
are not of the common topers ; we don't, for the most part, 
think it worth while to inquire or to state what they die of, but 
they are men of wealth, retired merchants, bankers, ship-mer- 
chants, and the like men, who can command the purest and 
best liquors in the world. 

The Review narrows down the whole question to the broad 
statement that 

" Alcohol is not Poison, but Food." 

His mode of argument is literally thus : 

1. Food cannot be poison. 

2. Food is that which gives force, motive power. 

3. Alcohol gives motive power. 

4. Therefore alcohol is food, and hence cannot be poison. 
The error in this ratiocination is, in assuming for a fact what 

is a physiological untruth, to wit, that what gives force, 
motive power, is essentially food. Let us examine this 
statement 



Westminster Review vs. Temperance. 227 

By a parity of reasoning, we may easily arrive at the reduc- 
tio absurdum that arsenic is food. 

Arsenic is not Poison, but Food. 

1. Food cannot be poison. 

2. Food is that which gives force, motive power. 

3. Arsenic gives force, motive power. 

3. Therefore arsenic is food, and hence cannot be poison. 

It is an uncontradicted fact, that the mountaineers of Hun- 
gary and Alsatia are able, by eating a small piece of 
arsenic, to perform feats of mountain scaling with an ease, 
and vigor, and success which, without the arsenic would be im- 
possible ; but having used it for a while, a premature death is 
inevitable ; and the more speedy, if its employment is aban- 
doned. 

That alcohol is not a poison, but food, is the purest conjec- 
ture, built on the fallacy that food is force. Such is not its 
definition. As well might we say that the laughing gas was 
food, for under its influence one man has the strength of num- 
bers. A more proper definition, and, as far as we can now see, 
unobjectionable, is, food is that whose continued use, alone, 
sustains life, maintains health, and supplies muscular power. 
The continued use of only alcohol does neither, but will inevi- 
tably and in every case cause death, within ten days. 

We have not the space to join in the side issues, which are 
mere child's play ; they are arguments more striking than true ; 
such as that in Frankfort, Germany, the hotel keeper found 
that the members of the Peace Congress, who were mostly 
tetotallers, ate so much of solid food as to create an unheard of 
deficiency in certain dishes, as compared with an equal num- 
ber of his countrymen, who revelled in wines, brandies, and 
lager-beer. If this proves anything, it shows that temperance 
secures a good appetite ; but whether these eating men would 
not be able to endure an amount of physical exertion far 
greater than the drinking men — which by the way no intelli- 
gent man will deny — it did not suit the argument of the writer 
to state. There are many such ad-captandum statements run- 
ning through the whole article, which the most superficial 
examination would be sufficient to explode, but which have 
their effect on the casual, unwary, unthinking reader — as, alas, 
most readers are. 



228 HalVs Journal of Health. 

But let us grapple more closely. The argument is that one 
object of eating is to keep warm ; that alcohol is better calori- 
fic food than starch or sugar, and seven times better than beef- 
steak — that is, that of equal proportions of lean flesh and alco- 
hol, the alcohol has seven times more hydro-carbon, the heat- 
forming principle. Theoretically, it is true, but the falsity ot 
the bare statement may be shown by taking two men, in all 
respects equal ; give one fifty pounds of beef-steak, and nothing 
else but air and water, and give the other fifty pounds of alco- 
hol and nothing else but air and water, which of the two will 
keep off the cold chill of death the longer? Let common 
sense answer. The fact is, alcohol warms, and warms only, 
and man cannot live on warmth alone — while beef-steak both 
warms and nourishes, as does all food ; and what does not 
do both, cannot sustain life, and cannot be properly denomi- 
nated food. 

But it is not safe to say that because alcohol supplies 
warmth largely, that it should be used for that purpose. It 
has for aught we know other constituents than hydro-carbon ; 
chemistry may not detect them, still they may be there. Chemis- 
try does not detect in a hogshead of concentrated marsh-miasm 
one single atom of a death-dealing quality ; cannot absolutely 
detect anything beyond the constituents of the ordinary air 
around us ; yet the man who breathes it dies. And as the man 
who breathes this malaria alone, will perish, although chemis- 
try can detect nothing deadly there ; and yet when we see the 
man die who breathes it, we know that it must be deadly ! so 
if we see a man relying on drinking alcohol to keep him 
warm, and yet see him grow cold in death, we cannot but con- 
clude there is something deathly in alcohol, although chemists 
cannot detect it. 

The fact is, chemistry, notwithstanding all its triumphs, 
is yet too much in its infancy to afford physiological demon- 
strations ; hence, for the present, we must make use of the 
truths she has vouchsafed to us in the light of close and accu- 
rate observation of the phenomena of everyday life, allowing 
chemistry to confirm what it may, but to originate nothing. 

What the Reviewer says of the physiological effects of alco- 
hol, as to its hydro-carbon supplying fuel to the system, is true 
only in the abstract. That it does supply fuel more promptly 



Westminster Review vs. Temperance. 

than food, and more largely too, bulk for bulk, is not denied, 
but that such prompt and large supply is healthful, is another 
question ; and is the very thing to be proven. On this point 
the whole controversy turns. The system cannot subsist with- 
out hydro-carbon ; alcohol is hydro-carbon in its concentrated 
form ; no logician would say, " therefore alcohol is essential to 
the system" much less u healthful to the system." It would 
be as perfect a non sequitur, as that pure oxygen is necessary 
to the system and healthful to it, because it is assuredly true 
that "without oxygen the system could not subsist at all." 
The truth is, every physiologist and every chemist knows, that 
the human body will die in an hour without oxygen, but he 
also knows that if pure oxygen is administered — concentrated 
oxygen, unadulterated oxygen — death is no less certain within 
a very few hours. The same line of argument obtains as to 
alcohol, or hydro-carbon. Without it, the human body would 
not live a day ; and in proportion as it is used in its purity, in 
its concentrated form, just in such proportion and certainly 
will the man die. 

It is not in their purity, in their concentrated form, that the 
life and health-giving elements of our physiological existence 
are ever supplied us, but in their very large dilution with 
other ingredients, just as necessary. Sugar is carbon in a very 
large proportion, and without carbon we cannot live a day or 
an hour ; and yet the man who would eat only sugar, would 
certainly die in a few days. This single argument is subver- 
sive of all that is said in that elaborate and mischievous arti- 
cle. Mischievous, because there is just enough of science in 
it to convince the superficial, and to fortify the unreflecting in 
following practices which they love. While it is a perfect 
God-send to those who have a pride in having it believed that 
they are among the few, who are wise enough to be conserva- 
tive, to choose the mean. 

Sober reason would tell us that alcohol, largely used, would 
destroy health and life, if we had never seen a single instance 
of health and life destroyed by it, because in our observation, 
we know of no element necessary to the health of the human 
body, which would not subvert that health, if used largely, or 
exclusively in its concentrated form. Sugar, its hyro-carbon, 
is essential to life, and more or less of it is found in every arti- 
cle of food ; the same with starch ; but either of these articles 



230 HalVs Journal of Health. 

alone, or in aliments mainly made up of them, will not sustain 
health long, and why should we suppose alcohol would be an 
exception to an otherwise universal law ? 

Nature has formed no element in its purity, which is neces- 
sary to physiological life, and we have no reason to suppose 
that such pure element would contribute to human health, 
when artificially fabricated. As millions have lived to a great 
age without the use of alcohol, that is a demonstration of its 
not being essential to health. And as men do live in health 
without alcohol, we may conclude that alcohol does not pro- 
mote health in those who are well, because a man cannot be 
more than well. 

The general summing up is this. 

If alcohol is not a poison, but food; because alcohol gives 
force, muscular power — then, arsenic is not a poison, but food, 
because arsenic gives force, muscular power. 

As nature has formed no element in its purity, which ele- 
ment in large dilution is necessary to health, we conclude that 
such element in its purity is not essential to health ; therefore 
alcohol is not essential to health. 

As men have lived in perfect health without alcohol, the 
use of alcohol cannot add to that health, because a man cannot 
be better than well. 

As we know of no article which contains hydro carbon 
largely, which would not destroy life, if used alone, not even 
sugar ; so we may conclude that alcohol, which does contain 
hydro- carbon largely, will destroy life, if used alone. 

If any elementary substance in its purity destroys life, if 
used alone, it is reasonable to conclude that the only safe 
method of using any elementary substance, is, in using it in 
the proportion in which nature has combined it with other 
materials : therefore, that however essential to existence 
hydro-carbon may be, it is not healthful or safe to use it in 
its concentrated, artificial combination, but only healthful and 
safe in deriving our supplies of it, as contained in our natural 
food. Therefore, we consider it a Q. E. J)., that alcohol is 
not essential to health; that it is not promotive of the health 
of those who are well ; and that in proportion as it is used 
largely, or alone, in such proportion is it, like all other ele- 
mentary concentrations, certainly destructive of health and life 
together. 



Be Systematic, 231 

BE SYSTEMATIC. 

It will add more to your convenience and comfort through 
life than you can now imagine. It saves time, saves temper, 
saves patience, and saves money. For a while it may be a lit- 
tle troublesome, but you will soon find that it is easier to do 
right than wrong ; that it is easier to act by rule than without 
one. 

Be systematic in everything ; let it extend to the most minute 
trifles, it is not beneath you. Whitfield could not go to 
sleep at night, if, after retiring, he remembered that his gloves 
and riding whip were not in their usual place, where he could 
lay his hand on them in the dark, on any emergency ; and 
such are the men who leave their mark for good on the world's 
history. It was by his systematic habits from youth to age 
that Noah Webster was enabled to leave to the world his great 
dictionary. " Method was the presiding principle of his life," 
writes his biographer. 

Systematic men are the only reliable men ; they are the men 
who comply with their engagements. They are minute men. 
The man who has nothing to do, is the man who does nothing. 
The man of system is soon known to do all that he engages to 
do ; to do it well and do it at the time promised ; conse- 
quently he has his hands full. When I want any mechanical 
job done, I go to the man whom I always find busy, and I do 
not fail to find him the man to do that job promptly, and to 
the hour. 

And more, teach your children to be systematic. Begin 
with your daughters at five years of age ; give them a drawer 
or two for their clothing ; make it a point to go to that drawer 
any hour of the day and night ; and if each article is not pro- 
perly arranged, give quiet and rational admonition ; if arranged 
well, give affectionate praise and encouragement. Remember 
that children, as well as grown people, will do more to retain a 
name, than to make one. 

As soon as practicable, let your child have a room which 
shall be its own, and treat that room as you did the drawer ; 
thus you will plant and cultivate a habit of systematic action, 
which will bless that child while young, increase the blessing 
when the child becomes a parent, and extend its pleasurable 
influences to the close of life. A single unsystematic person 



232 HaWs Journal of Health. 

in a house, is a curse to any family. A wife who has her whole 
establishment so arranged, from cellar to attic, that she knows, 
on any emergency, where to go for a required article, is a trea- 
sure to any man, (my experience, reader !) while one who never 
knows where anything is, and when it is by accident found, is 
almost sure to find it crumpled, soiled, out of order, such a 
wife as this latter is unworthy of the name, and is a living 
reproach to the mother who bore her. 



HOW TO BE HAPPY. 



I sometimes think that I give too much good advice in my 
Journal for a paltry dollar ; however, as there is plenty more 
where that came from, and there is that scattereth and yet 
increaseth, I will continue to distribute liberally, especially as 
I feel so full of it sometimes, that I am almost tempted to 
double the size of this little pet of mine. Yet " second thoughts" 
suggest that I had better explode myself than to explode the 
Bank, for then all three of us, Journal, Bank, and I, would 
grave together. 

But how to he happy? that is the question. Header, I have 
seen a great deal and felt more ; have talked, and travelled, 
and enjoyed, and suffered, with all sorts of people ; have wan- 
dered much and staid at home more ; have been on the sea, 
and in it, and under it ; have been laughed at, shot at, quar- 
relled at, praised, blamed, abused ; have been blown at, and 
blown up ; have had much, and had little, so much as to enjoy 
nothing ; so little that I would have enjoyed a crust of bread, 
because the ship went to the bottom with everything in it, 
leaving me to float to a sand bank ; and then again I have 
wandered over the earth, and under it, and through it, its 
caves, and its dungeons and darkness, after stalagmites and 
stalagtites, and specimens of black rocks and white ones, blue 
stones and gray ; lived for months on desert islands, just for 
the purpose of picking up new shells on the beach, which the 
tide of night never failed to leave behind it ; in those bygone 
days, when I had the three great requisites of an enjoying 
traveller, to wit : plenty of time, plenty of patience, and plenty 
of money, so if the coach turned over and smashed up, I could 



A Physician's Life-time. 233 

afford to wait until another could be had, or if the ship went 
to the bottom instead of to its destined port, 'twas just the 
same to me, because if I wasn't at one place I was at another, 
and there was always some strange rock to look at, some queer 
"dip" that set me calculating how many horse power it required 
to make that rock jw^ turn up so, and all the million inquiries 
which geology, astronomy, conchology, and a dozen other dry 
names suggested, which not only had the effect to keep me 
from fretting, but kept me in an interested humor ; well, in 
all these different situations, and as many more, I have found 
out, among others, three things : 

1st. That a man out of money can't be happy. 

2d. That a man out of health can't be happy. 

3d. That a man without a wife can't be happy. 
Therefore, I have come to the conclusion, that the lest way to 
be happy is to take care of your health, keep out of debt, and 
get a wife. 



A PHYSICIAN'S LIFE TIME. 

If a young graduate on the day of first opening an office, 
will school himself to look wise and say nothing, have a cast 
of brass made for his face, encase his hide, heart, and con- 
science with the skin of a rhinoceros, he will infallibly get 
practice, grow rich, and live a long time. But if he begins 
his professional career with a determination to do all he possi- 
bly can to save the life of the one intrusted to him, even at 
the peril of his own, to abhor all pretence and trickery, and 
to act with candid conscientiousness towards those who repose 
confidence in him, the result will be poverty and a premature 
death, in a very large number of cases ; and this is the reason 
why so many physicians of education and talent either fail to 
live by their profession or die before their time, in the vain 
struggle for that respectable style of living which belongs to 
their calling. No class of men, the clergy not excepted, give 
as much pecuniary aid in proportion to their means, to suffer- 
ing humanity, as a physician engaged in the general practice 
of medicine, and no class of men are as often and as grossly 
imposed upon. Dr. Mott, the Nestor of our profession, once 



234: HalVs Journal of Health. 

remarked, and with great truth, to a graduating class : " Young 
gentlemen, have two pockets made, a large one to hold the insults, 
and a small one for the fees." 

According to statistical returns, out of every hundred per- 
sons, engaged in different callings, living beyond seventy years, 
there were, in each calling, 

42 Clergymen, 

40 Farmers, 

35 Merchants, 

35 Office holders, 

82 Soldiers, 

29 Lawyers, 

27 Artists, 

27 Teachers, 

24 Physicians. 
That is to say, clergymen have nearly two chances to one for 
a long life over the physician. 

If, however, a physician can survive the hardships of his 
profession, mental, moral, and physical, for ten years, his 
chances for a patriarchal age exceed those of the divine ; thus 
it is, that out of eighty members of a medical society, having 
few young men, only three members died in seven years. 



HOW TO KILL OWLS 



And men. I once read that if you find an owl looking at 
you from a tree, and wish " to hring him down" without the 
expense of powder and shot, you have only to keep your eye 
steadily fixed on him, and move slowly round the tree ; in his 
eagerness to watch your movements, (owls are wise), he forgets 
to turn his body, and his eye- following yours, the neck is soon 
twisted off. 

And now for the man ; send him to some of our leading New 
York churches, where can be heard, any Sabbath day, such 
ravishing music, as note after note is rolled out in rich harmo- 
nies, that of the leader peering above all the others in magnifi- 
cent excelsior, from a throat all bird, how can he, how can any 
man, who has music in his soul, resist the desire to obtain a view 
of her, whom he can't help but imagine is as beautiful as her 



V.-rtyti of 1850. 235 

voice is transcendent, how can he help turning his head round, 
the body being stationary for politeness' sake, and keeping it 
turned, too, so long that the neck gets a crick in it, and he can't 
turn it back? I appeal to the reader if he has not many a time 
been the victim of a most disagreeable struggle between a 
sense of politeness and a love of the beautiful in sound and 
person, under such circumstances. Can any one give a satis- 
factory reason why the choirs of churches are placed behind 
the people ? If music is a part of public worship, as much as 
preaching, perhaps, there can be no good reason why the peo- 
ple should not "face the music" as they are called upon to do 
in another sense, a superior voice commanding here as high as 
two thousand dollars a year. An opera would soon find it a 
losing business if the artists were placed behind the people, 
and the concert room would be entirely deserted. In my opin- 
ion, every consideration, whether of convenience, comfort, 
taste, enjoyment, as well as the commonest propriety, demand 
a prompt and universal change in this respect. If we are to have 
choirs in our churches at all, let them face the people, and thus 
save many a valuable neck, saying nothing as to the advan- 
tages of harmony and tune, which would be an inevitable 
result. 



CENSUS OF 1850. 



Males 6,546,753 Females 6,558,136 Excess of Fem. 11,000 
Free col'd 190,000 " 210,000 " col. " 20,000 

Slaves 1,602,525 " 1,601,778 « « " 700 

The above includes only persons, the nativities of whose 
states w T ere known. New York state contains one-eighth of 
the whole population of the Union, Pennsylvania one-tenth. 

There are nearly four million dwelling houses, making about 
five persons to each house. 

The smallest town in the Union is Liberty, in Keokuk county, 
Illinois, having five inhabitants. Averill in Vermont has 
seven. 

Clergymen, 27,000. Lawyers, 24,000. Editors, 13,000. 
Artists 2,000. Butchers, 18,000,not including doctors ! 

Blacksmiths, 100,000. Churches, 35,000. 



236 IlalVs Journal of Health. 

There are five million milch cows, not including town 
pumps, nor the Hudson River. 

Persons going to school, 4,127,000. Teachers, 104,260. 

There are in the United States over a million of white per- 
sons who cannot read or write, one-fifth of these are foreigners. 

It is an inquiry of much interest why, according to the 
above, every twenty free colored persons give one extra female, 
while it requires 1191 whites to give one extra female, and 
4578 slaves to give one extra female ? Does it mean that there 
is a natural connection between monogamy and a life of steady 
labor with plain substantial food ? Does it mean that Provi- 
dence designed that a man should work, live plainly, with one 
wife, and have health, competence, and a rational old age\ 
there being a thousand per cent more crazy white people than 
colored slaves ? 



CONSUMPTION. 



From official sources for the same year, it is found that of 
every hundred persons dying from all causes, there died in 
round numbers, of consumption, in 

Consumption. Of all lung diseases. 

Mexico City, .... 3 17 

New Orleans, .... 9 14 

Norfolk, .... 11 13 

Philadelphia, .... 15 29 

Boston, .... 15 24 

New York, .... 18 28 

Baltimore, .... 18 23 

Charleston, .... 18 23 

Havana, .... 20 25 

As far as it is safe to form an opinion from official statistical 
returns, every family in the Union which has the slightest pos- 
sible consumptive taint ought to vote for the annexation of 
Mexico, mstanter, vi et armis vel, hook, crook, or money ; and 
by a parity of reasoning, we don't want Cuba as a gift, for 
already consumption destroys a sixth of our entire population. 
Cuba would increase that mortality over twenty per cent. 



Appetite. 237 

APPETITE. 

" Asking for " that is the meaning. Who asks ? Nature / 
in other words, the law of our being, the instinct of self-pre- 
servation, wisely and benevolently implanted in every living 
thing, whether animal, worm, or weed. 

Yielding to this appetite is the preservation of all life, and 
health, below man ; he alone exceeds it, and in consequence 
sickens and dies thereby, long before his prime, in countless 
instances. 

The fact is not recognized as generally as it ought to be, 
that a proper attention to the " askings" of nature, not only 
maintains health, but is one of the safest, surest, and most per- 
manent methods of curing disease. 

It is eating without an appetite, which in many instances is 
the last pound which breaks the camel's back ; nature had 
taken away the appetite, had closed the house for necessary 
repairs, but, in spite of her, we "forced down some food" and 
days and weeks and months of illness followed, if not cholera, 
cramp, colic, or sudden death. 

In disease, there are few who cannot recall instances, where 
a person was supposed to be in a dying condition, and in the 
delirium of fever, or otherwise, had arisen, and gone to the 
pail or pitcher, and drank an enormous quantity of water, 
or have gone to the pantry, and eaten largely of some unusual 
food, and forthwith began to recover. We frequently speak 
of persons getting well having the strangest hind of an appe- 
tite, the indulgence of which reason and science would say 
would be fatal. 

We found out many years ago, when engaged in the general 
practice of medicine, that when the patient was convalescing, 
the best general rule was, eat not an atom you do not relish y 
eat anything in moderation which your appetite craves, from a 
pickle dovm to sole-leather. Nature is like a perfect house- 
keeper ; she knows better what is wanting in her house than 
anybody else can tell her. The body in disease craves that 
kind of food which contains the element it most needs. This 
is one of the most important facts in human hygiene ; and yet 
we do not recollect to have ever seen it embodied in so many 
words. We have done so, to render it practical ; and to make 
it remembered, we state a fact of recent occurrence. 



238 HalVs Journal of Health, 

Some three years ago, a daughter of James Damon, of Ches- 
terfield, fell down a flight of stairs, bringing on an illness from 
which it was feared she would not recover. She did however 
recover, except the loss of hearing and sight. Her appetite 
for some weeks called for nothing but raisins and candy, and 
since last fall, nothing but apples were eaten. A few weeks 
ago she commenced eating maple buds ; since which time she 
has nearly regained her former health and activity, and her 
sight and hearing are restored. 

We all, perhaps, have observed that cats and other animals, 
when apparently ill, go out and crop a particular grass or 
weed. In applying these facts, let us remember to indulge 
this " asking for" of Nature, in sickness especially, in modera- 
tion ; feeling our way along by gradually increasing amounts ; 
thus keeping on the safe side. We made this one of our ear- 
liest and most inflexible rules of practice. 



DECISION OF CHARACTER. 

Without it, no man or woman was ever worth a button, nor 
ever can be. Without it, a man becomes at once a good- 
natured nobody ; the poverty stricken possessor of but one soli- 
tary principle, that of obliging every-body under the sun, 
merely for the asking. He is like the judge who uniformly 
decided according to the views of the closing speech. Having 
no mind of his own, such a man is a mere cypher in society, 
without weight of character, and utterly destitute of influence. 
Such an one can never command the respect or even the 
esteem of men around him. All that he can command, is a 
kind of patronizing pity. The man to be admired, respected, 
feared, and who will carry multitudes with him, whether 
right or wrong, is he who plants his foot upon a spot, and it 
remains there, in spite of storm, or tempest, or tornado : the 
very rage of an in/uriated mob but gives new inspiration to 
his stability of purpose, and makes him see that he is so much 
the more of a man. 

Then again, what a labor-saving machine is this " decision 
of character" this thin pressed lip, in all the departments of 
life ; the infant of a year knows its meaning well : children 
see it with intuition. Servants, the dullest of the dull, the 



Comfort for the Poor. 239 

veriest flaxen waddle, a week only, from " Fader Land" 
learns it at a glance. Why ! this decision of character, this 
firmness of purpose, pays itself in any walk down Broadway. 
The little match girl doesn't repeat matches please f the ragged 
crossing sweeper doesn't take the pains to run half across the 
street after you ; he knows better. Your own child does 
not repeat its request, however anxious to have it granted, and 
wifey herself soon learns " it's no use knocking at the door any 
more," if the first tap does not gain admission. 

Then again, what a happy deliverance it is from that state 
of betweenity, which is amongst the most wearing of all 
feelings. Why half the people don't know the luxury of hav- 
ing made up one's mind irrevocably. What an amazing 
saving of time it is, of words, of painful listening to distressing 
appeals. Why, it is a positive benefit to the persons refused, 
for it enables them to decide without an effort, that further 
importunity is useless. But my brother, see to it, that your 
decisions be always right, first ; and to guarantee that, you 
must have a sound head and a good heart — then may it 
well be like a Medo-Persian law — unalterable. But " le 
kindly jvrm? 



COMFORT FOR THE POOR. 

How grandly benign the first penal sentence on man — " In 
the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, until thou return 
to the ground" ! How blessed the necessity of having to 
labor for one's daily food. It is steady, moderate work, which 
gives health, and years, and honor, and success. And yet, 
perhaps nine out of ten of us, are looking and laboring for the 
great consummation of being placed in a position which shall 
require no labor, the fabled otium cum dignitate ; forgetting, 
that in the evasion of the penalty, greater judgments come. 
The sentence is, we must work until we die. That is its mean- 
ing and intent, and there is within it blessings in disguise ; 
blessings in our very punishments ! greater blessings than if 
we succeed in escaping them ! How incomprehensible, how 
broadly reaching is the love of Him, with whom we have 
to do! 



240 HalVs Journal of Health. 

It is within the observation of all of us, that those who retire 
from a long and active business life, soon fall into disease and 
die ; and scarcely a day passes, in which the observant physi- 
cian does not see, that the difference to many between health 
and disease, is the distance between the drawing-room and the 
wash-tub — the distance between the quill and the crow-bar — 
while the instructive fact with its terrible warning stares us in 
the face, that u the average duration of the life of men after 
i retiring from business' is less than three years" 



MEDICAL PEOGEESS. 

Reesds Medical Gazette for September has a new feature in 
medical journalism, " Selections from favorite prescriptions of 
living American practitioners" We hope this will be con- 
tinued. Medical science has been greatly retarded by its awe 
of the old and its fear and contempt of the new. It is a Her- 
culean labor to get a physician to try a new remedy, unless 
" authority" sanctifies it. Thus it is, that the so-called New 
Schools, Reformed Schools, have gained large advantages over 
scientific medicine. They are willing to try anything, and to 
employ in their practice whatever remedy seems, from actual 
experience, to be worthy of confidence. It is the only rational 
practice of medicine, and for the following reasons. 

1. Climate is constantly changing. 

2. The constitutions of men are constantly changing. 

3. The habits of society are constantly changing. 

4. The circumstances and conditions of domestic life are 
constantly changing. 

Such being the case, that practitioner cannot command suc- 
cess, who administers to-day, the same remedy for the same 
symptom, which he did twenty years ago. Every observant 
physician knows that the types of disease vary from year to 
year, and he is the most successful man who earliest notices 
that change, and judiciously adapts his remedies to it. This 
is the key to successful practice everywhere. This gives 
" eminence" to men of the time, and we want their experience 
and " presfriptions" 



Eating too Much—" Don't Sleep Well!' 241 



EATING TOO MUCH. 

What countless thousands it puts into the doctor's pockets, 
furnishes his splendid mansion in Union Square and Fifth 
Avenue, enables him to " sport his carriage," to own a villa 
on the banks of the Hudson, and live in style to the end of the 
chapter ! 

" I canH help it, 77 says the poor unfortunate milk-and-water 
individual, who never had decision enough to do a deed 
worthy of remembrance an hour later. My wishey-washey 
friend, suppose I help you to avoid making a beast of yourself. 

Have two articles of food sent to your room, besides bread 
and butter, with half a glass of cold w r ater. I will give you 
permission to eat as much as you want, thus, thrice a day. Or 
if you prefer eating with company, you may safely sit down 
to the " best table 71 in the land, if you have manhood enough 
to partake of but any two articles. It is the variety of our 
food which brutifies us. 



"DON'T SLEEP WELL." 

Since the fullest amount of sleep is as essential to the 
healthful working of mind and body as necessary food, it may 
be well to know how to secure it, as a general rule. 

1. Clarify your conscience. 

2. Take nothing later than two o'clock, P. M., except some 
bread and butter, and a small cup of weak tea of any kind, or 
half a glass of w T ater, for supper. 

3. Go to bed at some regular early hour. Get up the mo- 
ment you wake of yourself, even if at midnight. 

4. Do not sleep an instant in the day time. 

Unless your body is in a condition to require special medi- 
cal advice, nature will regulate your sleep to the wants of the 
system, in less than a month ; and you will not only go to 
sleep at once, but will sleep soundly. " Second naps 71 and sies- 
tas make the mischief. 



24:2 HalVs Journal of Health 

BE CAREFUL. 

BY M. GOWRAN. 

Be careful, young man, when you first commence business, 
to choose such an occupation, as will be the most conducive to 
health ; for it will be more valuable to you than silver or gold. 
Be careful, young lady, how you trifle with life or death, as 
though they were of no value ; the course you are pursuing 
will endanger them in a great many ways. You often, in 
damp weather, promenade the street, with thin soled shoes, 
regardless of the consequences ; besides, you attend balls and 
parties, in winter, wearing that kind of apparel which is only 
appropriate for summer. Then, if you exercise, so as 'to be a 
little too warm, you forget to be careful, and often sit or stand 
in a draught of cold air, until perspiration is checked — 
then the " bad cold," often leading to a "fatal disease." Add 
to this, late hours from novel reading, and late rising, too, 
which prevents the morning breeze from blowing gently 
around you, to give you new life and animate your depressed 
spirits. It's true, you may go on in this way for months, and 
perhaps for a few years : but remember, the day of reckoning 
will come ; then you would retract, but it may be too late ; for 
by this time the " hollow cough" begins to startle you ; but you 
indulge the hope that it's only a " cold," and form the resolu- 
tion to be more careful for the future. But what is past can 
never be recalled. Your disease may now baffle the skill of 
the most eminent physicians. Despite the ceaseless watchings 
and prayers of a kind-hearted father and an affectionate 
mother, the king of diseases performs his task ; your form 
becomes almost a shadow, and you sink into a premature 
grave. But how often disease might be prevented ! if we 
would be more careful, and attend to the laws of health. "While 
penning these lines, we are carried by retrospection to the 
days of our youth, when, if we had been guided more by judg- 
ment, we might now be enjoying better health. But like 
many others, we are now trying to be careful, and to profit by 
the advice we receive from our physician. Let us hope that 
the subject of health, at no distant day, will be looked at in its 
true light, and receive the attention it deserves and demands, 
and not be so often sold for a few transitory pleasures. 



College of Cookery, 243 

College of Cookery. — It is proposed to open in London a 
" College of Domestic Economy," where everything necessary 
to the acquirement of a perfect knowledge of the culinary art 
and other domestic matters will here be taught by a person of 
great experience and acknowledged ability. The students for 
practice will be divided into classes of four or five each, with a 
servant student to attend on each class, and assist them in their 
operations. Each class will provide what may be required for 
their practice, to be arranged by the student managing the 
class for the week ; and the articles prepared will be consumed 
for their meals. No students will be admitted under fifteen 
years of age. Lectures will also be given to non-students, and 
likewise private instructions to ladies at their own residences. 

If such colleges were instituted in this country, and con- 
ducted as they ought to be, and might be, and American 
girls who are poor and must work for a living, or do worse, 
infinitely worse, would enter them, and if a branch were 
added whose design was to prepare these young American 
girls for nursing children, a revolution would take place in do- 
mestic life more healthful and important than can well be con- 
ceived — a revolution, social, financial, moral, political and 
religious. 

" Fish for Food. — Fish are said to be a very healthy food. 
With the exception of such as have oil interfused in their mus- 
cular tissues, fish are easy of digestion, and it is remarkable 
that fishermen and their families and those who consume a 
large quantity of fish, are healthy to a more than ordinary 
degree, and are almost wholly exempt from scrofula and pul- 
monary consumption." 

This fish story is an evidence of the perfect carelessness with 
which newspaper articles as to health are thrown broadcast 
among the people, as millions of people have died without 
having been scrofulous or consumptive, in the interior of the 
country, away from the sea and large rivers, where fresh fish 
at the table is a rarity. It would be more rational to suppose 
that such remarkable exemption from the disease named was 
more probably the result of a plain mode of living combined 
with a life of out-door activity. — [Editor. 



244: HalVs Journal of Health. 

Pickles. — " An excellent way to make pickles which will 
keep a year or more is — drop them into boiling hot water, but 
not boil them ; let them stay ten minutes, wipe them dry, then 
drop them into cold spiced vinegar. They will not need to be 
put into salt and water." 

To Keep Corn. — " The only way to keep sweet corn of any 
variety for winter use, is to partially cook and then dry it ; or 
put it in a close jar, or other tight vessel. Corn nicely kept 
in this way is very good, as was abundantly tested, years 
before the Stowell corn was ever heard of." 



To Keep Apples. — " The most effectual method of preserving 
both apples and pears with which I am familiar — and which 
of course I recommend in preference to all others, is the fol- 
lowing : Having selected the best fruit, wipe it perfectly clean 
and dry with a fine cloth, then take a jar of suitable size, the 
inside of which is thoroughly coated with cement, and having 
placed a layer of fine sand perfectly dry at the bottom, place 
thereon a layer of the fruit — apples or pears as the case may 
be — but not so close as to touch each other, and then a layer 
of sand ; and in this way proceed till the vessel is full. Over 
the upper layer of fruit a thick stratum of sand may be spread 
and lightly pressed down with the hands. In this manner 
choice fruit perfectly ripe may be kept for almost any length 
of time, if the jar be placed in a situation free from moisture." 



How to make Starch for Shirt-Bosoms. — " Take two 
ounces of fine gum arabic powder, put it into a pitcher, and 
pour on a pint or more of boiling water, according to the 
strength you desire, and then, having covered it, let it stand all 
night ; in the morning pour it carefully from the dregs into a 
clean bottle, cork it and keep it for use. A table-spoonful of 
gum- water stirred into a pint iof starch made in the usual 
manner, will give to lawn, either white or printed, a look of 
newness, when nothing else can restore them after they have 
been washed." 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

OUR LEGITIMATE SCOPE IS ALMOST BOUNDLESS : FOR WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABLH 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS, PROMOTES HEALTH; AND WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. II.] NOVEMBER, 1855. [NO. X. 



MEDICATED INHALATION. 

We have been repeatedly and urgently requested by the press 
and private persons, to notice some strictures, which we have 
neither seen nor read, on our July number, as to breathing the 
fumes of various medicines for curing consumptive diseases. 
We have asked no one what was the nature of the argument 
contained in these strictures, but we have understood from both 
the sources above named, that the article of " nine heavy co- 
lumns " abounds in epithets and personalities against those who 
oppose the Inhalation treatment. Such being the state of the 
case, we now, as heretofore, avoid using names, and speak of 
the Inhalists as a class, and hereby take occasion not only to 
reiterate the two most important charges made in our previous 
articles, but give the recent testimony from the Inhalists them- 
selves, in favor of the truth of our positions. First, that Me- 
dicated Inhalation for the treatment of consumption was no 
new thing ; that it had been employed ages ago, had fallen into 
disuse, and now, for the dozenth time, was revived. 

One of the Inhalists says, under date of October 13th of the 
present year, in the New York Daily Times, 

u All that I claim is, to have reduced the whole (Medicated In- 
halation) to a systematized practiced If this is not abandoning 
the pretension to novelty and originality, in the employment of 
Medicated Inhalation, then are we ignorant of the meaning of 
language. Our first proposition is therefore admitted. 

2. That without other means, it was always and wholly inefficient 
to cure consumption. As not one of these men at this time even 
professes to be confined to Medicated Inhalation exclusively in 
any case of consumption, but all use " other means, according to 



248 HalVs Journal of Health. 

the case," it is conclusive, that these "other means' 1 must them- 
selves be the principal agents, and * Medicated Inhalation' be- 
comes a mere aid, but as an " aid" it has been employed by 
regular physicians for the last hundred years. Our second pro- 
position, therefore, requires no further proof. 

3. We did admit that there might be some improvement in 
li my Inhaler," as it was so steadily termed, but from the published 
testimony of one of our oldest surgical instrument makers, we 
learn that he has sold them in this city since 1837, the only 
difference being, that " my Inhaler, contrived by myself" is in 
the shape of a bottle, the old ones, sold in New York " for the 
last forty years," being in the shape of a jar, the principle being 
identical, and as to construction, precisely similar, except in 
shape. 

4. We protested against the Inhalists publishing the private 
letters of inquiry of physicians in different parts of the country, 
and heading that publication as testimony of physicians in favor 
&f Inhalation. 

5. We protested against the statement of the Inhalists that 
they had thrown open certain instruments to the use of the pro- 
fession, when these very instruments had been open to profes- 
sional use by their real originators, for from ten to fifty years. 

6. We protested against the Inhalists declaring that their 
motives in writing for the public press were to impart useful 
information to professional men, as well as the people, while, at 
the close of the same article, they give as a reason for not im- 
parting such information to the profession, that they could not 
do so with "a proper regard for their own interests and repu- 
tation." 

7. We protested against the validity of their reasons for not 
communicating their practice to the profession, that at its present 
stage, they could not make them understand all its niceties ; that 
the knowledge of what remedy should be inhaled in any given 
case, or " how weak, or how strong, or how hot, or how cold, 
or how much, or how little, was only to be acquired by years of 
practical observation." We thought this an imputation on the 
capacity of medical men here and throughout the world for 
comprehension, as un courteous in the extreme, believing as we 
d/\ that if a man knows anything wholly, he can communicate 
it to others of equal intelligence with himself. 



Medicated Inhalation. 249 

8. We protested against the steadily repeated declarations of 
the Inhalists, that the object of their advertisements was to im- 
part useful information on a class of diseases which destroys 
multitudes every year, when at the same time they have not, to 
this hour, imparted one single new truth in the whole sweep of 
medicine. 

9. We protested against some of them, inasmuch as, being 
foreigners, and receiving largely of the patronage of our people, 
that they should subsidize the Sunday and penny press of New 
York almost without exception, and use it as a vehicle of de- 
famation of the Medical profession of the United States, charg- 
ing that the professors in our Medical Schools had purchased 
their professorships, that our physicians were "contracted in their 
views," were "ignorant," that they "knowingly" administered 
drugs which would do no good, and thereby "violated their 
own consciences." 

We appeal to every well-regulated mind, if there is not 
exhibited here a want of courtesey, on the part of strangers 
who had been received with a bestowal of so large a share of 
public patronage, which was wholly uncalled for, because no 
public attack, either on the part of Medical professors or the 
physicians of the country, had been made against them, as far 
as we know. 

10. We protested against the course pursued by " The Ame- 
rican Medical Gazette and Journal of Health," in allowing In- 
halists to advertise themselves in its pages for March, 1855; that 
in admitting an Inhaler's communication of eight pages, without 
a disclaimer, it used its influence in propagating the sentiments 
of the Inhalists, and thus caused the country journals of Medi- 
cine to believe that the Gazette was itself a believer in the claims 
of the Inhalists. 

For this protest the " Gazette " has thought proper, in the Oc- 
tober number, to class us with those who treat " diseases of 
horses and other cattle, Dr. Udolph Wolf (the celebrated vendor 
of German gin) and others." The severest reply which we pro- 
pose making to this procedure, is the announcement that in 
this same number, the Gazette, for October, speaks of the men 
whom it helped into notice in March last, in the most con- 
temptuous manner, declaring that they disclose nothing, because 
they have nothing to disclose ; that the " Specialist has nothing 



250 HalVs Journal of Health. 

novel or original on this (consumption) or any other subject, 
and that they, in common with other specialists, know less upon 
the subject which they have chosen, than their neighbors." In 
fact, the Gazette in effect, succinctly reiterates in its October 
issue, what we said in our July number. Why the Gazette 
should attempt severity towards us for doing what itself re- 
peated some months subsequently, we pretend not to explain. 

We take occasion here to state, for the information of the 
Gazette and others, that in all our writing, we have one aim 
distinctly in view — to say nothing which is not strictly and lite- 
rally true. We pride ourselves in being true " with a margin," 
as a merchant would say. To be true, only with the help of a 
quibble, has always and everywhere our most unmitigated con- 
tempt. Our definition of a lie is, An attempt to make a false 
impression. Whether successful or not, the crime is the same. 
Whether that false impression is made by word, or mark, or 
sign, or shrug, or look, or false coloring, whether by the omission 
or addition of a single jot or tittle, or word or fact, the infamy 
is the same. These being our sentiments, we have never under- 
gone the humiliation of a retractation or apology for the defama- 
tion of any human creature, and that we have never been called 
to such, a trial, and that no human heart has thus ever been 
wounded by us, is one of the sweetest thoughts of our existence. 
We are thankful to be able to feel, that we have no private 
malice to gratify, by using an editorial advantage, and making 
our Journal the vehicle of defamation of the character and 
standing and competency of those who, as private citizens and 
members of the profession, have for many years secured and 
maintained the respect and esteem not only of the private and 
professional community around them, but of men of ability and 
eminence in every part of the country. 

What may take place in that cold domain on the other side of 
" Forty-Five," we cannot say. Into that hard and cheerless clime, 
the editor of the Gazette has long ago passed before us, will he 
telegraph us back whether, in that dreary land, age and frigi- 
dity are one and indivisible ; if it be so, sad indeed will be the 
day when we shall become a citizen. 

If we ever do, the very first thing we shall attempt, will be 
to publish a prospectus and canvass personally for subscribers 
ito a "Journal of Eeform;" meanwhile, we will strike for a re- 



Medicated Inhalation. 251 

volution, and inaugurate an Age of genial sunshine; we will 
charter a Caloric Company, the object of which shall be to thaw 
every frozen heart, to melt down every face of brass, and warm 
beauteous flowers into life, where flowers never bloomed before. 

No less than three thousand persons die of diseases of the 
lungs every year, in New York City alone ; and in discussing 
the means of their cure, men want the argument of tangible 
facts, from known reliable witnesses. It is inopportune to 
attempt to divert public attention to side issues, to personalities, 
to abusive epithets, impugning motives, questioning veracity, 
and by the quibble of scrap quotations and want of fair con- 
struction, these being the weapons of the Inhalists against one 
another in almost every newspaper article we have read on the 
subject, and we have no reason to suppose they have used dif- 
ferent weapons in articles which we have not seen against the 
medical profession in general or ourselves in particular. In a 
contest of this kind, we can never engage. Truth needs no help 
from sources like these : she can always afford to be courteous 
and calm, and borrows no aid from ribaldry or the stiletto. 

The facts which we want as to the curative power of Inhala- 
tion over consumption, is the production of one intelligent and 
responsible citizen of New York who has been cured of this 
disease by Medicated Inhalation alone, of Consumption acknow- 
ledged to be present by any physician known to favorable fame, 
of any school. We do not want the affidavit of John Smith, 
" his mark" of New York; or of Thomas Brovm of some distant 
locality: a million such are not worth a straw, and for very 
obvious reasons. 

Consumption implies these four things mainly : 

1. A pnlse of ninety or more in a minute. 

2. A breathing, at rest, of twenty-five or more in a minute. 

3. A bad cough on going to bed, and on rising. 

4. Great and increasing thinness of flesh. 

We hereby challenge every Inhalist in the country, or any- 
body else, to produce one single person who presented such a 
condition at any past time, who now, through Inhalation alone, 

1. Has a healthful pulse of sixty-eight. 

2. A breathing of seventeen. 

3. No remnant of cough. 

4. No perceptible emaciation. 



252 HalVs Journal of Health. 

Surely, of the multitude of persons whom these men have 
treated, there ought to be found one well-known and intelligent 
man of high position, grateful enough for his deliverance, to be 
willing to bear an open and manly testimony to its healing 
power. There are multitudes of persons who have tried Medi- 
cated Inhalation in this city, and vainly tried.it. Their disap- 
pointment has vented itself in various degrees of strength up to 
the point of declaring that "a more cruel imposition has never 
been practised on any community." 

As a class, the Editors of this country are educated and culti- 
vated men, and as such, are capable of appreciating the value 
of a moral argument, especially one which carries with it the 
force of a demonstration, and such an argument we conceive the 
following to be : Medicated Inhalation could not have become 
obsolete among a body of men as highly cultivated and scien- 
tific as the Medical Faculty throughout the world are, unless 
they had found that its employment was not followed by. results 
sufficiently prompt, uniform, and effective, as to warrant its use, 
considering that the same ends were attained with greater facil- 
ity, and certainty, by more available instrumentalities. The} r 
would no more abandon a signally useful remedy, than the He- 
rald, Times, or Tribune, would abandon the six-cylinder press 
and go back to one of Franklin's time. There can be no mo- 
tive for such a change. Medicines are like patent contrivances, 
they are laid aside or continued according to their availability. 

The force of this argument will be met by the assertion, that 
these men have got up an " Improved Inhalation" some of them 
having used that phrase in their advertisements. The improve- 
ment must be in "my instrument, contrived by myself" or in 
the substances inhaled ; but we have already shown that the 
Inhaler now is identically the same as it was a forty years ago 
in New York" excepting only, a jar was then used, while "My 
Inhaler, contrived by myself 7 is a bottle. 

It cannot be the substance used, for they claim " the employ- 
ment of the whole Materia Medica," " according to the nature 
of the case," while they themselves rest their professed success, 
to use their own language, in " knowing how much or how little, 
or how weak or how strong, or how hot or how cold the parti- 
cular drug used should be," declining at the same time to com- 



Medicated Inhalation. 253 

municate the necessary information as to these points on two 
grounds : — 

First. It would compromise their interest and reputation* 

Second. The Medical profession are incapable, at this stage of 
(their) discoveries, of understanding what remedy is most ap- 
propriate to any given case, or " how much or how little, or how 
weak or how strong, or how hot or how cold." 

We need suggest no inferences here to any intelligent mind. 

We are prepared to go a step farther, and say, u Medicated In- 
halation, alone, never cured any man, woman, or child, of anything, 
since the world began." I defy the universe to produce one soli- 
tary instance of such cure. The term " cured" is qualified thus : 
No disease, nor any one symptom of a disease, has ever been 
permanently removed by means of Medicated Inhalation alone, 
which disease or symptom has not, in multitudes of instances, dis- 
appeared by the most ordinary medical means, or even by simply 
being let alone. If such a thing has been done, let it be sub- 
stantiated. Even admitting that Inhalation has cured some- 
body of something, if nature alone has done the same thing, 
and legitimate medicine has done the same thing, in untold 
instances, and this none of them will deny, and we take it 
for granted, until they name one symptom or one disease to 
the contrary, then the prime fact must force itself on every in- 
telligent mind, that Medicated Inhalation is not entitled to pre- 
eminence as a means of cure, and that any attempt to produce 
an impression to the contrary will, sooner or later, receive the 
most general reprobation. 

Another consideration, of no doubtful bearing, is, that in or- 
der to make the theory of Inhalation at all plausible, they con- 
tradict the entire medical world as to a point of fact. The very 
necessity of such a thing is sufficient to envelop the whole in 
suspicion. There is scarcely a single fact in the whole range 
of physiological medicine more deserving the title of "fixed" 
than that consumption is a constitutional disease, a disease of 
the whole man ; and as an evidence, of popular appreciation, 
the whole man dwindles away, flesh, strength, breath, digestion, 
sleep, everything, yet these men begin by saying it is a local dis- 
ease, that it is founded in the lungs ; and with a view to cure 
the diseased portions, for it is only in spots or patches that the 
lungs waste away in consumption, they apply the same fumiga- 



254 HalVs Journal of Health. 

tions to the well parts as they do to the diseased, and what is 
potent to cure a diseased portion must be as powerful to injure 
the part which is in a healthy condition. Any well man may 
try this and breathe iodine or chlorine, the remedies which they 
most generally use, and see if cough and other unpleasant sen- 
sations do not instantaneously arise ; keeping out of sight, as 
they do, the absurdity of curing an internal ulcer by means 
which, if used for one on the surface of the body, would expose 
any one to derision. We presume no one ever attempted to 
cure an external ulcer by blowing upon it the fumes of any drug. 
As well might you satisfy a hungry man with the smell of a 
good dinner, or a penniless unfortunate by the jingle of dollars. 

We have no objection to a physician advertising himself, if 
he does it courteously towards his brethren and in all truthful- 
ness ; but to baseless pretensions, with defamation of others, we 
do enter an earnest protest. 

As to our own mode of practice, confined to one kind of lung 
disease, that is, Consumption, and to one kind of throat disease, 
called Chronic Laryngitis, we say as to the latter, that in treating 
it as a dyspeptic disease, by orthodox medical principles, we 
have found our highest success ; we utterly repudiate caustics in 
all their forms, believing them inert in some cases, hurtful in 
others, and curative in none. 

As to Consumption, we have been satisfied to treat it as a 
constitutional disease, and think that in doing so,- we have 
averted it in its forming stages, and arrested it, indefinitely, in 
the earlier stages of decay, the three great aims being — 

1. The largest possible consumption of out-door air. 

2. The largest possible amount of out-door exercise, short of 
fatigue. 

3. The largest possible digestion of plain substantial food. 

In treating these diseases thus, we are free to say, we have 
not, in some fifteen years practice in them, had that success 
which strikes a nation with surprise, and filled at one and the 
game time our office with patients, and our purse with '' a hun- 
dred thousand dollars a year." We have made no efforts to 
lead our patients along by the aid of the mysterious and the won- 
derful ; we have never said to any man, " We will certainly cure 
you—no doubt about it.' 7 The fact is, we never promised to cure 
anybody of any thing. We do, however, take pains, in all 



Be Courteous. 255 

cases, to deal with our patients as rational beings, by patiently 
instructing them as to the nature of their ailments, the nature 
of their constitutions, their liabilities to disease, the principles 
by which we expect to cure them, and if cured, how they may 
keep well hereafter ; and with the gratitude of many intelligent 
persons and their pay, as well as the approbation of my own 
conscience, I have great reason to be satisfied and thankful. 



BE COURTEOUS. 



Does a lady ever ride in an omnibus or a city rail-car? 
Women do often — and now and then a lady may, when impel- 
led by some emergency of rain, or mud, or cash. The manner 
in which women take the seats vacated by gentlemen, who have 
in consequence to stand the remainder of the trip, is anything 
but confirmatory of the fact that our fair countrywomen, as a 
class, know what common courtesy is, practically. In a daily 
car-riding of five or six years, we cannot remember as many 
instances of a ladylike acceptance of a proffered seat. It is 
almost universal, that a gentleman's place is taken without the 
slightest acknowledgment by word, or look, or gesture, that a 
benefit has been conferred and received, and yet it is a very 
great accommodation ; for to stand in the passage-way, while 
the cars are in motion for a dozen squares or so, the centre of 
thirty pairs of eyes, is very short of purgatorial ; and being such 
an accommodation, the smallest kind of a remuneration would 
be a word, or look, or gesture of felt indebtedness. The per- 
severance which New York gentlemen exhibit, in instantane- 
ously quitting their seats when a car is crowded, and a woman 
enters, is highly creditable to their manliness and chivalry. 

We suggest, as a remedy, that all the " boarding-schools," 
" day-schools," and "institutes," which have the prefix Female, 
hold a convention immediately, if not sooner, for the purpose 
of debating the question, whether or not a Professor of " Polite- 
ness" might not be appointed to universal advantage, whose 
duty it should be to " give lessons in politeness" to every 
young girl in the school, from her entrance until her exit from 
the establishment. We have seen tottering gray -headed men 
resign their seats to young women, and not a smile, or curtsey, 



256 HalVs Journal of Health. 

or "thank you," ever escape from their lips. Shame on the su- 
perficial, inadequate, corrupting and debasing system of " fe- 
male boarding-schools" and *' institutes" as a class, whose 
absorbing object is not to prepare the girls committed to their 
care to become helping wives, intelligent mothers, discreet 
matrons of a household, and ornaments in useful and benevolent 
society, but to make money, and return therefor a painted 
flower, a gilded time-piece, with no enduring quality but the 
brass of which it is chiefly composed. How sigh we for the 
wives, the mothers, the daughters of a by-gone age ! 

There is a name, now passed away, we love to think upon ! 
a synonym, a representative in his age, of all that was honor- 
able in his dealing, courteous in his deportment, manly in his 
bearing, and Christian in his heart, — a fine Virginia gentleman 
of the old school was James Harper. He once related to us the 
following incident. 

" Some years ago, an old woman entered a public convey- 
ance in Broadway: it was raining, and there was no vacant 
seat. I instantly offered her mine ; she declined, and in a man- 
ner which showed that she felt she had no claim for the seat, 
nor to such an evidence of consideration from a stranger. I 
insisted, and, as if fearing to wound my feelings by a further 
refusal, she took it, with a courteous expression of her obliga- 
tion. When she wanted to leave the conveyance, it stopped in 
a muddy part of the street, and feeling assured that I was with 
a lady, I did not hesitate to pass out before her, and hand 
her to the side-walk. I then returned to my seat doubly grati- 
fied : first, in having it in my power to oblige a lady ; and, 
second, in seeing that it was appreciated — not a common thing, 
doctor, now-a-days :" as he turned away with one of his 
hearty, full-souled laughs. 

But who was the lady ? 

M I learned afterwards, that it was Mrs. Alexander 
Hamilton." 



Kind Words — are among the brightest flowers of earth ; they 
convert the humblest home into a paradise ; therefore use them, 
especially around the fire-side circle ; they are jewels beyond 
price, they heal the wounded heart and make the weighed-down 
spirit glad. Anon. 



Dyspepsia. 257 

DYSPEPSIA. 

The nervous energy is the motive power of the whole man, 
spiritual, mental and physical. When that power is equally 
distributed, the body is well, the brain is clear, and the heart is 
buoyant. If the brain has more than its share, it burns itself 
up, and makes the "lean Cassius? — the restless body and the 
anxious countenance. 

As there is a given quantity of nervous influence for the 
whole body, if the brain has more than its natural portion, the 
stomach has less, consequently the food is not thoroughly assi- 
milated, or, as we call it, " digested."" This being the case, the re- 
quisite amount of nutriment is not derived from the food, and 
the whole body suffers, doubly suffers; for not only is the supply 
of nutriment deficient, but the quality is imperfect. These 
things go on, — aggravating each other, until there is not a sound 
spot in the whole body ; the whole machinery of the man is by 
turns the seat of some ache or pain, or " symptom." This is a 
common form of aggravated dyspepsia. 

Such being the facts, some useful practical lessons may be 
learned. 

1. Never sit down to table with an anxious or disturbed 
mind; better a hundred-fold intermit that meal, for there will 
then be that much more food in the world for hungrier stomachs 
than yours ; and besides, eating under such circumstances can 
only, and will always, prolong and aggravate the condition 
of things. 

2. Never sit down to a meal after any intense mental effort, 
for physical and mental injury is inevitable, and no man has a 
right deliberately to injure body, mind or estate. 

3. Never go to a fall table during bodily exhaustion ; desig- 
nated by some as being worn out, tired to death, used up, done 
over, and the like. The wisest thing you can do under such 
circumstances, is to take a cracker and a cup of warm tea, either 
black or green, and no more. In ten minutes you will feel a 
degree of refreshment and liveliness, which will be pleasantly 
surprising to you ; not of the transient kind, which a glass of 
liquor affords, but permanent, for the tea gives present stimu- 
lus and a little strength, and before it subsides, nutriment be- 
gins to be drawn from the sugar and cream and bread, thus 



258 Hall's Journal of Health. 

allowing the body, gradually and by safe degrees, to regain its 
usual vigor. Then, in a couple of hours you may take a full 
meal, provided it does not bring it later than two hours before 
sundown ; if later, then take nothing for that day, in addition 
to the cracker and tea, and the next day, you will feel a fresh- 
ness and vigor not recently known. No reader will require to 
be advised a second time, who will make a trial as above, 
while it is a fact of no unusual observation among intelligent 
physicians, that eating heartily, under bodily exhaustion, is not 
an infrequent cause of alarming and painful illness, and some- 
times of sudden death. These things being so, let every family 
make it a point to assemble around the family board with kindly 
feelings, with a cheerful humor and a courteous spirit ; and let 
that member of it be sent from the table in disgrace, who pre- 
sumes to mar, the ought to be, blest reunion, by sullen silence, 
or impatient look, or angry tone, or complaining tongue. Eat 
in thankful gladness, or away with you to the kitchen, you 
graceless churl, you ungrateful, pestilent lout that you are. 
There was grand and good philosophy in the old time custom 
of having a buffoon, or music, at the dinner-table. 



MAKING A FIEE, 



These cold November mornings, is a very necessary domestic 
item, and to do it certainly and quickly, will save more growls, 
and whines, and blessings " over the left," than the glibbest 
tongue could " get over 11 at a two-forty rate, in a year. Not only 
will it prove a saving of passion, but a saving of pence ; for as 
it usually happens, the right way is the cheapest way in the 
end. 

In the first place, if you are a bachelor or a maid, it is dis- 
creditable to you, if you do not kindle your own fires. What 
life it would infuse, how perfectly it would wake up a lazy 
sleeping child, if compelled to bounce out of bed at daylight of 
a winter's morning and light the anthracite ! It sends the lazy 
sleeping blood to the remotest extremities, and quickens the 
whole body, — it vitalizes the man. General Washington made 
it a practice to build his own fire at Mount Vernon ; and shame 
be on the young man or young woman, however rich the 



Making a Fire. 259 

parents may be, who would feel it discreditable to kindle the 
fire of their own rooms. 

THE WAY TO DO IT. 

Have your kindling wood cut not over five inches long, 
and split in pieces not larger than an inch square, but 
some of them should be mere splinters ; take half a news- 
paper, and a quart or two of small coal or coke. These should 
be all placed near the grate over night ; clean out the grate, 
at least the centre of it, crumple up the paper and lay it on 
the iron, set up the pieces of kindling in the shape of a 
tent or stack of arms, or an inverted funnel, the smaller splint- 
ers next the paper pressed closely against it, then lay the 
smaller pieces of coal, not much larger than the first joint 
of the thumb, close against the wood until the wood is hid- 
den, then light a detached piece of paper with a match 
and place it under the grate, holding it close to the paper 
already there, let that paper fairly catch, put on the blower, 
and in about five minutes the coal will be ignited ; then add 
one or two shovelsful more and replace the blower, and 
soon you will have a glowing fire without one failure in a 
whole winter ; and it will not consume five minutes' time, 
after the grate is cleaned out. 

But you must know the philosophy of all this, or you will 
not remember the details five minutes. 

The wood must be small and in close proximity to the paper ; 
for before anything burns, it must be saturated with caloric, 
it must get hot, and the smaller the piece of wood is, the sooner 
it will get hot, and the less heat, or caloric, will make it so ; 
and as paper gives out but little heat, unless the wood is small, 
and close, it will be scattered, and thus fail to ignite. The same 
is particularly true of anthracite coal : it must be thoroughly 
heated before it takes fire, and it is easy to see, that it requires 
a less amount of caloric to heat a small piece of coal than a 
larger one, and less time, too ; — thus it is, that the most effec- 
tual way of putting out a " poor" coal fire, is to fill up the grate 
with fresh coal ; for there was enough caloric to have heated a 
few small pieces to the kindling point; but when distributed to 
a larger amount, none of it was raised to the degree requisite 
for ignition. Therefore always put on a little coal at a time. 



260 HalVs Journal of Health. 

In this way, as much wood four or five inches long, as may be 
grasped in one hand, is abundantly sufficient for kindling one 
fire promptly of anthracite coal, and certainly, thus we have 
kindled a fire two seasons with one load, that is, a third of a 
cord of pine wood. Families will economize by having the 
a lengths" theoretically four feet, practically, three and a half 
scant, cut six times ; it gives more shillings to the sawyers, but 
fewer dollars to the wood-man. It will be of additional econo- 
my and interest to know, that in cleaning out the grate in the 
morning, you will have a good substitute for coke, if after sep- 
arating the ashes, the pieces of partially burnt coal are thrown 
in a pail of water to be used next morning. They thus derive 
a new supply of oxygen from the water, and kindle easily 
with a bright flame. Whereas, if placed on the fire with- 
out having been soaked in water they moulder away, giving 
but little light or warmth. Only the black-looking pieces in 
the water are fit for burning again. If you do not have these, 
you must have coke, or use more wood. 



EXCELSIOR OF AGRICULTURE. 

A larger proportion of farmers fill our madhouses than any 
other one class of persons in the land. We have before stated 
the reason of this to be, the monotony of their employment, 
and want of mental stimulus. But this state of things is rapidly 
changing, by the influence of Agricultural Journals, which are 
establishing themselves in every section of the country ; their 
tendencies are of a healthful character in many ways. By tell- 
ing the reason of things, they open up a new world of thought 
to the cultivator of the soil, which is pursued under the in- 
fluence of a stimulus the most potent in all lands, that of profit. 
Just give the most ordinary farmer an inkling of how he may 
make one acre produce as much as an acre and a half did before, 
and he will dive into the subject with an avidity quite surpris- 
ing. Then there is the pleasure of intelligent cultivation, which is 
not inferior in its effect on the whole man, to the satisfaction of 
increased profits, while it is far purer and more elevating. 

Furthermore, the character of these journals, as a class, and I 
know off aiot a single exception, is solid, substantial, on the side 
of virtue, integrity and industry. 



Excelsior of Agriculture. 261 

For variety, a few columns in each paper or magazine are 
devoted to subjects not strictly agricultural, but of a more do- 
mestic nature, embracing home comforts, family management, 
and social virtues ; and when it is remembered that very many 
farmers' families have but few facilities or opportunities of 
access to what is called the current literature of the day, this 
becomes a no small item of domestic education. These publi- 
cations being issued but once or twice a month, are afforded at 
a very low rate, in some instances as low as fifty cents a year, 
and being seldom received, are read over and over again by, 
perhaps, every member of the family, and thus all that is said 
incidentally of morals, virtue and religion, has time to take 
root and spring up to a valuable fruitage. The men who have 
the taste and talent for conducting agricultural journals are, 
almost of necessity, safe men, solid men, men who are on the 
side of religion, for the time they have spent in these pursuits 
practically, has not allowed them the leisure to have their 
minds poisoned by German transcendentalism, their morals 
perverted by boarding-house, club and Spa life, their passions 
inflamed by yellow-covered romances and love stories, or the 
indecencies of George Sand, Mary Lyndon and the Escaped 
Nun, nor, indeed, have they had hours to spare to run after 
fashionable preachers and lecturers, to whom the crowd give the 
" all hail" in proportion as they ignore "the old paths," and 
pay court to " literal views," "freedom of thought," "rational- 
istic ideas," •* progress," and all that. Such being the charac- 
ter of too many lecturers and editors of weekly papers in our 
large cities. Agricultural labors and studies have, in our 
opinion, a truly religious influence on the mind and heart of 
those who engage in them, the more decided, in proportion as 
they are more intelligent. It has been beautifully said, that if 
there exists one on earth who can eat his bread in peace with 
God and man, — it is he who has brought that bread out of the 
ground, for it is cankered by no fraud, it is wet by no tears, it 
is stained by no blood. 

The Ohio Cultivator, at Columbus, published twice a month, 
for a dollar a year, has, in the September number, besides its 
regular agricultural items, such articles as " A Happy Child- 
hood," " Propriety of Dress," " The Lady Equestrian." In 
any number of u The Ohio Farmer" at Cleveland, we have a 



262 HalVs Journal of Health. 

large amount of reading on scientific and domestic subjects, 
and which may well afford a whole family full materials for a 
week's profitable reflection and conversation ; and of a more 
varied character, still as safe are "The American Agriculturist" 
of New York, " The Country Gentleman" of Albany, and the 
" Philadelphia Horticulturist" Let every farmer in the land 
take one of these publications. 



A DOCTOK'S VALUE, 



Is not correctly estimated by the number of lives saved or 
lost in his individual practice, but by the results of his investi- 
gations of the great principles of human health and life. He 
may be a week, or a month, or a year in restoring one man to 
health, or conducting another, by skilful appliances, to a com- 
paratively painless grave ; yet, in much less time he may, in 
the retired quiet of his own office, eliminate a truth, which shall 
save millions from a premature grave, and give to millions of 
others hope, and health, and comfort and bread, "and the 
poor man's home once more be filled with smiles and gladness. 
We must have a dozen great markets, free as the air we breathe, 
and a hydrant at one of every four corners of the streets. No 
nation can be happy, and no city can be governed without the 
bayonet and the prison, where wholesome food and pure water 
are not within the reach of every industrious honest man." 
Such is the close of a suggestive article in the " Scalpel" for 
September. Truer words have never been written. The im- 
positions and extortions of the hucksters, " the middle men" of 
New York, and the barefaced cheateries of the corner groceries, 
as a class, are well exposed in that caustic article ; by the ma- 
chinations of the former, good substantial bread and meat arc 
placed beyond the reach of thousands of the laboring and de- 
serving families of this great city, in consequence of their high 
price, while by the latter, refuse and rotting articles are sup- 
plied, in short measure, to the hardly toiling poor — at a hun- 
dred per cent, beyond their intrinsic, legitimate value. 

"We say with Dr. Dixon, " let the city markets be numerous, 
roomy and free," and we add, free only to those who bring the 
produce from their own farms or gardens. 



The Four Wives' Portraits. 263 

And further than that, we suggest, as to articles which are 
purchased in bulk for winter use, such as flour, potatoes, 
turnips, apples, butter, lard and the like, that there be contri- 
butions of five or ten families, to send a competent person a 
hundred, or two or three hundred miles from the city, where 
good articles, of the above named, can be procured, and deli- 
vered at the door in New York, one hundred per cent, less 
than the city price. A fact explains fully our meaning. The 
11 Boston Traveller" states that some weeks since a gentleman ot 
Boston was travelling in the West, and while at Chicago pur 
chased half a dozen barrels of fine flour, for his own use, at 
$5 87 a barrel. He sent it to Boston, and the extreme cost, 
delivered at his house there, was $7 75 a barrel. At that time 
the same brand of flour was selling there at fourteen dollars ff 
barrel, or for nearly double what the gentleman's cost him. 



WHICH AM I? or, THE FOUE WIVES' PORTEAITS. 

(selected.) 

In Horsley Down churchyard, England, is the following in 
scription : 

FIRST PORTRAIT. 

Here lie the bodies of 

Thomas Bond and Mary his wife. 

She was temperate, chaste and charitable. 

But 

She was proud, peevish and passionate. 

She was an affectionate wife, and a tender 

mother. 

But 

Her husband and child whom she loved, seldom 

saw her countenance without a 

disgusting frown, 

Whilst she received visitors whom she despised 

with an endearing smile. 

Her behavior was discreet towards strangers, 

But 

Imprudent in her family. 

Abroad her conduct was influenced by good 

breeding, 

But 

At home by ill temper. 



264 HalVs Journal of Health. 

She was a professed enemy to flattery, and was 

,, seldom known to praise or commend ; 

But 

The talents in which she principally excelled 

Were difference of opinion and discovering 

flaws and 

Imperfections. 

She was an admirahle economist, 

And, without prodigality, 

Dispensed plenty to every person in her family, 

But 

Would sacrifice their eyes to a farthing candle. 

She sometimes made her husband 

Happy with her good qualities, 

But 

Much more frequently miserable with her 

Many failings. 
Inasmuch that in thirty years cohabitation, 
He often lamented that, 
Maugre all her virtues, 
He had not on the whole enjoyed two years 
Of matrimonial comfort. 
At length 
Finding she had lost the affection of her hus- 
band, as well as the regard of her neigh- 
bors, family disputes having been 

divulged by servants, 

She died of vexation, July 20, 1768, 

Aged 48 years. 

Her worn-out husband survived her four months 

and two days, and departed this life 

November 28, 1768, 

In the 54th year of his age. 

William Bond, brother to the deceased, 

Erected this stone as a 

Weekly monitor to the wives of this parish, 

That they may avoid the infamy of having 

Their memories handed down to posterity 

With a patchwork character. 

SECOND PORTRAIT. 

She is no true wife who sustains not her husband in the day 
of calamity ; who is not, when the world's great frown makes 
the heart chill with anguish, his guardian angel, growing brighter 
and more beautiful as misfortunes crowd around his path. Then 
is the time for a trial of her gentleness — then is the time for 



The Four Wives' Portraits. 265 

testing whether the sweetness of her temper beams only with a 
transient light, or like the steady glory of the morning star, 
shines as brightly under the clouds. Has she smiles just as 
charming? Does she say, "Affliction cannot touch our 
purity, and should not quench our love?" Does she try, by 
happy little inventions, to lift from his sensitive spirit the burden 
of thought ? 

There are wives — no ! there are beings who, when dark hours 
come, fall to repining and upbraiding — thus adding to outside 
anxiety the harrowing scenes of domestic strife — as if the blame 
in the world would make one hair white or black, or change the 
decree gone forth. Such know not that our darkness is heaven's 
light — our trials are but steps in a golden ladder, by which, if 
we rightly ascend, we may at last gain that eternal light, and 
bathe forever in its fulness and beauty. 

THIRD PORTRAIT. 

"Is that all? " and the gentle face of the wife beamed with 
joy. Her husband had been on the verge of distraction — all 
his earthly possessions were gone, and he feared the result of her 
knowledge, she had been so tenderly cared for all her life ! But, 
says Irving's beautiful story, "a friend advised him to give not 
sleep to his eyes, nor slumber to his eyelids, until he had un- 
folded to her his hapless case." 

And that was her answer, with the smile of an angel — " Is 
that all f I feared by your sadness it was worse. Let these 
things be taken — all this splendor, let it go ! I care not for it 
— I only care for my husband's love and confidence. You shall 
forget in my affection that you ever were in prosperity — only 
still love me, and I will aid you to bear these little reverses with 
cheerfulness." 

Still love her! a man must reverence, aye, and liken her to 
the very angels, for such a woman is a living revelation of 
heaven. 

FOURTH PORTRAIT. 

As painful a scene met my view in the cars from Philadelphia 
to New York, as I had ever seen in my journeys. A lady and 
her husband came into the cars at the former place, and were 
seated near us — very respectable in appearance, and the lady, 
in particular, uncommonly interesting. After a little while I 



266 HalVs Journal of Health, 

noticed a strange manner in the gentleman, which seemed to 
indicate he was not in favor of the Maine Liquor Law. At every 
place the cars stopped he evidently replenished the vacuum in 
his throat by a new drink, until he could not sit without help 
in his seat. He then rose hastily and went and opened the car 
door, and seated himself in it, with his feet hanging outside. 
His wife was much distressed, and tried to prevail upon him to 
come in, and he gave her a push which almost sent her to the 
floor. Two gents rose, and, with the aid of the conductor, he 
was helped in and placed in a reclining position on one of the 
seats beneath a window. He soon apparently fell asleep — and 
it was enough to break one's heart to see the attentions that 
that devoted wife lavished upon her senseless husband. She 
covered him up with her shawl, to keep the dust from making 
him uncomfortable ; if his hands fell in an unpleasant position, 
she gently replaced them, and perhaps bedewed them with a 
tear. Before arriving in New York she seemed anxious to have 
him wake, and asked one of the gents to " please wake him, as 
it was a strange city, and she did not know what to do." Two 
or three roused him a little, and then she went to him with a 
sweet smile, and says : " We have got almost to New York, and 
I am glad, you are so tired; " and he struck her in the face. She 
had the sympathy of all in the car. I know, for there was many 
a moist eye among the ladies, and many a bitter look on man- 
hood's cheek. Arrived in New York, he would not leave the 
cars till he was ordered by the conductor ; and her attentions in 
crossing the ferry were as assiduous as ever, and met with pushes 
and blows from her brutal husband. The last 1 saw of her she 
was in the station-house on the New York side, begging him to 
go and see to their baggage, and he answered her she was a fool 
— to mind her own business, &c. My travelling companion re- 
marked, " That is womanly love, and when he speaks kindly to 
her again, me will forget it all" 



PKOGRESS OF OUE PRINCIPLES. 

In the first number of the Journal, we announced one of our 
objects to be, The Prevention of Disease without the use of Medicin- 
al Means; that such was the highest aim of the good and great 



Food the Best Physic, 267 

physician, and our readers will bear us witness, that we have 
never offered them a single medicinal recipe, except in case of 
a severe attack of cholera, when no physician could be had ; 
that our uniform course has been to instruct them as to the 
best method of maintaining health through the instrumentality 
of the daily habits of life, as to eating, sleeping, dress, exercise, 
&c. Since then our mottoes have found utterance from the 
people, while the press with her thousand tongues has given 
its hearty and intelligent approbation. We feel quite sure, that 
no medical journal ever published in this country has met with 
a warmer welcome wherever it has found its way, while our 
patrons, in renewing their subscriptions, are almost extravagant 
in their commendations. When our first number was issued 
without a subscriber, we did not even aim to the high appro- 
bation which the Journal has already secured. Our present 
wish and aim is, that no word, uttered through our pages, shall 
forfeit that valued approbation. 

May we ask here, that each subscriber feel sufficient interest 
in extending to their most loved friends the pleasure and profit 
which they themselves have so often derived from the pages of 
the Journal, as to send other names besides their own, when 
they renew their subscriptions for the coming year, thus mak- 
ing themselves co-laborers with us in a work which is at once 
philosophical and humane, and whose progress is evidenced by 
the fact that the Treasurer of the Massachusetts Medical Society 
announced, at the last meeting, that he had received the sum of 
one hundred dollars from a member of the Society, for a prize 
for 1857, on conditions similar to those of 1856 — on the follow- 
ing theme : — " We would regard every approach towards the 
rational and successful prevention and management of disease, 
without the necessity of drugs, to be an advance in favor of 
humanity and scientific medicine." 



FOOD THE BEST PHYSIC. 

An inseparable attendance on good health, is the regular 
daily action of the bowels ; more than this, speedily induces 
debility ; less, causes inaction, dulness, headaches, fevers, and 
death. 



268 HalVs Journal of Health. 

There is perhaps no one living whose bowels are not made 
free or costive by particular articles of food ; the same article 
affects different persons variously. Each man must therefore 
observe for himself what articles constipate, and what loosen 
and act accordingly ; a world of suffering and multitudes of 
lives would be saved every year by a proper attention to this 
simple suggestion, but not one man or woman in a thousand 
will give it that attention, hence the great mass of humanity 
perishes before its prime. 

There are some articles of food which have various effects 
according to the parts used. The May Apple, or " Mandrake," 
is a nutritious fruit ; its root is cathartic, its leaves a poison. 
The common house grape is a luscious product : the pulp is a 
delicious food, and in health should be the only part swal- 
lowed ; the seeds loosen the bowels, while the skin constipates 
them. Two or three pounds of freshly picked, ripe grapes, 
may be eaten daily by a person in good health. The best time 
for eating them is immediately after breakfast and dinner. 

The only safe, as well as the most rational practice of physic, 
is to make our food subserve medical uses. Knowing this, a 
doctor no more takes his own pills than an attorney goes to law, 
or a divine practises his own preaching 



HEREDITARY DISEASE. 

There is, strictly speaking, no such thing. Children are not 
born diseased, however (some specific maladies excepted) much 
one or both parents are, but they are simply born with a pre- 
disposition to such parental malady. They are born with the 
material, with the powder, but actual disease will no more 
occur unless exciting causes are applied, than powder would 
detonate without the aid of fire. The observant reader has 
often felt surprised at seeing robust, hearty children, of parents 
who were seemingly at not a great remove from the grave ; 
and if rational care were taken of such children, they would 
live to become healthy men and women. The practical lesson 
should be, a hopeful diligence in the rearing of children of 
diseased parentage. The difference between the children of 
healthy and diseased parents amounts to this : as to the latter, 



True Courage. 269 

the powder is drier, they have less capability of resisting the 
causes of disease, the consequence is, a greater necessity for 
carefulness ; this necessity is often felt, and practically attended 
to ; the result is, that such persons are found living, scores of 
years after they have mouldered in the grave, who, in priding 
themselves on having constitutions which nothing could hurt, 
could not be made to feel the need of carefulness, and, conse- 
quently, perished long before their prime. 

We have an instructive and royal illustration in point, in the 
persons of Queen Yictoria and her children. Intermarriage 
with blood relations for ages has deeply impregnated the 
Guelph family with scrofula. The earlier years of the British 
Queen were spent in feebleness and disease, and yet she is now 
the apparently healthy mother of a large family of robust, 
healthy children, which is at once creditable to herself, and to 
the medical skill which dictates the hygiene of her household. 
The daily routine of these children is — to rise early, breakfast 
at eight, and dine at two. First hour after breakfast the clas- 
sics ; next, the modern ; grammatical instruction being also 
carefully given ; next, military exercises for the boys ; then 
music and dancing, then the riding-school : music and drawing 
for the girls ; then the carpenter's shop, and, occasionally, the 
laboratory ; then shooting, and working in the royal gardens ; 
then supper, then prayers, and then to bed. 

Eesult — high bodily health, in spite of ages of " Hereditary 
Tendencies /" 



True Coinage— Is not so much marching up to the can- 
non's mouth in the hurry of battle, or mounting the scaffold for 
a principle, or enduring the surgeon's knife, as in living un- 
known and poor in a great city, striving hard, day by day, for 
daily bread, yet striving hopefully, resolutely, uncomplaining- 
ly and rightfully. Many a young heart from the country of poor 
hut pious parents, comes every year to New York, and thus labors 
in hope of keeping dear ones at home, until life itself is worked 
out, and uncheered of any kindly world, unsustained by any 
helping hand,. unaided by any pure philanthropist, unsought 
by any man of God whose mission is to seek out and feed my 
lambs, he goes down to the grave exclaiming, " Thou, God, only 
hast been my helper.' 1 



270 Rail's Journal of Health. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS, PERIODICALS, &C. 

The Scalpel for October is sold. 50 pp. 8vo, of practical truth, for 25 cents. There 
is too much sound, searching philosophy in the Scalpel to make it pay a dividend 
to its industrious Editor directly. People don't patronize publications largely, which 
impart to them substantial and profitable information. Fond papas and weak mo- 
thers, which by the way are ninety-nine per cent, of the whole lump, have not the 
intelligence, which busies itself in rearing healthful sons and daughters ; the father 
looks to a pecuniary match, while the mother is monomanical oh the subject of 
" set ;" her idea of mundane success and felicity, is to have her child marry up- 
wards, into a " set " above her own. Both, father and mother, would heartily agree, 
for once at least, in the marriage, of their child to a leper, moral and physical, pro- 
vided a higher " set" and a fortune were thrown in. " Who shall I marry ?" said a 
clever widower to us yesterday, " I have been looking out for three years." Mar- 
ry the first healthy, tidy, industrious woman you come across ; don't marry a poor, 
pale, sickly creature, if she is worth a million, and high as the sky as to position. 

The 27th Article is well worthy of universal perusal, — " The Cultivation of 
Domestic and Social Habits as a Means of preventing Disease." 



The Specialist, No. 2, for October, is received ; a medical monthly of 16 p. 4to, dou- 
ble columns, and of inviting mechanical execution. Published by Sherman <fc Co., No. 1 
Vesey 6t., New York, for one dollar a year. It is "A Journal for Diseases of the 
Chest." We have not seen No. 1 yet, Oct. 25th, and therefore do not speak of the 
nature and character of the work, until we have seen what will be the spirit and 
tone of subsequent numbers. It requires some months for a magazine editor to get 
into harness. 



Childs & Peterson, 124 Arch si, Philadelphia, have in press The Year Book of 
Agriculture, being an Annual of Agricultural progress and discovery for 1855, for- 
warded, pre-paid, per mail, for $1 50, containing as it will a great number of engrav- 
ings, statistical information on all subjects directly pertaining to Agriculture. Every 
intelligent farmer should possess himself of a copy. 

IH^pr We will furnish one copy and the Journal of Health for one year for Two 
Dollars ; postage fifteen cents. 

Bodenhamer on Piles, Fistulas, <fec. published by J. S. Redfield, 34 Beekman st., 
New York ; 268 pp. 8vo, with fine engravings, $2. A scientific book, by an edu- 
cated physician, who writes from the personal observation and experience of twen- 
ty-five years on a single class of diseases. In skill and success, Dr. B. has no 
superior living. In saying this we say much, but no more than we believe to bo 
due. The object of the book is threefold : 

To detail the symptoms of the diseases; 

To give instruction as to their prevention ; 

To give information where they may be treated. 

We advise those who suffer with these ailments to purchase the book, and then 
decide for themselves, whether they will apply to the author or not. 

5£jf~ This book and the Journal for one year will be furnished for Two Dollars*, 
postage 25 cents. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEMJH. 

OUE LEGITIMATE SCOPE IS ALMOST BOUNDLESS: FOR "WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABLE 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS, PROMOTES HEALTH; AND WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. II.] DECEMBER, 1855. [NO. XII. 



THE BREAD WE EAT. 

If anybody can visit Mr. Pease's Five Points Mission at 11 A.M. 
any Sunday, and remain until some hundred little orphan chil- 
dren of all sizes and colors gather around a long table, and each 
with a bowl and spoon takes the broth or pudding which chari- 
ty has provided, and without which many of these helpless 
creatures would have gone without a dinner or a supper, and 
some perhaps, yes certainly, would have done worse, if any- 
body can witness such a sight, or can read the history of dying 
little Tommy, as recorded in the Five Points Monthly for May, 
and not feel that wonderful chill of emotion which precedes a 
tear, it is more than we can do. If, under such influences, any 
one can help wishing he was as rich as Astor or Longworth, 
that he might give it all away to happify the outcast and friend- 
less children of poverty and crime of all lands, such an one must 
be made of sterner stuff than we are. But, reader, it is not by 
the largesses of the millionaire, so much as by the mite of the 
widow, that humanity is to be raised to heaven. There are but 
few millionaires, there are countless myriads who can afford to 
give but a few dollars, and in this great New York, there are 
scores of thousands who can afford to give only cents. 

This article is written to present a plan by which the receipts 
of " the Mission " may be doubled by the moneyless wives 
and daughters of New York City, without asking their hus- 
bands or fathers for a single penny, without begging it from 
anybody, but by earning it themselves creditably and inde- 
pendently, then comes back to us "into the bargain " that sweet- 
ness and that force, which is involved in every kind act which 
costs us something. What good can ever come to that wife or 



272 HaTUs Journal of Health. 

daughter's heart who takes the dollar from the husband's or 
father's hand, and passes it in the poor-box ! This automatic 
charity is not worth a pinch of dust ; for a pinch of dust even, 
would manure a flower-seed, to spring up and bless with its 
freshness and its beauty a hundred admiring eyes, and yet have 
all that freshness and beauty undiminished still, to happify just 
as many more ; but down into the heart of a tool of charity, 
there sinks not one fructifying atom, no soul-blessing aroma. 

But let us descend to "Bread," for we generally come back 
to the text, if we do not " stick " to it. Let every wife and 
daughter in New York go to Stringer k Townsend's, 222 Broad- 
way, or No. 1 Yesey Street, under the Astor House, and pur- 
chase Hall's " Journal of Health for June" for ten cents, and 
besides learning the value of money as a medicine — How to leave 
church — How to be eloquent — How to use fruits — How to avoid 
sickness in summer, and other useful things, they will learn at 
page 148, how to bake a better, more nutritious and more 
healthful, because purer bread, than any New York baker ever 
served to his customers. Practice a little on this, meanwhile 
make a note of how long it requires to spend the price of a 
barrel of flour at the baker's, say thirteen dollars fifty cents, that 
being the cost of the last u Extra Genesee " furnished us by 
Messrs. Hecker of Cherry Street, but that " Genesee " ever 
saw said flour, no one for a moment imagines, or that " Ge- 
nesee" ever grew the wheat out of which it was made, is one of 
the u fictions " of trade, in the opinion of the Gnostics. But for 
all that, these gentlemen do furnish us the whitest and best 
flour in the market, and as the most certain way of obtaining 
the best manufactured article of bread is to have the best ma- 
terial, we advise the purchase from these gentlemen, or some 
other of the best and most reliable flour dealers. 

Now throw together the following Ltems : you pay your baker 
ten dollars a month, a hundred and twenty dollars a year, and 
as flour is falling, call a barrel twelve dollars. 

A baker averages two hundred and sixty-five pounds of 
bread from each barrel of flour, and you pay for it at the rate 
of near seven cents a pound, for a New York loaf costs 6i cents, 
and I have not lately seen one that weighed a good pound ; 
then, suppose you get your flour at twelve dollars a barrel, 
that same barrel would make you two hundred and sixty- 



The Bread We Eat. 273 

five pounds of bread, or would yield you eighteen dollars and 
fifty-five cents worth, at bakers' prices, giving you a clear saving 
of six dollars fifty-five cents on each barrel ; and this, at the 
rate of a barrel of flour a month, would be a saving of over 
seventy-eight dollars a year, to be paid to prevent helpless and 
forsaken children from falling into starvation and crime, instead 
of being paid to bakers, guiltless of ever having sold a single 
loaf of pure bread, made from flour A. No. 1. 

There is scarcely a family in New York which does not con- 
sume two barrels of flour a year, averaging ten dollars a barrel, 
for persons of moderate means do not usually purchase the best 
brands ; and even at this figure of two barrels a year, there would 
be a saving of over seventeen dollars a year, which a family 
of very moderate means could thus bestow in charity annually, 
and not be a dollar the poorer ; for the time spent in baking 
this bread, would require exercise, which would result in health 
and strength and ability to perform an amount of labor in other 
departments of the family, largely remunerative, above what it 
would otherwise be. 

The only actual loss would be the extra fuel ; but where a 
fire has to be made in the kitchen daily, anyhow, the "little 
more " necessary to bake bread, would be trifling, and with a 
proper supervision over the cook, would be almost nothing. 

A considerable per centage of some bakers' bread is made out 
of potatoes, costing at most a cent a pound, and sold in the 
shape of bread, at six cents a loaf, yields an advance of three 
hundred per cent. The alum used to whiten the bread is sold 
at an equal advance. 

There is a phrase at the "Corn Exchange" of some meaning 
to wit, Sour Flour, of which bakers are liberal purchasers. This 
includes flour which has become musty, the sunken in boats 
and ships and soaked for days, weeks, or months in bilge water, 
this is mixed with good or fair flour, never the prime article, 
and delivered to us in the shape of pound loaves, weighing 
just thirteen ounces, that being the weight of the loaves at the 
bakers nearest to us at the present writing. This " Sour Flour" 
costs from one to four cents a pound, the alum and the potatoes 
in it about the same, making an average of three cents, and is 
sold at six and a quarter cents for thirteen-ounce loaves. Ke- 
membering that each barrel yields a baker two hundred and 



274 . HalVs Journal of Health. 

sixty-five full pounds of bread, we arrive at the important fact, 
that the bakers' bread of New York costs its consumers more 
than one hundred per cent, above its actual worth : that multi- 
tudes in this city, for bread made out of potatoes, alum, salera- 
tus and sour flour, averaging three cents a pound, pay the sum 
of six and a quarter cents a loaf, which in any case does not 
contain over fourteen ounces of actual flour, costing the baker 
just two and a half cents. 

It would be wrong to charge that all New York bakers prac- 
tice these frauds to such extent, but that any baker here, sells 
for six and a quarter cents, a loaf of bread which contains six- 
teen ounces of pure flour of A. No. one quality, or ten ounces 
either, is one of those " fictions of trade" which are so largely 
dealt in now-a-days. 

Since writing the above, a correspondent of the Daily Times 
comes to our aid in the following statement : 

" For years I, like most citizens, had depended upon bakers 
for bread, leaving them to give as large or small a loaf as they 
pleased for a sixpence, and consuming about eight loaves per 
day. My baker's bill used to reach $16 for bread, $5 for cake, 
and $1 for flour for making pies per month, being $22 for pro- 
visions made of flour. Hence I determined to try an experi- 
ment. I ordered a barrel of flour, which I got for $10, and 
requested my wife to keep a correct account of the expense of 
preparing and baking said barrel of flour into bread, cake and 
pies, for the supply of my family. She did so, and the results 
were as follows : One barrel of flour, $10 ; yeast, 25 cents ; 
sugar and eggs for cake, $1 38 ; paid for baking, $2 62 — 
making $14 25, for what it cost when brought from the baker's, 
$22 ; thus making a difference in my favor of $7 75 between 
buying the flour and manufacturing it to suit us, ourselves, and 
depending upon bakers. The barrel of flour lasted just one 
month for bread, cakes and pies." 

If this practical gentleman were to say to his wife, " Let 
us take this saving of seven dollars and three-quarters a month, 
or ninety- three dollars a year, and appropriate it to the ob- 
jects of the ' Five Points Mission? " can any one doubt but 
that the world would be left the better for their having lived 
in it, or that they themselves would sink more sweetly into the 
sleep which knows no waking ? 



The Bread We Eat 275 

From an accurate calculation, it can be shown that when 
flour sells at six dollars a barrel, the baker can sell his bread 
at three cents a pound and make a clear profit of fifty per 
cent. ; if he pays twelve dollars a barrel, he can sell one pound 
loaves at six cents, and clear fifty per cent. 

In view of these statements, we may well inquire : 

Ought we to patronize the fraudulent ? Would we not do 
humanity a service by practising the economies suggested in 
this article ? 

Failing to do so, is a sin of omission, less than one of com- 
mission ? 

Would any man in Fifth Avenue, or Fourteenth Street, or 
Union Square, look less admiringly on a daughter, or less lov- 
ingly on a wife, whom he should detect in economies like these, 
and for the objects named. 

Is any young woman living, less fit for marriage, from know- 
ing how to bake a loaf of bread ? Will she be less loved or 
valued, ten years after marriage, by the man who is to be her 
husband ? 

Would this schooling of her industry, of her calculation, 
of her principle, of her charities, make her any the less a wo- 
man of character, of influence and of power, when she becomes 
the mistress of her own mansion ? 

These things should be pondered well. The homeless orphan 
has a strong claim on the big heart of humanity. Whether its 
parentage was that of improvidence, of misfortune or of crime, 
it stands before us as " The Friendless Innocent" and to save it 
from starvation now, and crime hereafter, and to put it in the 
way of being useful and happy in mature life, by the work of our 
own hands, by that which costs us either labor or self-denial, is 
such a mission as any noble heart might well be proud of; it 
is a mission to " the Greek at the door ;" and in a more enno- 
bling one, the wives and daughters of New York cannot engage. 
Will you do it, my countrywomen ? If not, Humanity asks 
to know the reason why. Let it be such an one as you will 
not be ashamed to avow at the judgment of the great day. 

But as to the " Qui Bono" what's the use of sending our 
wives and daughters to the kitchen to bake bread, instead of 
paying the baker for it, and then to give the "savings" all away 
to poor people's children ? or what is worse, to the children of 



276 HaWs Journal of Health. 

" nobody's" and vagrants and criminals ? The noblest and 
most convincing answer we can give, is contained in an adver- 
tisement in the New Yoke: Herald for Sept. 9th, 1855, which 
reads as follows : 

" Five Points Mission. — Eev. Mr. Yan Meter, agent of the La- 
dies' Mission at the Five Points, who recently took twenty-eight 
destitute children to Illinois, where he has placed each in a good 
home, is now in this city for the purpose of obtaining addi- 
tional children, for whom excellent homes have been secured. 
Mr. Y. M. will return to the West in a few days. A public 
meeting will be held this evening at half past 7, at which time 
Mr. Van Meter will present a number of interesting facts in 
relation to the West, the children he has taken there, and the 
homes provided for them." 

Well done, Mr. Van Meter; May God's help go with you, 
and the orphan's blessing attend you to life's latest hour. 

Or, in case some families in good circumstances should prefer 
to give a different direction to this savings fund, such may em- 
balm its name in sweet memoriesfor all time, by taking up and 
caring for one of the two hundred orphan-stricken little ones 
whom the yellow fever at Norfolk has deprived of father and 
mother and home and kindred, and who, unless some kind 
heart takes them up, must still remain lost, lonely, and for- 
saken ! 



FINGER NAILS 

Grow out about three times a year ; they should be trimmed 
with scissors once a week, not so close as to leave no room for 
the dirt to gather, for then they do not protect the ends of the 
fingers, as was designed by nature ; besides, if trimmed too close 
at the corners, there is danger of their growing into the flesh, 
causing inconvenience, and sometimes great pain. 

The collections under the ends of the nails should not be 
removed by anything harder than a brush or a soft piece of 
wood ; nor should the nails be scraped with a penknife or other 
metallic substance, as it destroys the delicacy of their structure, 
and will at length give them an unnatural thickness. We are 
not favorably impressed as to the cleanliness of a person who 



Cold Feet, 277 

keeps his nails trimmed to the quick, as it is often done to pre- 
vent dirt gathering there; whereas, if a margin were allowed, 
it would be an index to the cleanliness of the hands, from which 
the collections under the finger nails are made. Leave a mar- 
gin, then, and the moment you observe that these collections 
need removal, you may know that the hands need washing, 
when they and the nails are both cleaned together. 

Most persons are familiar with those troublesome bits of skin 
which loosen at the root of the finger nails ; it is caused by the 
skin adhering to the nail, which, growing outward, drags the 
skin along with it, stretching it until one end gives way. To 
prevent this, the skin should be loosened from the nail once a 
week, not with a knife or scissors, but with something blunt, 
such as the end of an ivory paper cutter ; this is best done 
after soaking the fingers in warm water, then pushing the 
skin back gently and slowly; the white specks on the nails 
are made by scraping the nail with a knife at the point where 
it emerges from the skin. 

Biting off the finger nails is an uncleanly practice, for thus 
the unsightly collections at the ends are kept eaten clean ! ! 
Children may be broken of such a filthy habit by causing them 
to dip the ends of their fingers several times a day in worm- 
wood bitters, without letting them know the object; if this is 
not sufficient, cause them to wear caps on each finger until the 
practice is discontinued. 



COLD FEET 



Are the avenues to death of multitudes every year : it is a 
sign of imperfect circulation, of want of vigor of constitution, 
No one can be well, whose feet are habitually cold. When the 
blood is equally distributed to every part of the body, there is 
general good health. If there be less blood at any one point 
than is natural, there is coldness; and not only so, there must 
be more than is natural at some other part of the system, and 
there is fever, that is, unnatural heat or oppression. In the case 
of cold feet, the amount of blood wanting there, collects at some 
other part of the body which happens to be the weakest, to be 
the least able to throw up a barricade against the in-rushing 



278 HaWs Journal of Health. 

enemy. Hence, when the lungs are weakest, the extra blood 
gathers there in the shape of a common cold, or spitting blood. 
Clergymen, other public speakers, and singers, by improper 
exposures often render the throat the weakest part; to such, cold 
feet gives hoarseness or a raw burning feeling, most felt at the 
little hollow at the bottom of the neck. To others, again, whose 
bowels are weak through over-eating, or drinking spirituous 
liquors, cold feet give various degrees of derangement, from 
common looseness up to diarrhoeas or dysentery ; and so we 
might go through the whole body, but for the present, this is 
sufficient for illustration. 

If you are well, let yourself alone. This is our favorite motto. 
But to those whose feet are inclined to be cold we suggest, 

As soon as you get up in the morning put both feet at once 
in a basin of cold water, so as to come half way to the ankles ; 
keep them in half a minute in winter, a minute or two in sum- 
mer, rubbing them both vigorously, wipe dry, and hold to the 
fire, if convenient, in cold weather, until every part of the foot 
feels as dry as your hand, then put on your socks or stockings. 

On going to bed at night, draw off your stockings and hold the 
feet to the fire for ten or fifteen minutes until perfectly dry, and 
get right into bed. This is a most pleasant operation, and fully 
repays for the trouble of it. No one can sleep well or refresh- 
ingly with cold feet. All Indians and hunters sleep with their 
feet to the fire. 

Never step from your bed with the naked feet on an uncar- 
peted floor. I have known it to be the exciting cause of months 
of illness. 

Wear woollen, cotton or silk stockings, whichever keeps your 
feet most comfortable ; do not let the experience of another be 
your guide, for different persons require different articles ; what 
is good for a person whose feet are naturally damp, cannot be 
good for one whose feet are always dry. The donkey who had 
his bag of salt lightened by swimming a river, advised his com- 
panion who was loaded down with a sack of wool to do the 
same, and having no more sense than a man or woman, he 
plunged in, and in a moment the wool absorbed the water, in- 
creased the burden many fold, and bore him to the bottom. 



Sleep. 279 

BEQUESTS TO CHILDREN. 

Some one has said, give your children a fortune without 
education, and at least one half the number will go to ruin. 
This is but part of a great truth. Give 3^ our children a for- 
tune and an education, without instilling those religious 
principles which come from the warm heart and loving lips of 
a pious mother, and those children will, in the large majority 
of cases, grow up to an aimless life, to early ruin here, and per- 
dition hereafter. It is too much the fashion now-a-days to dei- 
fy " Education," to make it the panacea for all human ills; but 
without the accompaniment of sterling religious principle, it 
is but a ship in a storm, without a rudder on a rock-bound 
coast, an engine of death in giant and reckless hands. 

Sudden Death. — The chances of escaping sudden death 
are nearly two to one in favor of women. Death always begins 
at the head, the heart or the the lungs ; therefore, 

1. Keep the head cool by taking the world easy. 

2. Keep the lungs breathing deeply and fully about seven- 
teen times a minute, by cultivating alacrity in all the bodily 
movements. 

3. Keep the heart beating about sixty-eight times a minute, 
that is, let the pulse beat four times while the lungs breathe 
once, by eating temperately, sleeping fully and soundly, exer- 
cising moderately, and avoiding all temporary excitants, men- 
tal or liquid. 



SLEEP. 

There is no fact more clearly established in the physiology 
of man than this, that the brain expends its energies and itself 
during the hours of wakefulness, and that these are recuperated 
during sleep ; if the recuperation does not equal the expendi- 
ture, the brain withers — this is insanity. Thus it is, that in 
early English history, persons who were condemned to death 
by being prevented from sleeping, always died raving maniacs ; 
thus it is also, that those who are starved to death become in- 
sane ; the brain is not nourished, and they cannot sleep. The 
practical inferences are three : 



280 HalVs Journal of Health. 

1st. Those who think most, who do most brain work, require 
most sleep. 

2d. That time " saved" from necessary sleep, is infallibly 
destructive to mind, body and estate. 

3d. Give yourself, your children, your servants, give all who 
are under you, the fullest amount of sleep they will take, by 
compelling them to go to bed at some regular, early hour, and 
to rise in the morning the moment they awake of themselves ; 
and within a fortnight nature, with almost the regularity of the 
rising sun, will unloose the bonds of sleep, the moment enough 
repose has been secured for the wants of the system. This is 
the only safe and sufficient rule ; and as to the question how 
much sleep any one requires, each must be a rule for himself; 
great Nature will never fail to write it out to the observer, under 
the regulations just given. 



IMPKUDENCE VERSUS CLIMATE. 

"0 Liberty, how many crimes are perpetrated in thy name v* 
exclaimed the elegant Madame Poland, as she bared her neck 
to the guillotine of revolutionary France. " O climate, how 
many deaths are charged to thy account !" may be a medical 
echo. Our personal experience has convinced us, that with a 
rational care a man may live healthfully anywhere. That men 
get sick and die in latitudes not their own, is the result of 
downright ignorance or inexcusable presumption. That some 
persons will die from change of climate is not denied, but it is 
the exception, not the rule. The great general fact is capable 
of the most conclusive proof, that loss of life is not the necessary 
attendent of any change of latitude. With the light which medical 
observation and research have thrown out, companies of men, 
women, and children may live in healthfulness in any climate 
to which they may emigrate. Persons interested, will find 
some most instructive and conclusive facts on this subject, 
in the August No. of the Maryland Colonization Journal, from 
the pen of its Editor, James Hall, M.D., who has the import- 
ant advantage of writing from his own personal observation 
and experience. 



Ventilation. — How to Argue. 281 

VENTILATION. 

Don't let the reader be astounded out of his propriety and 
declare us insane, because we tell him, it is more important to 
sleep with a window up in mid winter, than in summer-time. 
How few people have the gift of thinking ! how many have the 
gift of gab, in the inverse ratio ! The less a man thinks, the 
more he can talk ; that is the very reason why our household 
divinities can discourse indefinitely, ad infinitum, and the other 
side of it. Whoever heard of a man taking cold who slept in 
all out doors t Well, if sleeping in all out doors, does not give 
a man a cold, how can sleeping in a part of all out doors give 
him a cold ? Is not that conclusive ? Surely none of the un- 
thinking multitude could ask for a more convincing argument 
than this. But as only the thinking few take a journal like 
this, we will give a mere hint of an argument, with the carry- 
ing out of which, they may amuse themselves in a leisure hour. 
Pure carbonic acid gas is deadly, it kills in five minutes. In 
sleeping we breathe out this gas, and a close room confines it; 
warmth makes it rise to the ceiling, cold condenses and keeps it 
near the floor. Verb. sat. 



HOW TO AEGUE. 



It is prima facie evidence of a low intelligence or a low na- 
ture, or both, in the man who resorts to personalities in contro- 
versy ; and if I retaliate in kind, I but sink myself to his level, 
to rise from it no more. 

Conscious power is calm. An admirable illustration of this 
was given by the late Mr. Henderson, a Scotchman, and an emi- 
nent Oxford scholar. A collegian, proud of his logical abili- 
ties, was anxious to meet Mr. Henderson, but shortly losing 
his self-possession, he dashed a glass of wine in the Scotch- 
man's face. The latter, coolly wiping it away, replied: "/Sir, 
this is a digression, now for the argument! IV 

There is perhaps the shadow of an apology for letting drop 
an epithet or a sarcasm in an oral dispute, but when persons 
use these, with all the advantage of writing out a controversy, 
when they become deliberately personal, in the quiet of their 
own library, we instinctively pity them, as inheriting a rude na- 
ture, which time and opportunity are powerless to polish. 



282 HalVs Journal of Health. 

A SAD SIGHT. 

"It is one of the saddest in nature, to see the old spiteful and 
vindictive, querulous with all." Said a sunny-faced little girl tc 
her mother one day : 

" Mother, will grandfather go to heaven when he dies ?" 

" Yes, my child, I hope he will." 

" Well, then I don't want to go there, for he is so cross." 

Surely, time should mellow the heart of the aged, should fill 
it with sympathies, making it beam with forbearance towards 
all ; and thus it is with the guileless and the good. Those who 
are not so, we should pity ; for we may be sure they have miss- 
ed the aim of life, have sown the seeds of wrong-doing in 
youth, which now, in their age, are bearing the wormwood 
and gall of the memory of ill-directed energies, of unjust pur- 
poses, of unholy ambitions, and it may be, of loving hearts, 
long ago wounded or broken by confidences falsified. Pity 
then, the malignant old man, who deals in the vile innuendo, 
drives a dagger from behind, or prostitutes a chance power, to 
feed his own hate ; to such we say, be silent, pity and forgive. 



THE EMOTIONS. 

We believe strongly in the emotions, as an element of health 
and disease. We have full frequent demonstrations of this, not 
a hundred miles away from home ; for a day or two in the 
dumps takes wifey's appetite all away, and she gets " heart sick," 
as she calls it. 

Good emotions, improve digestion, while the bad ones impair 
it ; hence many of our articles have a direct bearing on health, 
although a dozen of them may be read without naming the 
words ' health,' ' disease,' ' doses,' or { symptoms.' So, for " once 
and the last time," as the auctioneer says, we advertise our read- 
ers, that we can't be at the trouble to show what connection 
any particular subject we discuss has with health ; they must 
work out the problem themselves, under the general rule laid 
down at the top of the first page of each number. 



An Experiment Certified, 283 

AN EXPERIMENT CERTIFIED. 

The Dr. Jackson of Boston, in his dedication of Letters to a 
Young Physician, to the Dr. Warren of the same city, states 
that, half a century ago, they began an experiment which has 
now terminated. 

It is a coincidence worthy of note, that two other men 
in the mercantile profession, began a similar experiment in the 
same city. The merchants completed their experiments with 
their lives, while the two doctors still live to contemplate the 
result of their own. Both these experiments were successful ; 
not moderately successful, but splendidly so. Successful, not 
merely in the accumulation of money, but what has infinitely 
more than money's worth, in attaining high social position, and a 
character for integrity, spotless; and more still, in a deserved repu 
tation for Philanthropy, whose lustre dims the coronets of kings. 

Amos and Abbott Lawrence began life poor : they deter 
mined that the strictest integrity should pervade every business 
transaction until their dying hour, and it was so. Among the 
results are the accumulation of millions of money, the posses- 
sion of a name for mercantile integrity, worth more to them, tc 
their children, to their age and nation, than a title to a duke- 
dom ; while they did, during life, and at death, institute chari- 
ties, which will heap sweet blessings on their name and memory 
for ages yet to come. Let every merchant's clerk on this broad 
earth make that same experiment, and take encouragement from 
the assurance, founded in the very nature of things, that simi- 
lar results will accrue to him. 

The experiment of the two eminent physicians we have 
named, is equally worthy the practice of every young gentle- 
man who aspires to the honorable and responsible position of 
doctor of medicine. Away with all schools here, let them sink 
for the present, to some bottomless abyss. It was not an experi- 
ment for allopathy, (but we do take pride in saying it was 
made by allopathy !) nor for eclecticism or cold water, not for 
the herbiverous or infinitessimal schools ; it was made for the 
educated and honorable practitioners of all schools. And what 
was proven by it ? That two rival physicians may live in the 
same town for more than fifty years, and during that long pe- 
riod of almost daily intercourse not originate one disparaging 



284 HalVs Journal of Health. 

word or act, exhibit no uncourteous feeling, throw out no de- 
preciating inuendo, commit no breach of professional etiquette ; 
in short, do no deed which, if communicated, need irritate the 
one or cause a blush to mantle the cheek of the other. 

On the contrary, they were always ready to help each other 
and to promote each other's happiness. Not resembling in 
temperament, they often differed in opinion, but always agreed 
to differ; sometimes disputed, but never quarrelled. Each 
gave the other the credit due him, neither trying to push the 
other aside, and, in the front rank of their profession, both con- 
tinue on terms of intimacy and friendship to this day. 

How grandly elevating must be the retrospection of Jack- 
son and Warren ! What a perennial spring of sweet 
memories well up in their hearts, as often as they turn their 
eyes inwards and backwards on so long and honorable and 
successful a career ! and beside them, how sink they to depths 
which no plummet can reach, those poor unfortunates found 
in the village as well as in the city, not only in this but in other 
callings, who seek to elevate themselves at the expense of their 
rivals ! too often ending in mutual ruin, while, if on the other 
hand, equal pains were taken to sustain each other, the ordi- 
nary result would be similar to the one we have chronicled. 
And it is very pertinent to add here, that but for an injudicious 
change in dress, Abbott Lawrence might still be living in the 
enjoyment of his success. 



DEAW THEM UP. 



You Upper Ten, who are the aristocracy of humanity, the 
truly elevated and refined, are you sure that you are the noble 
followers of the glorious old woman, of whom it is recorded 
in immortal characters " she did WHAT SHE could" for her poorer 
kindred race? Would you really like to see every son and 
daughter of Adam lifted to a nearer level with yourselves, 
prudent, industrious, well to do ; possessed like you, of that 
conscious integrity and self-respect, which helps them to look 
upward like men, and is the strongest safeguard against acting 
downward like brutes ? If so, allow us to inquire if you are 
acting out that theoretical beneficence in your every day life. 



Draw Them Up. 285 

That old blacksmith over the way, all begrimmed with sweat 
and coal dust, you have known him well and long, you have 
paid him many a little bill for tinkering, and you have uniform- 
ly noticed that he did his work promptly and well; and you 
have noticed too his tidy wife in the small house close by, and 
that their children are always dressed cleanlily, though not richly. 
Well, do you always speak to that hard working man with 
princely, yet kindly courtesy ? If you don't, you ought to ; 
and his wife, you know her well, for she acts as his collector 
sometimes. Do you now and then go a block or two out of your 
way as you go down to Wall-street of a morning, just to speak 
to her an encouraging word, and when you pass her in the 
street among the multitude of the more elegantly dressed, do 
you give her a friendly recognition ? You cannot think how 
so little a thing — one which costs you just nothing at all — gratis 
fies her ; she will think of it pleasurably for half a week, and as 
she bends over the wash tub will scrub away with an unwonted 
alacrity, because Mr. Income recognised her in the street one 
day ; the very remembrance of such a thing increases her self- 
respect every time she thinks of it, and without being conscious 
of it, she determines she will do more to merit that recognition, 
to maintain and increase your valuation of her. And may be, 
if you were to stop once in a while and pat her little Tommy on 
the head and ask him a pleasant or encouraging question, or 
give him a shilling, not for nothing, but for running some trusty 
errand, showing him in that delicate way, that you have confi- 
dence in him, thus you will do more by that trifling thing, to 
implant in him a feeling of self respect and that elevation 
which is the necessary result of feeling that one is trusted by a 
superior, than you would do, by a tedious and long- faced homily 
upon morality a mile long; lectures, and sermons, and scolds, 
and ferrules, and birchen twigs, do not make men and women 
of worth, of our children, but the indirect, the impressive teach- 
ings, such as we have hinted at, do, and with a power too, 
which carries all before it. In ways like these, to draw up to 
us, those who are accidentally beneath us in social position, 
tells more towards elevating humanity, than the taking of a 
thousand Malakoff's, with the immense advantage, instead of 
costing whole hecatombs of butchered humanity, costs nothing 



286 Hall's Journal of Health. 

at all, but the exercise of a feeling, whose very employment hap 
pifies the giver now, and yields an income of happinesses often 
as thought of, for the remainder of life ; it is a permanent in- 
vestment, whose coupons do not cease to be paid even with the 
grave, for eternity renews and amplifies the dividend. 



"For Hall's Journal of Health. 

HEALTH— WHAT IS IT? 

BY M. GOWRAN. 

It is a treasure, the seasoner of all the blessings of life. 
Without it, what can we enjoy, what can we accomplish? If 
we possessed all the honors of the world, all the gold which has 
been extracted from the mines of California, we could not enjoy 
them only in proportion as we have health ; their value is di- 
minished if health declines. With health, other things being 
EQUAL, we can accomplish almost every thing we undertake. 
We can travel from star to star, we can dive into the depths of 
the earth, explore its dark regions, and bring up the hidden 
mysteries which it contains. 

To take such a course as will insure health to an advanced 
age, is a proof of wisdom. We were placed in the world to be 
useful ; and the longer we remain in it, the more good we shall 
accomplish, if we are endeavoring to answer the end for which 
we were created. To preserve our health, or regain it if lost, 
is to prolong or regain life. One eminent physiologist has said 
that, " health is life," hence to impair the former, is to destroy 
the latter, and all its pleasures, and we lie down in a premature 
grave. 

I have no doubt, reader, but that you are to-day, indulging 
the hope that you will live to the age of three score years and 
ten ; meanwhile, you wish to enjoy life and health. Well, if 
life is desirable — health valuable — what consummate folly it is 
to trifle with them, as tho' they were worthless things ! How 
many have let their ambition blind their judgment until their 
health is lost, perhaps never to be found? Many there are, 
who are unwilling to work only with speed ; consequently, they 
exert every muscle and nerve, until their strength is nearly 



Ourselves. 287 

exhausted, often laying the foundation of a disease which no- 
thing but death can subdue. 

" Oh but," says one, "I can't help it, I have a large family to 
care for, and I am obliged to work every day, and night too, 
sometimes." Well, work on, but remember that death will 
summons you before long, to a final reckoning, and send you 
into the future world, and you must go alone ; your family can- 
not accompany you. They must remain and struggle with an 
unfriendly world, without your aid or counsel. Health abus- 
eks, investigate the laws of health then, practice them. Let it 
be the aim of life to preserve, and improve our health and to 
BE good, then we shall have a happy existence beyond the 
tomb. 



OURSELVES. 

Our subscribers are requested to notice, that this number 
completes the volume for which they have paid. We have not 
a delinquent patron. Those who wish to take the journal for 
another year, must do two things : 

First, write us a note to that effect. 

Second, enclose one dollar in such note. 

A third thing, we merely request to be done, to wit, that each 
one who feels interest enough in this publication to renew his 
subscription, would induce some of their friends to subscribe 
with them. We know very well that no family can read our 
pages without deriving from them much valuable information, 
for which a dollar is no kind of return, and we are just as con- 
fident that such a publication is needed in every family in the 
United States; its object and the tendency of its teaching be- 
ing TO MAINTAIN HEALTH, AND TO RECOVER IT WITHOUT THE 
USE OF MEDICINAL MEANS, THAT BY PROPER ATTENTION TO THE 
HABITS OF LIFE, THIS WILL ANSWER IN MULTITUDES OF IN- 
STANCES, BUT WHEN NOT SUFFICIENT, TO APPLY PROMPTLY 
TO THE REGULARLY EDUCATED PHYSICIAN, WITH ENTIRE SUB- 
MISSION TO HIS DIRECTION. 

No man or woman of cultivated intelligence can feel other- 
wise than that the practical prevalence of such sentiments would 
largely result in the health, prosperity, and happiness of any 
community, and to such cultivated minds we look for efficient 



HalVs Journal of Health, 

co-operation in widely extending the circulation of this Journal. 
To make it remunerative directly, pecuniarily, to an extent 
which would give us a liberal compensation for our personal 
labor in conducting it, would require that each present sub- 
scriber should send in a dozen names, with as many dollars, be- 
sides his own. 

If we have any other request to make, it is this, that each 
present subscriber, order the Journal for his minister; it is such 
a publication as every clergyman ought to read, for it gives to 
them every month available, appropriate, practical knowledge, 
which they cannot get anywhere else. We know that very 
many clergymen would take it, if they could feel their way 
clear to appropriate a dollar in that direction, but as a very 
general rule, they are so poorly paid, and it is a disgrace to the 
age that such should be the case, that even a dollar's expendi- 
ture must be preceded by the mature inquiry, is it an indispens- 
able necessity f We have not one clerical subscriber in all New 
York city, and a special canvasser among them, reported, that a 
not unfrequent answer was, "I do not feel able to spare a dollar 
for that purpose." If that be the case in a community where 
the clergy are so well cared for as in New York city, how much 
greater are the straits of the country clergy, just as able, just as 
good, whose yearly compensation does not average five hundred 
dollars, all told, out of which a whole family is to be supported. 
No wonder we see so many of the best spirits among them dying 
before their time, or prematurely giving out under the weight 
of that distressing inquiry as they look upon their wives and 
little ones, hundreds of times, in a year, " How shall we get along 
any farther V This is not a fiction, it is a fact of which we are 
personally cognisant, having from previous as well as present 
associations and circumstances, a more enlarged opportunity of 
knowing these things, than perhaps, any one individual in the 
United States. 

For want of knowledge, many a clergyman has slidden into 
ill-health and passed prematurely away, who else might have 
lived to widely useful purposes, and many more are invalided, 
who ought to have preached a quarter of a century longer. The 
main, the first object of this journal, next to my own pecuniary 
benefit, was to meet these very difficulties, believing, as I do, 
that the best care we can take of the ministry, pecuniarily, and 



Winter Shoes. 289 

otherwise, is not a whit more than they are entitled to, by reason 
of the fact, that it is by their teachings and influence that the 
present age is what it is, in all that is noble, elevated, refined, 
and that without the influence of the Bible principles, which 
they spend their lives in inculcating, there would not be a gov- 
ernment on earth that was not an anarchy, and no subjects that 
were not Atheistic in principle ; and in practice, all that was 
selfish and savage. 

These things being so, the robust health of the clergy is essen- 
tial to their widest success, hence the appropriateness of our 
appeal to each individual subscriber, to place a Journal like this 
in the hands of some one clergyman, who might learn thereby 
how to maintain that health which is essential to his being a 
fully efficient laborer in his Master's vineyard. 



WINTER SHOES. 



Like the gnarled oak that has withstood the storms and 
thunderbolts of centuries, man himself begins to die at the ex- 
tremities. Keep the feet dry and warm, and we may snap our 
fingers in joyous triumph at disease and the doctors. 

Put on two pair of thick woollen stockings, but keep this to 
yourself, go to some honest son of Saint Crispin and have your 
measure taken for a stout pair of winter boots or shoes ; shoes 
are better for ordinary, every -day use, as they allow the ready 
escape of toe-odors, while they strengthen the ankles by accus- 
toming them to depend on themselves. A very slight accident 
is sufficient to cause a sprained ankle to an habitual boot wear- 
er. Besides, a shoe compresses less, and hence admits of a 
more vigorous circulation of the blood. But wear boots when 
you ride or travel. Give direction, also, to have no cork or 
Indian rubber about the shoes, but to place between the layers 
of the soles, from out to out, a piece of stout hemp or tow 
linen which has been dipped in melted pitch. This is abso- 
lutely impervious to water — does not absorb a particle — while 
we know that cork does, and after a while becomes " soggy" 
and damp for weeks. When you put them on for the first 
time, with your ordinary socks, they will feel as " easy as an 
old shoe" and you may stand on damp places for hours with im- 
punity. 



290 Hairs Journal of Health. 

WEAEING FLANNEL. 

Put it on at once. Winter or summer, nothing better can 
be worn next the skin than a loose, red, woollen flannel shirt ; 
H loose,' ' for it has room to move on the skin, thus causing a 
titilation which draws the blood to the surface and keeps it 
there ; and when that is the case no one can take a cold ; " red" 
for white flannel fulls up, mats together, and becomes tight, 
stiff, heavy and impervious, " woollen," the product of a sheep, 
and not of a gentleman of color, not of cotton wool, because 
that merely absorbs the moisture from the surface, while wool- 
len flannel conveys it from the skin and deposites it in drops 
on the outside of the shirt, from which the ordinary cotton 
shirt absorbs it, and by its nearer exposure to the exterior air, 
it is soon dried without injury to the body. Having these 
properties, red woollen flannel is worn by sailors even in the 
mid summer of the hottest countries. Wear a thinner material 
in summer. 



; REVIEWS, NOTICES, ftC. 

Medical Pronouncing Lexicon, by Prof. C. H. Cleaveland, M. D., of Cincinnati, 
302 pp. 16 mo. A publication like this is essential to every medical student, 
and should be made a pocket companion for hourly reference, at least until 
graduation. The classical scholar will remember that Virgil suffered greatly in 
his reputation from the mispronunciation of a single word ; and to pronounce a 
medical term incorrectly now, instantly lowers the character for scholarship in 
the estimation of an intelligent hearer, and it will require long subsequent ac- 
quaintance for replacement. Prof. C. has discharged his duty ably by means of 
the American Phonetic Alphabet. But the correctness and nicety of pronuncia- 
tion are attained by the addition of some forty new characters which we con- 
sider an insuperable objection. The requirements of the age are to simplify. 
We need fewer letters in the alphabet than we already have, instead of twenty 
more capitals, and as many more of their representative smalls. Still we must 
confess, that for accent and pronunciation it is more concise, more compact, than 
the explanations for the same purpose at the bottom of the pages of ordinary 
dictionaries, and for correctness of definition is invaluable. 



LittelVs Living Age, weekly, 62 pp. 8 vo., double column, at $6 a year. Among 
other valuable articles in No. 600 are, The First Edinburgh Keviewers ; Peter 
the Great in England ; Half a Life Time Ago ; Women in Turkey ; England's 
Danger and Discredit, <fec. <fec. 



Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, for December, has several sterling arti- 
cles on medical literature. 



HALL'S FIRESIDE MONTHLY. 

One Dollar and Fifty Cents a Year. Single numbers, Fifteen 

Cents. 
Two dollars pay for Sixteen numbers, thirty-two pages of 
reading matter, besides cover, 8vo. Address, 

"Hall's Fireside Monthly, New York," ' 

Published by H. B. Price, 

No. 3 Everett House. 

This publication is also edited by Dr. W. W. Hall, 42 Irving Place, New 
York : but. instead of being exclusively written for by him, as is the case 
with the Journal of Health, it is filled mainly with original articles from 
such men of eminence in Science, Literature, and Art, as can be induced from 
time to time to contribute to its columns. It contains one-fourth more pages 
than the Journal or Health — hence the difference in price. It is stereo- 
typed, and is bound uniformly with the volumes of the Journal, giving, 
however, near four hundred pages, 8vo., a year, instead of three hundred. 

With a view to extend the circulation of the Journal of Health and 
the Fireside Monthly, and in a manner to benefit largely that class of 
persons whose labors contribute more largely than any others to elevate 
and happify and save this great and growing Union of States, to wit, the 
ministers of our holy religion, extraordinary inducements will be presented 
by the publisher, on application by letter, by which a few hours' personal 
effort on the part of some energetic young man, or intelligent lady, or other 
influential member of a society, parish, or congregation, may secure for their 
minister an addition to his library of twenty or thirty dollars' worth of books, 
without the expenditure of a single dime, by simply going round any sunny 
day and obtaining a few subscriptions. The books selected should be such as 
Allibone's Dictionary of Authors, two vols., a thousand pages each, two 
columns on each page, and a hundred lines to each column, giving a brief 
sketch of all l: English and American Authors of note," from the earliest 
accounts to the present, with a list of their publications, and of all the 
authors who have written on any given subject — being to literature, what a 
dictionary is to the language, or a concordance to the Bible, compiled by S. 
Austin Allibone, a student, a. scholar, and a Christian gentleman • the first 
vol. issued 1859. the second in 1860, five dollars each, containing in all 
about thirty thousand biographies and literary notices. Or, : ' Sprague's Annals 
of the American Pulpit/' five vols., for twelve dollars and fifty cents. Or, 
the eight vols, by Dr. Hall, at nine dollars and a quarter, to wit : 

Five vols, of " Journal of Health," bound, $1.25 each. . . $6 25 

'• Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases," ninth edition, 1859 1 00 

" Consumption," second edition, 1859 1 00 

u Health and Disease," second edition, 1859 1 00 

All published by H. B. Price, No. 3 Everett House, New York. Or, 



The Land and the Book : or. Biblical Illustrations, drawn from the 
Manners and Customs, the Scenes and the Scenery of the Holy Land. By 
W. M. Thomson, D. D., Twenty-five Years a Missionary of the A. B. C. F. M. 
in Syria and Palestine. With two elaborate Maps of Palestine, an accurate 
Plan of Jerusalem, and several Hundred Engravings, representing the 
Scenery, Topography, and Productions of the Holy Land, and the Costumes, 
Manners and Habits of the People. Two elegant large 12mo. volumes, 
"muslin, $3.50. 

The object of the "-Fireside Monthly" is to supply families with a 
monthly reading differing from that of any other monthly publication known at 
this time. It is a periodical not claiming to be religious, yet will be 
always on the side of sound morals and an evangelical Christianity. Ficti- 
tious reading will be almost entirely, if not altogether excluded. 

There is one chief reason why such a Monthly should be published, and 
should be patronized by all good men and true : 

The weekly and monthly publications which have by far the widest cir- 
culation in the country, and which are not professedly religious, largely 
abound in fictitious reading, and are written for, to a too great extent, by men 
whose principles are levelling and infidel — an infidelity not far from a prac- 
tical atheism. Some of these are men of mind, of genius, of science, and of 
a high culture, are splendid writers, and too often use their power and 
opportunity in darting into the mind of their readers arrows barbed with 
a rankling poison, which, when once carried home to the heart of the young, 
at an opportune moment, remains there ever after, to fester, and worry, and 
unsettle, if not to destroy all religious belief. It is simply hoped that some 
families of the many who cannot afford two Monthlies, but will take one, 
may decide to take this in preference, as being at least safe, even if it does 
not give as much reading matter. Parents will not fail to observe that the 
generality of the Weeklies and Monthlies, not claiming to be religious, con- 
tain so much reading, and that very largely fictitious or utterly frivolous, 
that it requires nearly all the " spare time/" 7 so called, to read them j and 
more, time is too often spent upon them which ought not to be spared from 
the necessary duties and avocations of life. It is truly believed, therefore, 
that those parents who would not for a world that a child of theirs should 
grow up to be an '-infidel/' will consult the present and future welfare of 
themselves and their offspring, by taking the " Fireside Monthly,"' in 
preference to such publications as those above referred to. 

Until the completion of the first volume, the following inducements are 
presented : 

Four copies will be sent one year for five dollars at one time. 

Nine copies will be sent for ten dollars at one time. 

Twenty copies will be sent for twenty dollars at one time. 

Any one sending Ten Subscriptions at a time, will be entitled to five 
dollars' worth of any of the books named above. 

Any one sending Twenty Subscriptions, will be entitled to twelve dollars' 
worth of any of the books above named. 



\bM 



{ 



It 


1 jjl, 


ii 






1 

Iff i III 

ill 



lllffl 



t 



ffuifflJiililft! 



VI 



11 111 ii 



ilii 



1 ml 
I fll llil! i I 



lf§F 



■n 



M 



ill mi 







■I 



aiwiirr^fitt^^'iiii'Tvrii 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 




2231973